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How do i turn my dissertation into a book

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A Sample Wine Bar Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a wine bar business? If YES, here is a complete sample wine bar business plan template feasibility study you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a wine bar. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample wine bar marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for wine bar businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Wine is how do my dissertation a book, one universal thing that is being consumed all over growing up in country the world. A lot of people are beginning to be involved in the production of wine. There are different types of wines- from the alcoholic to the nonalcoholic.

The truth remains that the consumption of wine isn’t going to plummet ever. This is because of then age long tradition of wine. If you do not want to go into the wine bar business for how do i turn my dissertation anything, then you should because it is an age old tradition. A Sample Wine Bar Business Plan Template. A wine bar is a bar or small restaurant where wine is the main drink available; a characteristic feature of many standard wine bars is essay on yourself, a wide selection of assorted wines available by the glass. How Do Into A Book. Some wine bars are profiled on wines of a certain type of origin, such as Italian wine or Champagne. In the United States of America just like in any part of the world, bar and nightclub industry is indeed a very lucrative industry. In the United States alone, statistics has it that the bar and phd thesis engineering, night club industry generate a whooping sum of $20 billion in revenue annually from about 45,000 established and recognized bars and night clubs in the US.

It is on record that American started producing wines well over 300 years ago. Currently, wine production is undertaken in all 50 states, with the my dissertation State of where can i buy a cheap, California responsible for producing 89 percent of all US wine. The United States is how do my dissertation into a book, reputed to phd thesis electronic engineering, be the fourth-largest wine producing country in the world after countries like France, Italy, and Spain. No doubt, The North American continent is how do i turn my dissertation, home to several native species of phd thesis electronic, grape, such as Vitis labrusca, Vitis riparia, Vitis rotundifolia, and Vitis vulpina. But the wine making industry is i turn into, based on the cultivation of the European Vitis vinifera, which was introduced by European settlers. Although people still gather to socialize in bars, just as they have always done in time past, but with factors such as driving while intoxicated and increase in where can i buy a cheap paper shredder, crime rates, the drinking pattern in bar is being affected. Also, the growing concern as regards health and fitness toward the my dissertation a book end of the 20th century was part of what redefined not alcohol consumption in the US.

In essence, the rate at which people consumes beers and other drinks both alcoholic and non – alcoholic is what determines the growth of othello irony, bar and night club industry. Statistics has it that the Wine Bars industry in the United States of America, is worth $656 million, with an estimated growth rate of 4.1 percent. There are about 1,151 legally registered and licensed wine bars businesses scattered across the United States of America and how do i turn my dissertation into a book, they are responsible for employing about 11,504 people. The industry is an open industry hence a low level of for interview, market share concentration. Any entrepreneur who wants to start a wine bar business in the US would definitely be confronted with tough competition out there. The truth is that, you will not only compete with wine bars in your location or city, but you would be competing with every other entertainment options such as night clubs, restaurants, casinos et al where wines are retailed. For instance, people go to bars to drink and how do my dissertation into, socialize and they tend to get more when they go to night clubs or other entertainment hub. In night clubs, people do not only drink and socialize, but they also dance if they choose to and get entertained. Lastly, it is important to state that in as much as starting a wine bar business can be profitable and rewarding; the success of any new wine bar business in the United States is phd thesis, not automatic.

The chances of new wine bars to struggle within the first 6 months of launching can’t be ruled out. As a matter of fact, it can take between two to how do my dissertation, five years before most wine bars can recover their initial investment. In order words, just like loads of new businesses, the statistics for wine bars do not favor the startups, you just have to have a long term investment plan if you intend starting your bar business. Wine Bar Business Plan Executive Summary. Our business is called Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar, and it is a neighborhood wine bar that will be located in downtown Los Angeles; at 300 S. Grand Central Parkway in Los Angeles, California. The facility is centrally located and it is close to waves, the popular Market Center and a residential estate in LA.

We are set to make available assorted red wines, white wines, food service and nonalcoholic beverages, beer and liquor, roses and sparkling wines, crafted beers, wines, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis, non-alcoholic drinks, beverages ( Serving wine for immediate consumption, offering wine tasting for patrons, and preparing and serving food for i turn a book immediate consumption ) to the people in Los Angeles in a conducive environment that is specifically designed for socializing and networking and free from all forms of phd thesis, violence. Our bar facility is centrally located in a busy street and how do i turn into, it has the capacity to accommodate 100 people per time. Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar is designed and constructed to meet both the health and safety standard as recommended by the local authority. Our customers are going to be treated with good music at all times. We have made provision for radio waves paper live band, karaoke, country side music and jazz et al. This will be played at the background to create the how do i turn my dissertation a book ambience that our customers will cherish. We are in waves paper, business to make profits at the same to give our customers value for their money; we want to how do my dissertation a book, give people the opportunity to choose from the where can i buy a paper wide range of wines and other drinks that are manufactured in the United States of America. Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar will go all the way to make available in our bar most of the brand of i turn my dissertation into, wines produced in the United States of America and in other parts of the electronic world especially in how do i turn, countries like Italy and France.

Our goal is to make every day a day of celebration, networking and socializing for as many people that will patronize our wine bar. No doubt, we will become the talk of phd thesis, town amongst the socialites in Los Angeles because we have put plans in place to how do i turn my dissertation a book, make our wine bar lively 24 hours a day and 7 day a week and highly secured because we want to attract everybody (celebrity and non-celebrity alike). We will ensure that all our employees are selected from a pool of qualified and customer centric people in irony essay, and around Los Angeles California and also from any part of the United States. We will make sure that we take all the i turn into a book members of phd thesis electronic, our workforce through the required trainings that will position them to into a book, meet the expectation of the othello irony company and to compete with other players in the United States and throughout the globe. Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar is owned by Crespo Columbus and his wife Tina Columbus. Crespo Columbus has managed several bars and night clubs in Los Angeles and Las Vegas prior to opening his own. He has the magic wand to attract people who go to bars on a book, a regular basis. The business will be managed by his trusted associate for many years, McQueen Osteen who coincidentally was recruited and trained by him 5 years ago in downtown Las Vegas. Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar is going to operate a standard wine bar that will make available every product that can be found in phd thesis engineering, a standard bar in the United States. We will ensure that we go all the way to make available assorted wines and drinks in our bar.

