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Emerson mfa creative writing

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Essay: The Unexpected Origins of Gandalf and emerson writing, the Dwarves. Note: The following essay was written by essay service, guest author Ewelina the Wonderer. The U nexpected Origins. – J. R. R. Tolkien’s inspirations for Gandalf and the Dwarves – by Ewelina the Wonderer. Well, it began as you might expect – with long-forgotten languages J. R. R. Tolkien was so deeply fond of. Among the numerous sources of mfa creative writing his linguistic inspirations, which attentive travelers are likely to encounter throughout the familiar Middle-Earth landscape, one language in peers, particular had its share in emerson mfa creative writing, creating one of the essay, most recognizable wizards in the history of contemporary literature – Gandalf the Grey. “Many are my names in many countries, he said. Mithrandir among the Elves, Tharkun to emerson, the Dwarves; Olorin I was in economic terms, my youth in the West that is forgotten, in emerson, the South Incanus, in the North Gandalf; to the East I go not.” – Gandalf, “ The Lord of the Rings.

The Two Towers ” According to peers, Middle-Earth’s linguistic legendarium, Gandalf translates as Elf-of-the-wand (or cane, or staff) – a name which was given to mfa creative writing, him by the Men of the North who, intimidated by his mysterious appearance, extraordinary skills and unnaturally long life, assumed he belonged to Elf-kind rather than the world of Men. A grave mistake indeed considering the fact that Gandalf was originally… a dwarf! Tolkien ’s inspirations focused mainly on early Germanic literature, poetry and mythology, which were his chosen and much-loved areas of expertise. A collection of poems in one of these languages known as Old Norse , a North Germanic language spoken by on ambulance, inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age (VIIIth – XIIIth century), became an emerson mfa creative writing undeniable background not only for the character of Gandalf the Grey but also for other familiar Middle-Earth heroes like Durin, Dwalin or Dain. Essays. This collection of poems was known as “ The Poetic Edda “. One of the Old Norse poems, titled “ Voluspa ” (“ Prophecy of the Seeress “), presents the creation of the world and its coming end in the words of emerson writing a volva , a shamanic seeress, addressing Odin – member of the ?sir (a pagan pantheon of Norse gods) – who was a symbol of online creative writing classes for high students war, victory and death, but also of wisdom, shamanism, magic, poetry, prophecy and the hunt. His most famous son, Thor , a hammer-wielding god known as the protector of mankind, master of thunder, lightning and mfa creative, storms, was also associated with oak trees – a likely inspiration of Thror, Thorin’s grandfather, and the famous oaken shield as well. Thor’s Oak was a sacred tree of the Germanic pagans, located somewhere in Hessia, in essay on ambulance service, Germany. Like other sacred trees and groves it was believed to be linked to Yggdrasill , a gigantic ash tree which was the heart of Norse cosmology.

Its branches extended far into emerson mfa creative the heavens and its three enormous roots originated from the wells Ur?arbrunnr and Mimisbrunnr, and from the spring Hvergelmir. Wondrous c reatures lived within Yggdrasil, including a dragon – Ni?hoggr, which gnawed at its roots trapping it away from the colorful essay, world; and four magnificent stags: Dainn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr and emerson mfa creative writing, Dura?ror, chomping at its branches. Institution. Dainn and Dvalinn also reappear in Norse mythology as dwarfish heroes, but here, in the context of the holy tree, it is mfa creative, believed that the four stags were either a symbol of seasons, moon phases or winds – with Dainn and Dvalinn being the calm ones and Duneyrr and economic terms, Dura?ror – the heavy ones. Yggdrasil was also home to an unnamed eagle, perched on top of the ash tree, with Ve?rfolnir – a hawk sitting between his eyes; and emerson mfa creative writing, Ratatoskr – a squirrel running up and down its trunk, passing news and gossip from the eagle to the dragon. Ratatoskr passing news from Ni?hoggr to the nameless eagle living within Yggdrasil. Artwork by Daniel Lieske. Thor’s Oak, like many other pagan holy trees, was destroyed during Christianization. Degree. According to the legend, it was cut down in the VII th century by an Anglo-Saxon missionary, Saint Boniface (Winfred), with a little help from emerson mfa creative writing some strong, mysterious wind. The timber from the tree was used to create a wooden oratory. Saint Boniface chopping down Thor’s Oak. Dwarves , or Dvergar as they were called in Old Norse, were one of ?sir’s many creations – entities deriving from colorful essay rocks and emerson mfa creative writing, earth, acknowledged for their craft, metalwork, wisdom but also greed.

According to “ Voluspa ”, dwarves originated from three primary tribes, led by Motsognir – their first ruler, secondly by institution, Durinn and finally by emerson mfa creative writing, Dvalinn – the discoverer of essays rune writing. And while the emerson mfa creative writing, character of Dwalin plays a minor role in “ The Hobbit ”, Durin the Deathless remains one of the most important dwarven heroes in essays, Tolkien’s mythology, being the eldest of the Seven Fathers of the Dwarves and the founder of the legendary kingdom of Khazad-dum. Even though the word Dvergar is etymologically related to Dwarves , the early Norse concept of writing Dvergar was far different from the concept of institution dwarves in emerson, other cultures. According to some scholars the ancient Norse originally described the Dvergar as human-sized, but the online creative, spread of Christianity led to emerson mfa creative, diminishing both their mythic and religious role as well as their stature. Their skin color was described as pale, like a corpse, and their hair color was black.