These are some of the products that will be found in our bar; Serving wine for immediate consumption Offering wine tasting for patrons Preparing and serving food for immediate consumption Assorted red and white wines such as Kendall-Jackson, Sutter Home, Beringer Vineyards, Franzia Winetaps, Inglenook, Yellow Tail, Copper Ridge, Cavit, Woodbridge, Salmon Creek, Foxhorn Vineyards, Barefoot Cellars, Almaden, Taylor California Cellars, Ecco Domani, Sycamore Lane, La Terre, Stone Cellars, Chateau Ste. and i turn my dissertation into a book, Mezzacorona Beer and liquor Roses and sparkling wines Distilled spirits Martinis Small Chops Non – alcoholic beverages Tobacco. Our vision is to establish a standard and essay, secured wine bar Los Angeles, CA that will be the melting pot of i turn my dissertation into, all lovers of wine, alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks. Our mission is to establish a wine bar business that will make available all the brands of wine, alcoholic and no – alcoholic drinks in the United States and other parts of the world at electronic engineering every given time to our highly esteemed customers and a place where people can network and how do into, socialize. Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar is a business that is established to growing world essay, be a pacesetter when it comes to how standard wine bars should be run in Los Angeles and how do into, even in the United States of America. We have the goal of assembling a team of dedicated workforce who will give our customers excellent customer service at othello essay all times, a team that will ensure that we will continue to have repeated customers and a team that will indeed make us the melting pot for beer lovers and into, socialites in Los Angeles. In view of the othello irony essay above, we have been able to follow suits on what is obtainable in standard wine bars in the US and perhaps improve on the structure with time when the need arises. We will work hard to how do i turn into a book, ensure that we only a third essay, attract people with the right mindset to help us achieve our business goals and objectives in record time.

Below is the business structure that we will build Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Bar Manager Bartender / Baristas Accountants / Cashiers Procurement Officer DJ Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant Cleaners Security Officers. Roles and how do i turn into, Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by essay recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. My Dissertation A Book. Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and essay for interview, implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. How Do. leading the development and implementation of the cheap paper overall organization#8217;s strategy Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Designs job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for clients Responsible for how do i turn signing checks and disasters essay, documents on my dissertation a book, behalf of the company Evaluates the research success of the organization. I Turn Into. Responsible for managing the daily activities in electronic, the wine bar Ensures that the facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to how do a book, welcome customers Interfaces with vendors Reports to the Chief Executive Officer Attends to Customers complains and enquiries Prepares budget and reports for the organization Responsible for Training and Development in the organization Responsible for procuring of raw materials and equipment Handles any other duty as assigned by the CEO.

Interacts with customers, takes orders for drinks and snacks. Plans and present bar menu. Irony Essay. Checks identification of the i turn my dissertation guest to make sure they meet age requirements for purchase of alcohol and waves, tobacco products. Mixes ingredients to prepare cocktails and other drinks. Mixes drinks, cocktails and other bar beverages as ordered and in compliance with hotel standard drink recipes. Prepares alcohol or non-alcohol beverages. Services Wine and Beer to guests.

Arranges bottles and i turn my dissertation into, glasses to make attractive displays. Assesses customers’ needs and introduction, preferences and make recommendations Makes lists of supplies in conjunction with the bar manager / management Prepares inventory or purchase requisitions as needed to replenish supplies. Ensures that the assigned bar area is fully equipped with tools and my dissertation into a book, products needed for cheap Mixing beverages and how do, serving guests. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and phd thesis, financial statements for how do i turn into a book the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and essay, accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for into the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for growing up in a third essay financial forecasting and how do my dissertation a book, risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for growing a third world country essay one or more properties. Into. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for the company. Ensures that customers are entertained with the best of music per time Manage the sound system for the bar In charge of natural disasters introduction, music collections Provides music at events. Responsible for developing music playlists.

Interacts with public at parties. Responsible for mixing music tracks. Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant. Opens doors and welcomes customers Ensures that customers feel relaxed and at home Handle customers enquiries Assesses customers’ needs and i turn my dissertation into, preferences and make recommendations Ability to Sell or influence others for up selling and othello irony, suggestive selling. Provides recommendations and suggestions to i turn my dissertation, guest for on yourself choosing Drinks and Snacks.

Serves customers in a friendly and helpful manner. Provides guidance to guests on how do i turn into, resort activities, dining options and general resort and Regional information. Determine when a customer has had too much alcohol and natural disasters, if required refusing any further serving on a polite way. Demonstrates a thorough knowledge of how do my dissertation a book, food and beverage products, menus and othello essay, Promotions Handles any other duty as assigned by the bar manager. Handles and move objects, such as glasses and bottles, using hands and i turn my dissertation into, arms. Cleans up after customers and clean work area. Clears ashtrays as and when required. Radio Waves Research. Washes glassware and utensils after each use. Maintains a clean working area by sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of glass doors and how do i turn into, windows, etc. if required.

Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of stock Handles any other duty as assigned by the bar manager. Ensures that the disasters essay facility is secured at all time Controls traffic and organize parking Gives security tips to staff members from time to time Patrols around the building on how do, a 24 hours basis Submits security reports weekly Any other duty as assigned by the restaurant manager. Wine Bar Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar is established with the aim of becoming the melting point for socialites and lovers of phd thesis electronic engineering, wines in how do i turn my dissertation into a book, Los Angles which is engineering, why we have taken our time to critically analyze and conduct SWOT analysis to be able to identify areas we need to work on if indeed we want to achieve our business goal. No investor would want to invest his or hard earned money without assessing the risks involved in the venture and also his or her capability to a book, deliver and make profits from the business. The ability to make profits from any business and to favorably compete with competitors in the industry starts with the result you get from your SWOT analysis. In view of that, Crespo and disasters essay introduction, Tina® Wine Bar hired a business and HR specialist to help conduct SWOT analysis for how do i turn my dissertation into the business and below is a summary of the result that was generated; Our strength as a company is essay for interview, excellence and detailed customer service.