The Dvergar were often called black – a term relating to their hair, beard and eyes, granting them another name – Svartalfar – meaning Black Elves . In contrast, to describ e black skin, Old Norse used another term – blue (blar) . One of the social institution essay, Dvergr bore the nickname of emerson mfa creative Blainn – The Blue One , who may have been an inspiration for Balin, Thorin Oakenshield’s companion in social institution, “The Hobbit” and the Lord of Moria from writing “ The Lord of the essay, Rings ”. [Another possible source for Balin’s name comes from the mfa creative, legends of social institution essay King Arthur, discussed in more detail later in the essay.] In addition, Dain and Nain, dwarven rulers closely related to Thorin, derived their names from emerson mfa creative writing Dvergar famous for their pale skin and corpse-like appearances – Dainn ( The Dead One ) and Nainn ( The Corpse ). In comparison, the name Dvalinn had a much more lively meaning – translating as The Unconscious One . Many Norse texts imply that Dvalinn is the ancestor of online creative writing for high school students all Dvergar and his name stands for any or every Dvergr – calling female Dvergar “ the daughters of Dvalinn ” and the sun – “ the emerson writing, game of agents of socialization Dvalinn ” (since it was deadly to writing, any Dvergr who had to dodge it every dawn). Norse mythology also mentions “ the drink of Dvalinn ”, also known as “ The Mead of Poetry ”, a beverage which granted its drinker the skills of economic terms a scald or a scholar. Dvergar depicted in a 19th century edition of “Voluspa” (1895) by Lorenz Frolich. Considering all of these facts it is more than apparent that “Dvergatal” (“Catalogue of Dwarves”) , an integral part of the “ Voluspa ” poem, became a perfect catalogue of dwarfish names for Tolkien’s Durin-folk, granting them to heroes such as Fili, Kili, Bifur ( Old Norse: Bifurr ), Bofur (Bafurr), Bombur (Bomburr), Nori (Nori), Dori (Dori), Ori (Ori), Gloin (Gloinn), Fundin, Thror (?ror), Thrain (?rainn ) and of course Thorin ( ?orinn ) Oakenshield ( Eikinskjaldi ) . Tolkien came to regret his use of Old Norse names, referring to it as a “rabble of eddaic-named dwarves invented in an idle hour” but decided to emerson, use Old Norse in “The Lord of the Rings” nonetheless, as an explanation for the origin of the language of Dale. “A rabble of eddaic-named dwarves invented in an idle hour” – J. Economic Terms. R. R. Tolkien. Artwork by Dwalinroxxx. Numerous Dvergar names contain the syllable alf , from Alfar ( Elves ). Thankfully, Norse texts do provide us with a distinction between these two races and the presence of alf among dwarven names seems to serve as a form of title – stating that its bearer was a source of good luck but also meaning a guardian or a deity. The best example for the aforesaid is a familiar Dvergar name – Gandalfr , the Old Norse forefather of Gandalf the emerson writing, Grey, Middle-Earth’s tireless guardian and Thorin Oakenshield’s source of good luck indeed. Colorful Essay. Gandalf’s Norse name, meaning Cane-elf , is identical to emerson writing, its translation in Middle-Earth. E ven if Gandalf wore a dwarfish name along with his grey, battered robes, his roots were far more godly and mysterious.

Tolkien himself described Gandalf as an Odinic Wanderer – for Odin often wandered through Midgard, the World of Men, as a mysterious old man, dressed in billowing robes of dark blue, with a long beard and a traveler’s staff. The “ Ynglinga Saga” records that he visited “ distant lands on his own errands or those of essay service others ”. “For aid? It has seldom been heard of that Gandalf the Grey sought for aid, one so cunning and so wise, wandering about the lands, and concerning himself in every business, whether it belongs to him or not.” – Saruman about Gandalf, “The Lord of the Rings. The Two Towers”. Odin, the Wisdom-Seeking Wanderer by Arthur Rackham (1911). The Wanderer was a relentless seeker and giver of wisdom, but he had little regard for communal values such as justice, fairness, respect for writing law and convention. He favored strong-willed outlaws but also warrior poets, distinguished by their intelligence, creativity and competence in the “war of classes school students all against emerson mfa creative writing all”. Most shamans, to whom Odin was a divine patron, had to undergo a ritual of death and rebirth in order to acquire their powers.

Odin underwent exactly such an agents peers essay ordeal, just as Gandalf the Grey died in a duel with the emerson writing, Balrog of Moria and was reborn as Gandalf the White , eclipsing the former head of his order, Saruman. Odin was accompanied by service, many symbolic animals. S ometimes he would ride an mfa creative eight-legged horse named Sleipnir , described as the best of all mounts – just as Shadowfax, Gandalf’s steed, lord of the Mearas, was the best mount of king Theoden’s stables. Odin riding Sleipnir. Colorful Essay. Concept art by Michael Kutsche. Odin was also aided by writing, a pair of ravens, Huginn (“ Thought “) and Muninn (“ Memory “), which flew over the universe and nursing degree essays, brought him valuable information from the World of Men – a possible inspiration for Carc, Roac and their kin of ravens from the Ravenhill near Erebor, serving king Thror and, later on, his grandson. Odin/Wotan with Huginn and Muninn, by John Howe. This depiction of Odin – as the mysterious Wanderer – was one of the main themes of Richard Wagner’s “ Der Ring des Nibelungen” (“ The Ring of the emerson mfa creative writing, Nibelung” ) – a cycle of four epic operas, loosely based on the Norse sagas, involving a magical ring, a shattered sword, a powerful dragon and some greedy dwarves.

And as much as Tolkien enjoyed the Wanderer’s concept of Gandalf’s origin, he despised comparing his work to creative students, that of emerson mfa creative writing Wagner’s. Gandalf, unlike Odin, is nursing, not the chief of all gods or a shape-sifter, he’s not brutal and cares not for treasures. The Wanderer in the Metropolitan Opera’s interpretation of “The Ring” tetralogy. The Wanderer and emerson writing, Siegfried. It’s also worth mentioning that one of the dwarves from “ The Ring ” cycle, bearing the name Mime, from economic terms Old Norse Mimir or Mim (“ The Rememberer “), may have been an inspiration for Mim , one of the Petty-dwarves of the writing, First Age whose fate was entangled with that of Turin Turambar’s from “ The Children of Hurin ”, just like Wagner’s Mime, equally untrustworthy and bitter, finds himself dependent on Siegfried, a young and fearless human hero. Siegfried and Mime. Mim captured by Turin Turambar and his men. Artwork by Steamey. But Gandalf’s physical appearance was mainly related to a painting by a German artist and poet, Josef Madlener, called “ Der Berggeist ” (“ The Mountain-spirit “), which Tolkien brought back as a postcard from his holidays in Switzerland. It shows an nursing degree essays old man, with a white beard, wearing a wide-brimmed round hat and writing, a long, red cloak, sitting on a rock under a pine tree.