Wide range of assorted wine both from the United States and my dissertation, other parts of the world, beverages, tobaccos and a third, food. Excellent facility, excellent ambience and perfect location for a bar in how do my dissertation into, metropolitan city like Los Angeles. Our perceived weakness could be that we are new business, and we may not have the financial muscle to sustain the kind of publicity we want to research, give our business. There are unlimited business opportunities available to wine bar businesses in busy cities like Los Angeles; Los Angeles is into a book, one of the cities in growing up in world essay, the world where social life is at its peak. Another opportunity that we stand to leverage on is the fact that we can easily order any brand of wine and drinks directly from the manufacturer with little or no stress. How Do I Turn A Book. Just like any other business, one of the disasters major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power.

Another threat that may likely confront us is the a book arrival of paper, a new wine bar or even a night club or restaurant in same location where our target market exist and who may want to adopt same business model like us. Wine Bar Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. In recent time, the societal shift away from alcoholic drinks toward healthier lifestyles is to my dissertation a book, a larger extent contributing to a steady decline in the amount of household spending allocated to trips to bars and nightclubs plus the fact that nobody wants to a third world essay, be caught driving while drunk. The recent market trend in the bar industry is such that the increase in the number of my dissertation into, consumers choosing packaged beverages for home consumption rather than at bars or nightclubs is also on the increase. Electronic. This trend is surely going to have lasting impacts on both the bar business and nightclub business alike. Even though the how do trend of wine bars in the United States was not well received in the 1980s, they began to gain popularity in the 90s. In the early part of the millennium, wine bars became very popular and started popping up in many metropolitan neighborhoods across major cities in the United States of America.

Wine bars now compete with the local hangouts such as coffee shops and local bars. The wine bar sensation offers the taste before you buy philosophy. No doubt, wine bars put a new spin on disasters essay introduction, wine tasting. They seek to how do i turn my dissertation a book, remove the association of wine with high end clientele and essay introduction, overwhelming wine lists and replace it with a more casual and relaxing atmosphere. Many of these wine bars are furnished with nooks and cozy booths encased in rich colors and plush surroundings in hopes their guests will linger.

Wine bars look to embrace the intellectual stimulation linked to i turn into, wine and offer an radio, alternative to the bar scene. The phlegmatic environment lends itself to how do a book, a good socializing setting with a less crowded feel and more intimate appeal. In recent time, wine bars have begun to waves, incorporate a larger variety of food choices as part of their product offerings. Traditionally associated with cheeses and desserts, wine bars are looking to how do i turn my dissertation a book, combine wine with appetizer-sized gourmet selections to increase the enjoyment their customers stands to gain when they patronize them. The concept brings the tastes of fancy restaurants to a dressed-down setting. So also, it is now common to find restaurant owners and chefs take the opposite approach and use wine bars as an opportunity for expansion. Before starting our wine bar business in Los Angeles – California, we conducted a market survey and feasibility studies and we are certain that there is a wide range of essay, people who would patronize our bar on a regular basis. In view of that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to various group of people who are likely going to become our loyal customer. Below are our target market; Corporate Executives Politicians Celebrities Taxi Drivers Socialites Business People Sports Men and i turn my dissertation into, Women Government Officials College Students Tourists. Our Competitive Advantage. We are mindful of the fact that there are stiffer competition in the wines bars and nightclub industry in the United States of America; hence we have been able to hire some of the othello irony essay best business developer to how do i turn my dissertation into a book, handle our sales and marketing.

Part of what is going to be our selling point in Los Angeles is the fact that we operate a standard wine bar, in radio waves, a perfect location for the kind of business that we run and also the fact that bar facility is highly secured. Another factor that will give Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar competitive edge is that we have enough packing space to accommodate the numbers of customers our bar can contain per time. I Turn. We are not ruling out the fact that we have a dedicated and customer centric workforce that are willing to phd thesis electronic engineering, go the extra mile to give our customers full value for their money and time whenever the patronize our wine bar. We are not ignoring the into a book fact that we are among the few neighborhood wine bars in downtown Los Angeles that sells almost all the brands of wines available in the United States of America, crafted beers, distilled spirits, liquors et al and obviously, that will surely count towards our advantage in irony, the market place and also the robust experience of our CEO and the bar manager is also a positive for how do a book Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category ( startups wine bars and growing a third world country essay, night club businesses ) in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to how do my dissertation, build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our aims and objectives. Wine Bar Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Top of the list on our marketing and sale strategy document is generating a buzz for our wine bar via word-of-mouth and leveraging on road show.

The model of wine bar we intend running is a neighborhood bar hence we are not going to rely only on the conventional ways of marketing. We don’t have the plans to run paid adverts on Local TV stations, local radio stations or even local newspaper but we will sure maximize every other available means to promote our business. Our unique selling proposition is that we have a collection of almost all the brand of wine produced in natural disasters introduction, America in our bar, we have assorted drinks and tobaccos et al. In view of that, we are going to adopt the following marketing strategies to ensure that we do not only attract customers but generate repeated sales from them; Part of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open our wine bar in a grand style with a party for all. Introduce our wine bar by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to organizations, households and key stake holders in Los Angeles – California Ensure that we have a wide range of wines, beers, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis and non-alcoholic drinks at all times. Make use of attractive hand bills to create awareness and my dissertation into, also to give direction to our bar Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places Position our greeters to welcome and direct potential customers Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our bar. Othello. Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar is my dissertation a book, established with the aim of maximizing profits in the wine bar and on yourself for interview, night club industry and we are going to go all the way to into a book, ensure that we do all it takes to attract our target market. The sources of income for Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar are stated below; Serving wine for immediate consumption Offering wine tasting for patrons Preparing and serving food for immediate consumption Sale of assorted red and up in a third country essay, white wines such as Kendall-Jackson, Sutter Home, Beringer Vineyards, Franzia Winetaps, Inglenook, Yellow Tail, Copper Ridge, Cavit, Woodbridge, Salmon Creek, Foxhorn Vineyards, Barefoot Cellars, Almaden, Taylor California Cellars, Ecco Domani, Sycamore Lane, La Terre, Stone Cellars, Chateau Ste. and how do into, Mezzacorona Sale of beer and liquor Sale of Roses and sparkling wines Sale of Distilled spirits Sale of Martinis Sale of Small Chops Sale of Non – alcoholic beverages Sale of othello irony, Tobacco. One thing is certain when it comes to how do, wine bars, if your wine bar is well stocked and centrally positioned, you will always attract customers cum sales and that will sure translate to increase in on yourself for interview, revenue generation for the business.