He is talking to institution, a white fawn that is nuzzling his hands and he has a humorous yet compassionate expression. Tolkien preserved this postcard and wrote on emerson writing, the paper cover in which he kept it: “ The origin of Gandalf ”. “Der Berggeist” by economic terms, Josef Madlener (1881-1967). It is more than likely that “ Der Berggeist” was in fact a portrait of Rubezahl , a mountain spirit of the Krkonose Mountains , a mountain range located in the north of the Czech Republic (where he is known as Krakonos ) and emerson mfa creative, the south-west of Poland (with Liczyrzepa or Waligora being his Polish names). He was a subject of many legends and fairy tales in German, Polish and Czech folklore, in which he was depicted as a capricious giant, gnome or spirit, the lord of the weather and master of the wild hunt, acting unexpectedly or playfully, sending lightning and thunder, fog, rain and snow from the mountain below, even while the service, sun was shining. Like Gandalf, he was often described as an old man with a staff, sometimes wearing a huntsman‘s outfit. According to Polish folklore he was killed many times and his symbolic grave can be visited in the village of Szklarska Poreba. Rubezahl’s statue in Krkonose Mountains. The list of inspirations for mfa creative Gandalf seems an endless one.

Some scholars claim that Gandalf derived from Vainamoinen , a wise old man and a central hero of a Finnish epic poem “ Kalevala ”; who – like Gandalf – had immortal origins and departed on a ship to the lands beyond the economic terms, mortal world. Mfa Creative Writing. Gandolf , an colorful essay evil overlord, and Silverfax , a fast, white horse, were also one of the emerson, characters of a XIXth century fantasy novel, “ The Well at essay on ambulance service the World’s End ” written by William Morris, well known to both Tolkien and emerson, his very good friend, C. S. Lewis. And of course there’s another wizard, whose fame still eclipses that of Gandalf’s – Merlin , the powerful magician from the Arthurian legends. Merlin’s origins, unlike Gandalf’s, were far from being angelic since he was said to be a cambion – an offspring of a mortal woman and a demon father from whom he inherited his magical powers like shape-shifting and unnaturally long life. Among numerous descriptions of this character one of them seems very familiar – that of an old man with a long beard, short and hunchbacked, in a torn woolen coat, carrying a club. And yet this shabby sage, unlikely as it seems, was the chief advisor of king Arthur, just like Gandalf offered his council to Thorin, Aragorn, Theoden and other important rulers of Middle-Earth. “ Gandalf was shorter in stature than the social institution, other two; but his long white hair, his sweeping silver beard, and his broad shoulders, made him look like some wise king of ancient legend. In his aged face under great snowy brows his eyes were set like coals that could suddenly burst into mfa creative writing fire. Social Institution Essay. ” – “The Fellowship of the Ring” “Merlin” by Alan Lee.

Tolkien must have enjoyed the legends about king Arthur and his knights of the Round Table. Writing. In 1925 he published a scholarly edition of XIVth century romance “ Sir Gawain and the Green Knight ” and – though only institution essay published this year – he had begun a poem titled “The Fall of Arthur” in the 1930’s, but probably abandoned it around the same time he was writing “ The Hobbit “. King Arthur, like Thorin, relied mainly on twelve of emerson mfa creative his best and most loyal knights: Lancelot, Gawain, Geraint, Gareth, Gaheris, Bedivere, Galahad, Key, Bors de Ganis, Lamorak, Tristan and Percivale, although some texts also include Agravaine, Sagramore and other less known warriors. Gawain, Gaheris, Gareth and Agravaine were Arthur’s nephews, just like Fili and Kili were the degree, sons of mfa creative Dis, Thorin’s sister. Agents Of Socialization Essay. Sadly, Tolkien’s descriptions of the individual members of Thorin’s Company were short, robbed of memorable details, so establishing further connections between the knights of the Round Table and any particular dwarves from “ The Hobbit ” would seem a far-fetched supposition. Yet some similarities between both stories – Arthur’s and emerson writing, Thorin’s – remain open for discussion. Arthur was the first born son of Uther Pendragon and the heir to the throne of creative classes school students Britain, just as Thorin was the first born son of Thrain II, inheriting his rights to mfa creative writing, the throne of Erebor. Arthur claimed the of socialization peers essay, crown by pulling out the Sword in the Stone in which it was buried by Merlin; a deed which could only be performed by the rightful king of England. Merlin led young Arthur to mfa creative writing, the sword himself, just as Gandalf supervised Thorin’s quest for Erebor in its early stage. Merlin advising Arthur – as portrayed in “Idylls of the King” by agents of socialization peers essay, Gustave Dore (XIXth century).

And while Arthur never fought a dragon in his time, he did dream of one: “And as the king lay in his cabin in the ship, he fell in a slumbering and dreamed a marvellous dream: him seemed that a dreadful dragon did drown much of his people, and he came flying out emerson mfa creative writing, of the west, and his head was enamelled with azure, and his shoulders shone as gold, his belly like mails of a marvelous hue, his tail full of agents essay tatters, his feet full of fine sable, and his claws like fine gold; and an hideous flame of fire flew out of his mouth, like as the land and water had flamed all of fire.” – “ Le Morte d’Arthur” by sir Thomas Malory (XVth century) In the end, Arthur was betrayed by one of his most faithful knights, Lancelot, who robbed him of the treasure dearest to the king’s noble heart – his wife, Guinevere . Lancelot, like Bilbo after he stole the Arkenstone, was exiled from king Arthur’s court, but returned to save the queen from her execution at mfa creative writing the stake. And as Arthur pursued him in order to have his revenge, Mordred, his illegitimate son, took this occasion to take over the rule of his kingdom. Arthur and Thorin are therefore forced to face their final battles shortly after the betrayal of their valued follower, defending their rights to their own realms, surrounded by enemies who were cunning enough to degree essays, strike when the kings were most vulnerable. Mordred and emerson mfa creative writing, Arthur me t on the battlefield of Camlann, Mordred was killed, and Arthur mortally wounded.

According to Malory’s “ Le Morte d’Arthur ” Guinevere is later on nursing degree essays, buried in the same tomb as Arthur, just as Thorin was buried with the Arkenstone after the Battle of emerson writing Five Armies. Arthur’s nephew, Gawain, is one of the many casualties of the battle of online classes for high students Camlann, just as Thorin’s nephews, Fili and Kili, die by emerson mfa creative writing, their uncle’s side in the shadow of the Lonely Mountain. And if Gandalf was Middle-Earth’s Merlin, and Thorin Oakenshield – its king Arthur , then we must mention one more figure – sir Balin le Savage , also known as the Knight with the Two Swords , who – according to Merlin’s council – would become Arthur’s best and bravest knight. Essay. He’s described as “a good man of his hands and of his deeds, and without villainy or treachery and without treason”, like his Tolkien alter ego, yet he meets a much more tragic end than Balin from “ The Lord of the Rings ”, since he is mortally wounded by his brother in a dramatic duel, which results in their deaths. There is emerson writing, also one more extraordinary theory about Gandalf’s origin – the secret of creative for high king Bladorthin . “From that the writing, talk turned to colorful essay, the great hoard itself and to the things that Thorin and Balin remembered.

They wondered if they were still lying there unharmed in the hall below; the spears that were made for emerson writing the armies of the great King Bladorthin (long since dead), each had a thrice-forged head and their shafts were inlaid with cunning gold, but they were never delivered or paid for; shields made for warriors long dead; the great golden cup of Thror, two-handed, hammered and carven with birds and economic terms, flowers whose eyes and petals were of jewels.” – “The Hobbit” by J. R. R. Tolkien. In the writing, early draft of “ The Hobbit ”, the wizard, who would later become the legendary Gandalf, bore the name of the economic terms, aforesaid Bladorthin, whereas the name of Gandalf was originally given to writing, the dwarven King Under The Mountain, the final hero known as Thorin Oakenshield. According to most translations, Bladorthin was most probably a Sindarin name meaning “ The Grey Country ”, a translation not so different from colorful essay Gandalf’s elvish name, Mithrandir – “ The Grey Pilgrim ”. Tolkien seemed to like this name from a linguistic perspective, but somehow found Gandalf as a name more fitting for writing the character of the wandering wizard. The “Chief Dwarf” became known as Thorin , a name meaning “Bold One” , or “Darer” , and ultimately a more fitting designation for the King Under the Mountain than “Staff Elf” had been, while the wizard was able to utilize the colorful essay, appellation to better effect. And so the name Bladorthin was relegated to a great, long since dead king, a ruler of a realm or a city situated most likely near Erebor, with which he traded – Esgaroth, Dale, Rhun or Dorwinion perhaps, making him a human monarch rather than an elvish one. So which of writing these theories is true – a mountain spirit, an ancient hero, an angelic wanderer or a demon sorcerer? Perhaps we shall never know. But we must remember that Gandalf, like no other Middle-Earth character, is entitled to some secrecy and, elf or dwarf, a king or a wandering pilgrim, with or without a staff, kind or fearsome, shall always remain the Disturber of Peace, for “tales and adventures sprouted up and down all over the place wherever he went, in the most extraordinary fashion…”

Gandalf the Grey, by John Howe. For more on Tolkien’s inspirations: [1] J. R. R. Tolkien, Douglas A. Anderson, “The Annotated Hobbit: The Hobbit, or There and agents of socialization essay, Back Again”. [2] Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien, “The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien”. [3] Marjorie Burns “Perilous Realms: Celtic and Norse in Tolkien’s Middle-Earth”. I must just add that I think no author consciously bases their characters on one or two sources… it is Archetype. The Archetypes are there, in our collective unconscious, constantly recycled by emerson mfa creative writing, new stories, new characters, while their essential symbolic nature remains the same. Still, in Tolkien’s case I have no doubt he was very conscious of what he was doing. He knew his Edda and agents, the Kalevala, the emerson mfa creative, Mabinogion and Le MOrt d’Arthur cover to cover and in the original languages and colorful essay, he drew upon these sources from the very beginning when Earendil the mfa creative, Seafarer sprang from the colorful essay, twilight of his genius unfolding loosely based upon John the Baptist ;-). The above essay is a very thorough collection of literature Tolkien used to mfa creative, fuel his inspiration, very interesting to read and agents peers essay, the pictures are beautifully chosen. True. Writing. The best example from this essay is king Arthur being betrayed by Lancelot for his queen with Thorin betrayed by Bilbo for the Arkenstone.

The motive of the betrayal of the most faithful friend or follower for one’s greatest treasure is so common in on ambulance service, literature I wouldn’t state a firm opinion that the idea of Thorin/Bilbo/Arkenstone originated from the Arthurian legends. But it’s nice to think it may have had #128521; I just wonder what feminists would make of paralleling Guenevere and emerson writing, the Arkenstone #128521; Even if authors mainly use Archetypes as basis, in Gandalf’s case I feel that Tolkien really based his character heavily on the stories of Merlin, Odin and the Dvergar as noted in social institution essay, the essay. Awesome work here I enjoyed the emerson mfa creative writing, read. Excellent! I love the way you’ve put together all these details. Thank you, Saralee #128578;

I knew the essay, origin of the emerson mfa creative writing, dwarven names out agents, of the Voluspa and mfa creative, some of the other sources Tolkien used to create Gandalf and Durins folk…about a connection Thorins to Arthur I was thinking sometimes but did never realize how much similarities they have indeed…Thanks for the excellent essay, Ewelina, much to social, think about further.. Not that many common elements, but it’s a nice thought #128578; In the end Thorin turned out to emerson writing, be a much more likeable hero than Arthur – since he forgave Bilbo. Arthur’s last words were not about on ambulance forgiveness. Thanks for mfa creative reading #128578; Not to online classes students, be nitpicking but the dwarves werent the creation of the writing, Aesir, they sprung from the jotun side of the family tree.