We are well positioned to take on the available market in Los Angeles California and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the how do my dissertation a book first six month of operations and where buy a cheap, grow the business and our clientele base. We have been able to critically examine the wine bar market and we have analyzed our chances in how do my dissertation, the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projection is based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in waves, Los Angeles CA. Below is the sales projection for how do i turn my dissertation Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar, it is natural disasters, based on the location of our business and other factors as it relates to wine bars start – ups in the United States; N.B : This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same products and customer care services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. The prices of our Wines, Beers, Locally Crafted Beers, Wines, Distilled spirits, Liquor, Martinis, Small chops, Non – alcoholic beverages, and a book, Tobacco will be what is obtainable in engineering, the market.

In fact we will try as much as we can to sell below the industry’s average so as to attract loads of i turn my dissertation a book, customers. We also have plans in place to discount our products once in a while and can i buy a cheap paper, also to how do my dissertation, reward our loyal customers. Our payment policy is waves, all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our pub; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. I Turn A Book. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any difficulty. Othello. Wine Bar Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy.

Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar is a neighborhood bar and we will ensure that we create the buzz that will make people in our area know about us and what we do. We are quite aware that one of the effective ways of promoting our bar is to create special internal promotions which in how do i turn into, turn will help us achieve our aim of leveraging on word of mouth publicity. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar; Encourage the use of word of where can i buy a cheap, mouth publicity from our loyal customers Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; YouTube, Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms (music online forums) to promote our business. Ensure that our we position our banners and billboards in strategic positions all around Los Angeles – CA Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas in and around our neighborhood Contact corporate organizations, households, landlord associations and political parties by calling them up and i turn my dissertation, informing them of Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar and the products we sell Advertise our wine bar business in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to essay introduction, the site Brand all our official cars and vans and i turn into a book, ensure that all our staff members and management staff wears our branded shirt or cap at regular intervals. Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to essay, undertake. If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to i turn my dissertation into, ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is conducive enough for workers to be creative and productive. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for your business. The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked.

As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a wine bar business; it might differ in other countries due to the value of their money. This is what it would cost us to start Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar in essay, the United of America; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Los Angeles, CA $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services totaling $1,200. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Cost for hiring Consultant – $2,500. How Do I Turn My Dissertation A Book. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400. Cost of electronic engineering, accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software $15,000 Cost for payment of rent for 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of $105,600. Cost for facility remodeling $25,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery $500 Phone and utility deposits ($2,500) Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $60,000 The cost for Start-up inventory $16,027 Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, glasses case) $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 Cost for serving area equipment ( glasses, flatware) $3,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Office equipment and furniture $3,600 The cost for a book the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and paper shredder, chairs et al) $4,000. The cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost for our grand opening party $5,000 Miscellaneous $2,500. How Do I Turn Into. We would need an estimate of $500,000 to successfully launch our wine bar in downtown Los Angeles, CA.

This amount includes the salary of all employees and the CEO (Owner) for world country 3 months. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for how do into a book Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar. Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar is a private business that is owned by natural disasters Mr. I Turn Into. Crespo Columbus and his wife Mrs. Tina Columbus and they intend to finance the growing up in a third world business alone. Although they have plans to make the bar manager part owner of the business after 5 or 7 years of services, but that does not stop him from i turn my dissertation reserving well over 80 percent stake of the business for himself and his family. Since they are the sole financier of the business, they have decided to adopt the following means to generate start – up capital for the business; Generate part of the start – up capital from his personal savings and sale of his stocks Source for soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from disasters essay my Banks. N.B: Mr. Crespo Columbus and his wife have been able to generate $250,000 the breakdown shows that they generated $150,000 from their personal savings and sale of how do i turn my dissertation into a book, their stocks and natural, they generated $100, 000 soft loans from their family members and friends.

The balance of $250,000 will be generated as loan facility from his bank. Wine Bar Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of i turn a book, a business lies in natural disasters introduction, the numbers of how do i turn, loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. One of our major goals of starting Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to properly position our wine bar, ensure adequate security, availability of various brand of wines and irony essay, excellent customer service et al.

Crespo and Tina® Wine Bar will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to i turn a book, drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner. As a matter of essay introduction, fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to i turn a book, all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of research paper, three years or more. We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to how do my dissertation, successfully hire and retain the radio research paper best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Renting of facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, electronic appliances, office appliances and bar accessories: In Progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of my dissertation a book, all our needed wine, alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks, tobacco and small chops: In Progress.

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Housing and Trees in Urban Areas: IELTS Essay Question. Here is a recently reported essay question for IELTS writing task 2 and below are some ideas to how do i turn my dissertation into a book, help you with this topic. Some people think that planting trees in open spaces in cities and towns is more important than building houses. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Reasons for Using City Space for Trees. Trees and can i buy a cheap green areas create a peaceful living environment which promotes a better living standard and better mental health. Trees produce oxygen which can counteract against heavy pollution in cities and create a better quality of how do my dissertation into a book, air. Heat in phd thesis, cities can be better controlled by having more trees which filter the sun’s heat and offer shade. This ultimately lowers the temperature. Planting more trees in urban areas brings nature into cities which is how do i turn my dissertation beneficial to radio, people without access to rural areas.

Noise levels can also be reduced by planting trees which can act as a buffer against sound. Planting more trees can make the living environment more pleasant which is thought to reduce crime to some extent. Into? Trees encourage people to enjoy their neighbourhood and be more active in it which deters petty crime. Paper? Trees offer urban wildlife a better environment to live in and play a part in my dissertation, the ecosystem of essay introduction, a city. Reasons for Using City Space for Housing. Lack of affordable housing can lead to rising crime rates. I Turn Into A Book? Thus by having more housing, there are more opportunities for everyone to get housing. Without more housing, a city is unable to grow and develop which is essential in a world with an increasing population.

Housing is also essential for any country which is hoping to develop its economy as workers must have access to affordable homes. Shelter is a basic requirement for disasters essay introduction life. Urban space is how do i turn my dissertation a book limited and priority should be given to shelter rather than creating pleasant parks. Othello? Without enough homes, people can become homeless which can leads to alcoholism and drugs or slums can develop which can be detrimental to how do i turn my dissertation a book, any country. If the statement says same people think…,however others believe … and question ask for only my opinion.should i discuss both wievs ? If the instructions ask for your opinion, the your entire essay is based on your opinion. In this type of essays whether I agree or disagree for example I agree to othello irony, plant trees I should talk also about into a book, houses or no? You can’t ignore part of the task. If you agree in trees rather than houses, you must explain why you agree with having trees rather than houses. So, you cover both in your view.

First, i would like to thank you to give us such a valuable information to irony, get our target. Also, I am very confused with those question which asked that WHAT EXTENT DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE? It means if i agreed with the statement then I only need to favor with the statements or can I also write the i turn into a book, points of disagreed . Can you please help me out here?? This type of growing essay, essay question is asking for i turn your opinion. If you agree, then your entire essay explains why you agree and nothing more. If you have your own specific opinion, then you present details of growing a third world, that. How Do I Turn My Dissertation Into? If you need training in writing task 2, see my advanced lessons: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. I am really worried now because i took ielts in 23rd of July and was waiting to get results in 5 of August.

But the british council emailed me and essay introduction informed that my ielts results withheld without mentioning and reasons. Have your any students experienced such situation and when they got results? Is this related or influence to i turn my dissertation into, my band score? Will it be higher or lower? I have never heard of this happening before. I suggest you contact the British Council again and ask for an explanation for them withholding your results. Make it very clear in your note that you are deeply concerned and where buy a cheap paper shredder would like to know why your results are being withheld. I have made a short introduction on how do into, the given example above. Could you kindly give me a brief comment on my use of paper, complex sentences and punctuations, and i turn my dissertation into give some suggestions for othello essay improvement? Planting more trees in how do, both urban and rural areas, particularly in paper, wide spaces such as public parks where people often gather, is commonly thought to be more essential than constructing new houses that could lead to my dissertation a book, congestion. In my opinion, I strongly agree that, the can i cheap paper shredder, more trees that an into a book environment has, citizens and the ecosystem would be healthier.

Sorry but I don’t give comments on writing any more. I would like to phd thesis electronic engineering, create a balanced approach pls comment on my introduction. It is often argued, that the act of planting trees in i turn a book, large areas in towns and in big cities is far better than creating and building houses for people. While i agree that shelter is natural disasters introduction essential to my dissertation into, basic human needs, i also believe that more trees in urban areas is where buy a cheap paper shredder also useful in every human’s life. I think the ideas are not enough for i turn my dissertation a book the essay, without covering the comparison between trees and houses. Shouldn’t we firstly discuss which is more important (for example, listing the results of lots of houses without trees or those of many trees without enough houses in Body Paragraph A, then we can give the reasons in essay, Paragraph B and C), because the given statement mentions “more important than”? But the ideas for each are separated, without connections. Did I express myself clearly? I just wonder if we should compare these two items before we show our opinion about i turn my dissertation, agreement. For an opinion essay, you put your opinion in the introduction and then explain it in the body paragraphs. You should choose a side or aim for a balanced approach but for this particular essay choosing one side is easier.

These ideas are just to help you building supporting points. Your valuable comments are required on my essay as I made a little effort with your help. Topic: Some people think that planting trees in open spaces in cities and towns is essay on yourself more important than building houses. To what extent do you agree or disagree? It depends on different individuals. In my opinion, health is one of the major concern nowadays so, we should use empty spaces for planting trees rather than building aggressively. On one hand, trees are very essential to be planted in how do i turn a book, metropolitan cities because people living urban areas hardly get the essence of rural area. Up In A Third World Country? Trees are the symbol of how do my dissertation into, heathly environment and othello irony produce oxygen so, having more trees in your city will not only eliminate the health related issues but also improves the physical outlook of the city.

Secondly, planting trees will bring wildlife environment to survive in city and produces a ecosystem of how do my dissertation a book, a city. Moreover, green belt creates a positive effect on the urban life as well as it lowers the temperature. Furthermore, noise pollution will be diminish by growing up in a third world essay planting more trees, it can make the i turn into a book, living environment more pleasant and soothing. On the other hand, growth is also very important building more houses means inviting more people to your area and increasing the population. Building houses can provide shelter which will fulfill the basic requirements of living beings. Othello? Secondly, urban areas easily get dense so the priority should be given to build proper housing scheme than constructing parks and losing valuable space. Because without homes, people can become homeless and frustrated which might lead to how do, a detrimental of buy a, communities and cities.

Moreover, housing is also very important for any country which is hoping to develop its economy as workers and how do my dissertation into a book labors should have access to affordable homes. All in all, I’m more concerned over human health as it is well said that “health is a wealth”. If we have healthy environment we can eventually grow. So, planting more trees will increase our growth as it can provide us a better and healthy environment. Firstly, please let me say thank to you for your very useful website. Can you help me look over the introduction of a related topic to this?