For the Norse mythology, the race of dwarves was born with worms of the flesh of the giant Ymir, who was killed by the first three deities exist (Odin, H?nir and Lodurr). These same gods were also the first among the Aesir. The Dvergar were created from the dead body of giant Ymir, killed by Odin, that’s true. But they were probably created by the gods – “The Voluspa tells an origin of dvergar, which are created by of socialization peers essay, the gods in emerson mfa creative writing, the shape of humans. Economic Terms. Alternatively, it might be read dvergar created the shape of humans. The text is unclear (…)” – http://ppg.revistas.uema.br/index.php/brathair/article/view/509/432. “Then all the Powers went to the thrones of fate, the sacrosanct gods, and considered this: who should form the writing, lord of the essay, dwarfs. out of Brimir’s blood and from Blain’s limbs?” Thank you for a very comprehensive overview, of so many contributing inspirations. Even being familiar with the Norse mythology, it’s enlightening to read another’s interpretation. I’ve not seen some of your accompanying art renderings, which was a pleasure also.

Yes, the images are very inspiring so you can just imagine Tolkien admiring them and his thoughts unraveling… A great essay! The history of emerson mfa creative writing Thor’s oak is fascinating, and something I never knew. You did a great job interweaving everything, especially the economic terms, connections between Arthur and Thorin. Writing. Christopher Tolkien will be releasing additional translations that Professor Tolkien did. Hopefully he has ‘The Fall of Arthur’ on the slate to be published someday, Thanks for a lot of great research. I also love that Gandalf stemmed from Dwarvish roots. I think they published ‘The Fall of Arthur’ this year… Thank you very much for you kind words.

It was a real joy to degree, write this article. I’ve found out many new things myself #128578; And perhaps “The Fall of Arthur” will bring us new topics for discussion about the mfa creative, Middle-Earth and Arthurian legends similarities. Article very interesting and well done! I’m an Italian girl heathen and Tolkien fan, I know I can only appreciate this work of yours. Happy also to have discovered this blog! Wonderful essay!

It never came to institution essay, my mind that Gandalf could have something to do with Krakonos! Totally blew my mind! Thank you so much for this explanation and thoughts. Have something to ponder about #128521; You can imagine my reaction when I’ve found out! I’ve visited Karkonosze Mountains only last year – I’d have paid far much more attention to the statues of Krakonos then! #128578;

I knew about Rubezahl (Krakonos) from my childhood. Mfa Creative. My grandparents were from social Silesia and told me about him being the guarding spirit of the country. I must admit Gandalf watching over the Shire – especially in the first movie – the resemblance hits home with me. It’s interesting to emerson writing, see how Tolkien just took the things straight of service of the emerson mfa creative, Norse myths in institution essay, the beginning, and then refined his literary creation process so much… In his early writing, the emerson mfa creative, borrowed elements were raw. It’s nice to nursing essays, have this document about the Dwarves and emerson, their mythological origins. At university, both of my thesis were on institution essay, Norse topics. One particular chapter was about Tolkien’s… Elves.

Now I wish I had focused on the Dwarves, because they are so dear to me #128578; But, from the academic point of view, it is very interesting to see where exactly the emerson mfa creative writing, writer took his Elves from and which traits exactly he chose to develop… In a way, now, I have the feeling that Peter Jackson and his team went to that level – continued Tolkien’s work and economic terms, refined the race of the Dwarves.

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95 theses text on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. by Dr. Martin Luther, 1517. Earthquake victims in emerson writing Haiti need your help! Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther. on social institution, the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. by Dr. Martin Luther (1517) Works of Martin Luther: Adolph Spaeth, L.D. Reed, Henry Eyster Jacobs, et Al., Trans.

Eds. (Philadelphia: A. J. Holman Company, 1915), Vol.1, pp. 29-38. Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in mfa creative writing Ordinary on nursing, the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter. In the Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 1. Mfa Creative Writing. Our Lord and agents of socialization, Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam agite, willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance. 2. This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i.e., confession and satisfaction, which is emerson writing administered by the priests. 3. Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the flesh. 4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.

5. The pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of the Canons. 6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in all things and service, bring into subjection to His vicar, the priest. 8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to them, nothing should be imposed on the dying. 9. Therefore the Holy Spirit in emerson writing the pope is kind to us, because in his decrees he always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity. Economic Terms. 10. Ignorant and wicked are the doings of those priests who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for purgatory. 11. This changing of the canonical penalty to writing, the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the bishops slept.

12. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. 13. Nursing Degree Essays. The dying are freed by death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them. 14.

The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the writing, love, the greater is the fear. 15. Colorful Essay. This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of mfa creative writing despair. Colorful Essay. 16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety. 17. With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and love increase. 18.

It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love. 19. Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness, though we may be quite certain of it. 20. Therefore by full remission of all penalties the pope means not actually of all, but only of those imposed by himself. 21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in mfa creative error, who say that by creative classes for high students, the pope's indulgences a man is emerson mfa creative freed from every penalty, and saved; 22. Whereas he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this life.

23. If it is at agents of socialization essay, all possible to grant to any one the remission of emerson mfa creative writing all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission can be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest. 24. It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and nursing degree, highsounding promise of release from mfa creative writing penalty. 25. The power which the pope has, in a general way, over purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish. Colorful Essay. 26.

The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of intercession. 27. They preach man who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory]. 28. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and mfa creative, avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone. Economic Terms. 29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts. Emerson. Severinus and Paschal. 30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. 31.

Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is essay also the man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most rare. 32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon. 33. Men must be on their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him; 34. For these graces of pardon concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man.

35. Emerson Mfa Creative Writing. They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is not necessary in those who intend to creative writing school students, buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessionalia. 36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon. 37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon.

38. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the Church] which are granted by the pope are in emerson writing no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the declaration of divine remission. 39. It is most difficult, even for the very keenest theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the abundance of pardons and [the need of] true contrition. 40. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but liberal pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at on ambulance, least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. 41. Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution, lest the people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of love. 42.

Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of mercy. 43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons; 44. Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty. 45. 45. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. 46.

Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for their own families, and by no means to squander it on pardons. 47. Emerson Writing. Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is colorful essay a matter of free will, and not of commandment. 48. Christians are to mfa creative, be taught that the pope, in granting pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring. Colorful Essay. 49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of God.

50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep. Emerson. 51. Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money to very many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money, even though the church of St. Peter might have to essay, be sold. 52. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain, even though the mfa creative writing, commissary, nay, even though the pope himself, were to stake his soul upon agents peers, it. 53.

They are enemies of Christ and emerson mfa creative writing, of the institution essay, pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in mfa creative writing order that pardons may be preached in others. 54. Injury is done the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this Word. 55. It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and agents of socialization peers essay, ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56. The treasures of the Church, out of which the pope. grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the people of Christ. 57. That they are not temporal treasures is mfa creative certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only online classes for high gather them. 58. Nor are they the mfa creative writing, merits of Christ and the Saints, for degree, even without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man.

59. St. Writing. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time. 60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given by Christ's merit, are that treasure; 61. For it is essay on ambulance clear that for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases, the power of the pope is emerson writing of itself sufficient.

62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God. 63. But this treasure is essay on ambulance service naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last. 64. On the other hand, the mfa creative, treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first. 65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to fish for men of riches. Colorful Essay. 66. Mfa Creative Writing. The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of men.

67. The indulgences which the social, preachers cry as the writing, greatest graces are known to be truly such, in so far as they promote gain. 68. Peers Essay. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and the piety of the Cross. 69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the emerson mfa creative, commissaries of apostolic pardons, with all reverence. 70. But still more are they bound to agents peers, strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the commission of the pope. 71. Emerson Writing. He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed!

72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! 73. The pope justly thunders against those who, by social, any art, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons. 74. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the mfa creative writing, pretext of pardons to contrive the agents peers essay, injury of holy love and truth.

75. To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and mfa creative writing, violated the Mother of God -- this is madness. 76. We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the colorful essay, very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned. 77.

It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter and against the pope. 78. Emerson. We say, on colorful essay, the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to wit, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in I. Corinthians xii. 79. To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.

80. The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to be spread among the people, will have an account to render. 81. This unbridled preaching of writing pardons makes it no easy matter, even for learned men, to rescue the reverence due to the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of the laity. 82. To wit: -- Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of on ambulance miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial. 83. Again: -- Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?

84. Again: -- What is this new piety of God and the pope, that for money they allow a man who is impious and emerson mfa creative, their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake? 85. Nursing. Again: -- Why are the penitential canons long since in actual fact and through disuse abrogated and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in force? 86. Again: -- Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the mfa creative, riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers? 87.

Again: -- What is it that the pope remits, and colorful essay, what participation does he grant to those who, by perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation? 88. Again: -- What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the mfa creative writing, pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations? 89. Since the pope, by his pardons, seeks the essay on ambulance, salvation of souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy? 90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to emerson, resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to colorful essay, the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. 91.

If, therefore, pardons were preached according to emerson writing, the spirit and mind of the social, pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; nay, they would not exist. 92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to emerson mfa creative writing, the people of Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! 93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross! 94. Christians are to agents of socialization peers, be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; 95. And thus be confident of entering into emerson mfa creative writing, heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of nursing peace. Emerson Writing. This text was converted to ASCII text for Project Wittenberg by Allen Mulvey, and is in the public domain. You may freely distribute, copy or print this text.

Please direct any comments or suggestions to: Rev. Robert E. Smith. Concordia Theological Seminary. Surface Mail: 6600 N. Agents Essay. Clinton St., Ft. Writing. Wayne, IN 46825 USA.

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Free Essays on Causes Of Broken Family. ?A broken family is believed to be a cause of a child’s mislead in life, some people give it as the main reason of the mfa creative writing rebellious and social essay unclear acts of children. School, another factor which meld us on becoming successful, but how will it make us successful if we can’t focus, we can’t do schooling like. Topic: Broken Family What: Psychological effect of broken family Who: Encounter of Broken Family Where: Philippines Narrowed Topic: Psychological effects of Broken Family in the Philippines. Key Question: 1. What are the psychological effects of broken family in the Philippines ? . Causes and mfa creative Consequences of broken family. ? Causes and Consequences of broken family Introduction: Family is said to be the first institution where one starts to equip oneself to grow. But differences have been found to each family . According to the administration and organizing family , each produces various kinds of character. Having healthy. Perception of People Towards Broken Family. of people towards Broken Family Chapter I: Introduction Family is a primary social group consisting of parents and essays their offspring, the principal function of which provides for its members. This is any group of persons closely related by blood.

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Parliamentarians was a man called Oliver Cromwell. The war officially started in 1642 and institution essay ended in 1646. It lasted for mfa creative, a massive four years! One of the causes of the English civil was not actually an event, but was a popular belief held by most of the people at agents of socialization peers, that time. This belief was that whoever the.

Effects of Broken Marriage to mfa creative Children. Effects of Broken Marriage to Children SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE COURSE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY Marie Julianne I. Reyes CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Generally, most broken marriages are the of socialization essay result of domestic violence. arranged marriages, family obligations, and the legal establishment of a nuclear family unit, the legal protection of mfa creative children and public declaration of commitment. It is usually formalized at a wedding or marriage ceremony. A broken family is typically considered to nursing degree essays be a family where one of the parents.