Here are the question and my introduction : Global warming is one of the most serious issues that the world is on yourself for interview facing today. What are the causes of into a book, global warming and natural introduction what measures can goverment and individuals take to tackle the issue? Global warming is one of the most desparate difficulties that human have to deal with nowadays. This essay will show a number of justifications for the problem and how do i turn into a book give a suggestion on what people can do to solve it. Please check the work, and essay on yourself if you have time, can you give me some ideas for this essay? With regard to the housing and how do a book trees essay above ,is this introduction convenient or not ? It is thought by many people that planting trees in a metropolitan’s open spaces is more beneficial and important than constructing more houses . In my openion , although planting trees in cities open spaces is undoubtably bringing many enviromental benefits , building shelter for cities resident is a third essay considered desperate needs for standard life . There are serious issues with vocabulary which will prevent you getting band 6 in how do my dissertation into, that criteria.

I also can’t see a clear opinion. Should space be used for phd thesis electronic engineering housing or trees? You need a clear position to get a good score in IELTS writing task 2. Thanks for your comment , I really have problem in writing part . I have done two exam before and my weakness in writing part ,, I appreciate any effort if you could help me to tackle this problem . In regard to my dissertation, the response I got it , and disasters essay introduction I will make my response mor clear , but what do you mean about the vocabulary ? Where is the problem exactly ? Looking forward your help. What about this intruduction ? And please could you tell if I still have problem with vocabulary or what ? An increasing number of people supporting planting trees in how do i turn into, open spaces in cities and othello town as it is provide more green and pleasant areas .in my opinion, I strongly believe that constructing houses ,which is the i turn my dissertation into, basic standard to live , is significantly more important than planting trees . The vocabulary is appropriate but there are grammar errors. Phd Thesis Electronic Engineering? Make sure you introduce both sides in your background statement – you failed to mention housing.

Here are all my writing task 1 lessons, videos and tips: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-1-lessons-and-tips/. When I comment on writing, I point out main problems – I do not offer correction. You will need to find a teacher for that. Hi Liz! After learning from your advice now I have another essay. Hope it is better than before. Topic: Marketing and promotion is the key to a successfull business. To what extend do you agree ? My introduction: Nowadays, a successful business requires many essential strategies. Some people think that marketing and promotion are necessary for business.

In my opinion, I think that a skillful marketing person can persuade many customers while, a pleasant staff can give customers a clear explanation that make the business run smoothly but I strongly believe that it still need more keys to consider. It’s good. However, I would re-write your thesis statement to make it clearer. “In my opinion, while I think that marketing and promotion are important, I strongly believe that having a good product is the real key to success.”. Here it is clear what I agree but explains that “the key” to how do my dissertation, success is can i buy a paper something else. Always try to be clear about your main points and plan them. I Turn Into? Your English language is clear.

Thank for radio research giving me a positive reply. It makes my day. :D:D. Some people believe that open spaces can be used for more and more tree plantation, whether others argue that it is more important to build houses in open spaces than the how do i turn my dissertation into, tree plantation. I strongly believe that planting trees in open spaces is very essential. Firstly, trees protect us from the sun’s heat as well it keeps the temperature lower in urban areas and radio waves research paper it gives a shade. For example, living in a tropical country have more heat than the cold as a result planting trees can avoid the my dissertation, high temperature. Noise levels can also reduce by planting tress which can act as a buffer against sound. However, nowadays people have fulfilled their basic requirement about their accommodation, constructing more housing can be useless and it may harmful for essay developing cities as well as towns.

Tress encourage people to enjoy their neighborhood and trees and how do my dissertation a book green areas create a peaceful living environment which promotes a better living standard and a third better mental health. Finally, trees produce more and i turn my dissertation into a book more oxygen, which is very essential for humans as well as the irony essay, environments. Moreover, oxygen can counteract against heavy pollution in cities and create a better quality of air. Planting more trees in how do, urban areas brings nature into cities which is beneficial to where buy a shredder, people without access to rural areas. In conclusion, considering the wildlife and the betterment of the cities, it is very essential to plant more and more tress in open spaces. To reduce the my dissertation a book, sound and natural essay air pollution no other options except planting trees. Considering the above situation I strongly agree that, planting trees in my dissertation a book, open spaces is radio paper very important. I am eagerly awaiting for your feedback.

If your essay is posted without feedback, it means I don’t have time to give feedback. Please read the rules for posting writing at the top of this blog. Some people believe that open spaces can be used for more and more tree plantation, whether others argue that it is more important to my dissertation into a book, build houses in open spaces than the engineering, tree plantation. I strongly believe that planting trees in open spaces is very essential. Planting more trees in city areas bring a beautiful look which are beneficial for the city people. My Dissertation Into A Book? Trees protect us from the sun’s heat as well it keeps the where can i buy a paper, temperature lower in urban areas and it gives us a shelter. It is very essential for living in a better environment. Moreover, tress gives us oxygen which is very essential for surviving human and keep the ecosystem balanced. Though too much plantation of how do i turn, trees makes the city dark, especially at a third essay night, which may encourage the how do my dissertation into a book, robbery and snatching. On the contrary, shelter is the basic requirement for living. Without housing it is not fulfilled our basic needs.

Furthermore, towns and cities are unable to develop without constructing the new houses. Without enough home people can become homeless which may occur frustration and unpleasant situation for the people. But nowadays people have fulfilled their basic requirement about othello irony essay, their shelter so we should use our open spaces for planting trees. In conclusion, for balanced ecosystem we should more concentrate for planting more and more trees. To create peaceful living environment and i turn pleasant nature we may concentrate for irony essay planting more and more trees in open spaces in cities as well as towns. Considering the above situations, I strongly believe that planting trees in cities and urban areas is very essential. This essay does not ask you to “discuss both sides” so that means you can’t discuss both sides.

You are asked to give your opinion and nothing more. How Do I Turn My Dissertation Into A Book? It is disasters essay essential that you follow the instructions carefully. Give your opinion in how do i turn my dissertation into a book, the introduction and explain it in the body paragraphs. The whole essay is only about your opinion. So, in this essay your second body paragraph is irrelevant. On Yourself? Please follow all my lessons before posting. Read all model essays carefully to ensure you are aware of the requirements of IELTS. Kindly review this essay for how do my dissertation a book me.

Will it get up to phd thesis electronic engineering, band 7? Question: Some people think that excessive use of mobile phones and computers badly affects teenagers’ writing and how do i turn my dissertation into a book reading skills. Do you agree or disagree. Radio Waves Research Paper? Give your opinion. Technological advancement has made the use of mobile devices and computer much more fascinating.Thus, people tend to invest more time into the use of my dissertation a book, these devices.

I completely agree with the radio, opinion that this act is i turn my dissertation a book having negative impacts on teenagers’ writing and phd thesis electronic reading skills because of increasing poor academic performance of the i turn into a book, youngsters. Teenagers’ writing skills have suffered greatly due to excessive use of cell phones and computers. Firstly, children are no longer interested in developing their natural handwriting skills. In other words, most of them prefer to type documents on the computer rather than using their hands to write. Consequently, many have lost touch with the ability to write legibly which has had a detrimental effect on academic performance. Essay? Secondly, most teenagers have lost the ability to spell correctly since most of these devices have software that can spell-check words and my dissertation a book also assist in radio waves, constructing correct sentences. Furthermore, reading skills have also been poor owing to uncontrolled use of i turn, technological devices.

With the growing up in country essay, advent of my dissertation a book, sophisticated applications for chatting and browsing the internet such as whatsapp, Facebook,Google and so on, many teenagers spend most of their time online. As a result, they are left with little or no time to read and study independently. Also, availability of paper, e-books have made many to loose interest in reading conventional books. In conclusion, as much as I agree with the i turn my dissertation into, opinion that excessive use of mobile phones and computers among teenagers have negative impact on their reading and writing skills, I believe that there will be great improvement if things are done with moderation. It’s a good essay. Can I Buy A Cheap Shredder? You have answered the i turn into, question and giving clear ideas. Just make sure you don’t confuse the reader in the conclusion. Don’t try to introduce something new there. Be safe with your writing. Essay For Interview? Your vocabulary is how do i turn into good but you need to work on your grammar. I really appreciate your comment.

I need to achieve band 7 or more in the writing section but this has been quite challenging. Do you think I can achieve this score with my essay? Thanks in anticipation. I’m sorry but I don’t offer essay marking or essay grading. Please red the rules of phd thesis electronic engineering, posting:http://ieltsliz.com/rules-for-posting-writing/. Into A Book? I recommend you spend time getting to phd thesis, know the band scores for writing task 2 to better understand your aims: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2-band-scores-5-to-8/ I come across the following questions of Writing Task 2 in Arts. Can you please provides some ideas on how to work on this Essay. Artists need a certain amount of how do i turn, freedom to develop their creativity. Some people think that artists should have total freedom to express any thoughts and ideas.

To what extent do you agree or disagree? This is all about censorship. It’s about radio research paper, whether artists should be free to say, write or draw any image they want to encourage creativity. You must decide if that freedom of how do, expression should include violent images, pornographic images or other images which are damaging to irony essay, children or society. Hey, Lizz thank you so much for such an how do i turn a book amazing blog. i would be delighted if you would go over my essay and predict my estimated band score. With recent development in technologies like e books, some people feel that printed media like books will soon be a thing of the past. Other feel that these form of media will never disappear? The use of mobile phones and the Internet has become so rampant that some people started adopting the prevalent (pervasive, widespread, ubiquitous) notion that mobile phones and the Internet will obviate the need for physical books. For Interview? However, I dissent (differ, demure, diverge) from this perception and how do my dissertation a book pertinaciously believe that physical books are here to engineering, stay for i turn my dissertation a couple reasons. On the irony, one hand, it is an incontrovertible notion that e books bring immense advantages.

For example, they do not require physical space, which makes them more appealing to carry, and how do i turn my dissertation into this ultimately spurs the proliferation of e books. In fact for being user-friendly e books are deemed as the go to choice for college students as they opt for brandishing Ipads, which are teeming with myriads of e books, rather going around campus, saddled (lumbered, encumbered, burdened, hampered) with all the cumbersome books. Apart from the feature of being portable, e books are cheaper to produce as they do not require paper, which makes them even more appealing to electronic engineering, the environment conscious readers who are cognizant of the wreaks it would havoc on our forests. Moreover, as the Internet facilities the distribution of e books, they are becoming more and more accessible rather than printed books. On the other hand, there some people who uphold (espouse, cleave to, cling to) the into a book, fact that printed books are here to stay because of the irony, feel and the tactile relationship a person fosters while reading a physical copy. How Do My Dissertation A Book? There is nothing more enjoyable for a devouring (avid, ardent, fervent, voracious) reader than curling in a quilt with a book in their hands reveling in irony essay, the tranquility and redolence printed books provide. Moreover, reading an electronic book can be something of how do into, a menace when it comes to concentration, as it make the reader more predisposed to distraction as it is swarming with a lot of other superfluous (gratuitous, redundant) functions and the access to the Internet.

For instance, while reading a book one is lured (seduce, allure, entice) by waves the number of books available and the Internet. This irrevocably, culminates in the absorption of other extraneous information or book rather than the book intended to read. On top of that, reading an e book can have an how do my dissertation a book insidious (pernicious) effect on the eyes of the reader, which makes them more susceptible to eye related problems. In a nutshell, even though e books and mobile phones offer a number of essay on yourself, advantages in terms of convenience and price, they do not evoke (invoke) the how do i turn my dissertation into, feelings printed copies do. So the possibilities of printed media being supplanted by e books remain relatively remote. I am happy to comment on students’ writing. Radio? However, you must first do all my free lessons and video lessons to how do i turn into, learn more. Also make sure you write the where cheap paper shredder, full essay question which includes the instructions, for example “To what extent do you agree or disagree?”. How Do My Dissertation? Also don’t post an essay of over 400 words when you are aiming for between 250 and 300. Take your time to for interview, learn first.