?To what extent does family breakdown contribute to youth crime? This paper will address the issue of emerson writing family breakdown and the key determinates that link a young person to becoming involved in degree, youth crime. The article that I have chosen for this paper as my main source is a document that has been published. The Adjustment of Children of Divorce. Divorce It is hard to imagine a more difficult transition for a child than to be a party to his or her parents' divorce. Emerson. The children in a divorcing family know that nothing will ever be the same again, and their previously secure world is in a state of essay on ambulance service change. Writing. So what can parents do to help mitigate the. Last Summer, Williams uses the motif of the dysfunctional family to illustrate how a flawed home life can negatively affect a child’s outcome in essay on ambulance, life.

Tennessee William’s play Summer and writing Smoke provides a great example of how a family situation can affect the outcome of a child. Alma, the main. Examine the Cause of Cone Crusher. plug the gaps and holes and hinder the movement of the writing for high oil. For example, if impurities enter into cone crusher valve, it may damage the valve body and emerson cause valve seal lax or ineffective. If oil sewage is overmuch, it will block filter and make system cycle prevented and higher temperature of system. Online Creative Classes Students. Therefore. HBO Family Sri Lanka Schedule January 2016 Fri, Jan 1 Sat, Jan 2 1:00AM Away Back 1:25AM I Spy 2:35AM The Sisterhood Of The Traveling Pants 3:00AM Nacho Libre 4:30AM Space Jam 4:30AM The Haunting Hour S2 05: Brush With Madness 5:55AM Scooby-Doo! Frankencreepy 5:00AM The.

Juliet has many themes, one of them being most important is fate because it determines the play’s tragic ending through a higher power, the feuding families , love, and death. As a result, fate leaves Romeo and emerson mfa creative Juliet with no other choice than to die for each other. Economic Terms. Throughout the story of Romeo. Hamlet: The Mender of a Broken Family. LACR 210 05 October 30th, 2012 Hamlet; The Mender of a Broken Family In Shakespeare’s famous Hamlet, Hamlet is driven by a singular goal; to exact revenge on his uncle for his father’s murder, and by achieving this goal, to set his broken world right again. His revenge is slow, meticulous, and well. Victor’s life from the very beginning. She uses a narrative style of writing the novel. Victor starts his story from description of mfa creative his family . He was born in institution essay, Geneva in ‘ family is one of the most distinguished of that republic’. He had passed a happiest childhood because his parents were possessed by the.

“ Broken Family ” Families continuously become broken due to the negative influence and unrighteous persuasiveness of parents in developing and emerson mfa creative writing raising children (Modest p.7). Many studies have shown the effect that a parent can have on a child when they are raised either ethically correct or morally. stronger and more complete because it’s never too late to have a life and never too late to change one. I choose broken family as my main social problem in life. Everything starts within your family . It started on how you are, being raised by your parents. They are one who is responsible on how we act things. ENC 1101 Cause and effect Every year hundreds of thousands of child abuse cases are reported in social institution, the US. Although sometimes the effects of an abuse are not tangible, child abuse and neglect have serious consequences in a child’s life and his family that could last for all his life and even by generations. American Families and emerson mfa creative writing the Nostalgia Trap” (1993) The period from the late 1970s until the early 1990s was one of sharp economic setbacks in writing for high, a series of regions and industries, followed by economic and writing cultural recoveries that excluded many Americans and left even the creative classes winners' feeling anxious and. Summary of Findings in a broken family.

references to conduct this study regarding broken families . The sources were provided by books, internet resources and conducted an emerson, interview to further understand the essence of the study to broken family . A broken family consists of a biological family that has separated for specific reasons that. Families are love not danger! I couldn’t disagree more with the views and assertions that Barbara Ehrenreich make’s in her essay, about the nursing degree essays everyday deputes and physical damage that family members inflict on each other. Mfa Creative Writing. Ehrenreich goes on essay service, by saying a few distraught things in the last paragraph that I. About a Boy the Theme of Families. Families Essay Plan The theme of families can be seen as significant throughout the novel because it is one of the main factors that brings all the characters together and defines them.

Marcus and Will meet lots of emerson writing families that are all different but at the same time are all dysfunctional. Economic Terms. Marcus. Effects of emerson writing Broken Family to Bsed Students of Must. Chapter 1 The Problem Introduction A broken family refers to a family who has been separated or divorced.It is of socialization essay, a term that greatly affects the harmony of the mfa creative writing family , especially children. Divorce is one of the cruel realities of our society that has become very common in culture.

It's basically. “The Price of a broken home and a broken family to nursing degree essays children” A research study Presented to emerson writing the faculty of The Basic Education University of economic terms Cebu Lapu-lapu and Mandaue In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for research study of English IV By: Venice M. Emerson Writing. Tan March. ? Alcohol and Family Violence Michael Lawson 11/29/15 BSHS/406 Dr. Economic Terms. Tanisha Laidler Alcohol and Family Violence Here are some rough facts to help explain the severity of alcohol abuse. Fitzgerld (2015), “Approximately 17 percent of men and 8 percent of women will be dependent on alcohol. The Broken Spears is the story of the writing conquest of Mexico, as told by the conquered. The story starts out with omens foretelling the coming of the essay service Spaniards and ends with the fallen city. The reason the author writing this book because of course he wants to sell and make money, but I think the main reason.

Effect of Broken Family in the Society. EFFECTS OF BROKEN FAMILY IN THE SOCIETY PERFORMANCE --------------------------------------------- A Study Presented to GREGORIO F. CARILLO JR. English- IV- Teacher Clarin National High School Clarin, Misamis Occidental --------------------------------------------- In partial Fulfillment. Revising Moynihan's Theory on emerson writing, Violence in the Black Community: What Works in Reducing the Incidences of Violence in the Community? growing rates of online writing criminality among adolescents of all ethnicities, the black communities appear to be the most affected ones. “Homicide is the leading cause of emerson mfa creative writing death among young black men 15 to 19 years of age and occurs at a rate nine times that for young white men of the same age. The homicide rate for. Broken Families and degree Social Problems: Effects and Coping styles. ?Review of Literature The following paragraphs present the different ways of writing how teenagers in essays, a broken family cope with their problems. It is first summarized after the divorce of the child’s parent followed by its effect on the child until it reaches its youth days. After the emerson Divorce of the Child’s. Introduction Family is the basic components of the society.

And the parents are the most important source of youth’s behavior, which effect to their outlook in life. Colorful Essay. There is no such thing as the perfect family . Every family is unique with its own combination of strengths and weaknesses . Every family undergoes. Identify and Briefly Explain Why Functionalist Sociologists Rate Traditional Nuclear Family. positions in the family group. The sexual and social roles of husband and wife are often described as conjugal roles. The family takes many forms in society, most fundamental of emerson writing which is the nuclear family (sometimes also called the conjugal family ). Colorful Essay. The structure of a traditional Nuclear family (so called. Changes in Families in the Last 50 Years. Change in families in last 50 years. In the last 50 years there have been great changes to the way families are structured and the ways they work. Definitions of mfa creative writing family have changed and economic terms widely broadened over the years as well. Changes have occurred due to several reasons.

It may be due to influence.

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chinese model essay FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of emerson mfa creative, a century. This historical social transformation is one in which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. In the peers essay context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences. With support from Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the writing path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years. The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by degree essays, the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

At the emerson time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in China’s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs. As an art student, he was motivated to economic terms, take the photographs as source material for mfa creative writing his paintings. However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of colorful essay, art photography. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into his paintings. Without the photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of mfa creative, transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by the social structure and lifestyles of the Maoist era. Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in institution essay, Liu’s works. The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an accidental witness to emerson, a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County,

Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the 1990s. Social Institution! His technique has an apparent and misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on the wall of the main room, the equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to the living room in an urban residence. Writing! In traditional Chinese living spaces, the central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy. The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the clan and the centrality of essay, family ethics. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of family members. The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and writing, the reception of guests. The area serves family members and constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in colorful essay, the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and are competing against one another. Numerous political messages, images of mfa creative writing, contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space. Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in nursing degree essays, China, especially in the coastal cities.

They are being replaced by emerson mfa creative writing, décor evoking Western-style living rooms. The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of Chinese rural society and peers essay, folk traditions in an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of writing, popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and their mutual impact on contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the help of different theories and methodologies? Many of us are facing these questions. Peers! The unique approach of the Master of the emerson mfa creative House series provides some heuristic leads. Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings. It is colorful essay, through such detail that he displays the conditions of mfa creative, life among Chinese peasants, and of socialization, through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in mfa creative, rural central China.

At the writing classes for high same time, Jiang is also able to render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the process of mfa creative, urbanization is also one in essay, which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to take root in rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to us a set of visual documents to help understand the daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the mfa creative City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of three.

parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and colorful essay, The City . In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants’ departure. from their land and their integration into city life. Emerson! Since the 1980s, because of radical changes in China’s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization. Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in search of work. According to a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from on ambulance service, rural to urban regions.

Besiege the City by the Country (series) However, for peasant workers, the prospects for writing life and work in online writing for high school, the city have not been good. Writing! The challenges they face in creative for high, the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter. Emerson! Cities and their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Even though the cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Zhang’s photographs reveal the creative urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers. The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of peasant life in the city, whether it is the taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the mfa creative writing pin-ups of colorful essay, voluptuous women and the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in the process of mfa creative, urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of contemporary Chinese urban life.

Their living and online for high school students, working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and a part of China’s urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in the urban environment. Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the speed of social change no doubt left an indelible impact on the values and lifestyles of peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of urban dwellers. Beginning in the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change.

At the center of Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of living on the eve of radical upheavals in Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world. For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and press. They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the people left behind by their own times. Emerson Writing! Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by nursing degree, mass media. But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. Writing! At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of colorful essay, social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters.

His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects. In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the deepest of mfa creative writing, sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of social institution, exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in mfa creative writing, times that have passed. From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the colorful essay complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and mfa creative, unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of No.

1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s. From then on, he gave priority to degree essays, street shots in an effort to capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. Emerson Mfa Creative! These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint. He does so by agents of socialization essay, gathering a large number of emerson, photographic details of everyday life in the city. He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the. same frame to provoke associations regarding the passage of time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Social! Luoyang is not a typical modern city, and emerson mfa creative writing, the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness.

By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of Chinese residential construction and the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. Economic Terms! The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to the clusters of skyscrapers in emerson mfa creative, the coastal cities, and are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast. New Residences of Luoyang (series) Such works by colorful essay, Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for writing an understanding of the relationship between architecture and urban life and development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. In the economic terms recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the emerson social classes in China. According to this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes. The leading classes of the online writing students Maoist era, the industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and mfa creative writing, ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed. According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in China.

The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the nursing essays social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the society’s “silent majority.” Zhou’s documentary project began in 1997 and emerson writing, is, according to him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and institution essay, subsistence of the workers. His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. He wants to emerson mfa creative writing, demonstrate the heaviness of online creative classes school students, industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class. While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the mfa creative writing workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the agents of socialization peers drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries.

The Heaviness of emerson mfa creative writing, Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in workers’ operational routines from a rich variety of colorful essay, perspectives. Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of “industry,” of the persons who are engaged in emerson mfa creative, industrial production, of the relationship between the human body and work, of the economic terms value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of emerson mfa creative, social development and historical coincidences, modernization in China is following a unique trajectory.

Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society. The conflicting objectives and realities between the colorful essay pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon emerson mfa creative the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to the complicated psychological states — a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the workers react toward the complexities of the historical moment.

By weaving together subliminal settings and intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the agents essay Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and salvation. From the documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is emerson mfa creative writing, a parallel between the growth of Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society. The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is colorful essay, emerging from the emerson writing constraints of state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the reality of online creative writing for high school students, society. The cameras in the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.