Thanks you, do you think that it is my dissertation into a book a good essay. By the way, I have went over them, they are absolutelty useful. Hi liz, following is a sample question and my answer to the question. However, reading the on yourself for interview, answer given in the book, I was not sure if I’m completely off the how do i turn my dissertation into a book, topic. Could you please let me know? If i’m not off the topic, could you also let me know where I need to pay more attention to? “Everybody should be allowed admission to university study programs regardless of their level of academic ability. to what extent do you agree or disagree with this statements? give reasons for where can i your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. ” It is commonly considered that courses conducted by the universities are for anyone who wishes to follow them and that no one should be prevented from following them based on their academic skills. How Do My Dissertation Into? In my opinion, I fully agree that higher education is for anyone who wishes to essay, pursue it and my dissertation a book that it helps develop the society.Allowing more people to follow university courses ensures that the workforce is better qualified and educate, which can be beneficial in many ways. As a start, it ensures that there is more competition at workplaces, which could possibly lead to a very healthy situation for the company. Natural Disasters Essay? Furthermore, it could massively help maintain the education level of the nations workforce, ensuring that this level does not drastically drop to level where skilled personnel will need to be brought in via skilled migration programs.

Most importantly, having a highly educated workforce will definitely attract and influence investments in the country. University education is not only about education on theoretical subjects. Students will learn to manage time when conducting certain tasks. I Turn My Dissertation Into A Book? They also will experience and learn to deal with different people in intensive situations. In a nutshell, students will learn the basic principles of essay for interview, teamwork and how do master them eventually, enabling them to use these skills spontaneously at workplaces.

In conclusion in a democratic civilized society, it is the right of all citizens to have access to higher education courses hosted by universities irrespective of for interview, their academic capacity. Enabling people to do so will enable the country to develop as a whole. It is a book a little confusing that your first main point focuses so heavily on work. Are you honestly sure you agree that even people who have no educational ability should spend time attempting to do a degree. Even people who have no high school education or who failed middle school? Also check your linking words “In a nutshell” is not academic and “as a start” is not very appropriate. Think a bit more about the essay question before you decide to agree or disagree. Wow..

I did not expect you to phd thesis electronic engineering, reply so quickly but thank you so much. I did realize that I could’ve included more relevant content if I disagreed but I was also trying to do it within a certain time and panicked while doing so. I had a few ideas in my head that supported the i turn my dissertation, argument that anyone should be able to follow uni education hence, went with it also on the assumption that my view does not matter with regards to the band score. Your view doesn’t matter at all for the band score. Natural Essay? But the other side would have given you clearer ideas to use. Panic is common when you are in the exam room.

That is why you need to train yourself to spend at least 5 minutes planning ideas and supporting points in relation to the exact issues in the question. Liz, I did not expect you to my dissertation into, reply so promptly, Thank you ever so much. I’m a bit confused about opinion essays after seeing one of cheap shredder, your answers to a student. Maybe I completely misunderstood. I understood that in an opinion essay , you state a clear opinion , “Completely agree” or “Completely disagree” and back it with supporting ideas. However, I noticed in a different thread, you have advised a student that the my dissertation into, balanced approach is the best. The topic is about how All people should be vegetarian. Are you suggesting that in most opinion essays, it is okay to take a balanced approach if you clearly state it in the Thesis statement and research dedicate a paragraph each for the contrasting (opposing) ideas?

However, I tried to i turn, think of a similar approach to the topic mentioned earlier and radio research paper realized that you cannot have a balanced opinion on i turn my dissertation into a book, this topic, as it asks should everyone be allowed university education (or not) … is this correct? I give students advice to radio research, their particular problems – they are not lessons for writing task 2 for all essays. You should write “completely agree” if you feel strongly about how do my dissertation, agreeing. You should go for electronic engineering a balanced approach if it is easier for the essay question or you have good command of English to be able to do so. You decide your own opinion to the issue in the essay question. You decide if you agree, disagree or have a specific opinion (a balanced view).

You can get band score 9 with any answer as long as it is supported by relevant ideas and addresses the task fully. Kindly help me assess this essay on recent Ielts exam question: Some people believe that history is very important and we must study the past to understand the present. Others say that it has little or no use at all. Discuss both view and give your opinion. It is considered by how do my dissertation a book some that knowledge about the irony essay, past is vital for present day living because it helps us to make informed decision. How Do I Turn Into A Book? Others are of the opinion that it is actually irrelevant or of little significance since we are living in a very dynamic world. In my opinion,I believe learning history is key for development. On the buy a, one hand, knowledge of what happened in the past gives access to how do, information which in turn help in making informed decision. A Third World? For instance,learning about how past generation conquered various challenges that confronted them and how they were able to into, manage their successes will assist present generation not to make the same mistake they made in phd thesis electronic engineering, the past. Consequently,the journey to success will be more easier with little or no huddle.

In addition to this, in terms of Technological advancement, present day researchers can develop on previous inventions of how do i turn into, past scientists. On the other hand, the opinion that there is no need to know about the past would be hinged on the dynamic nature of this world. In other words,the ever-changing nature of our world cannot be overlooked. Essay Introduction? In the 18th century, for example, people had to travel by foot or on how do i turn my dissertation into, horses but nowadays,there are more effective and efficient means of othello irony, transportation such as air,sea,rail and so on. In this case,knowledge of the past does not benefit us in how do i turn my dissertation, any way since it is no longer relevant to our living. In conclusion, although some might think it is not necessary to know about the past, I believe history is vital in order to fast track development in the society. It a very well written essay which addresses the task very well.

There are two points to work on: 1. grammar – you are frequently making mistakes with forgetting to use “s” on verbs and nouns. Waves Research Paper? Here’s an example : “knowledge of what happened in the past gives access to information which in turn helps in making informed decisions .”. I suggest you review this part of your English grammar. You generally have a good level of grammar but these constant errors will reduce your score. 2. Make sure you mention your opinion again in the body paragraph which you agree with. “Some people think and I agree that …”. Thanks so much for taking time to comment on my essay. I will note the mistakes and make necessary correction. Can you have a quick glance over the following response? Could this be an 8 band response? Some people consider planting trees to be a better utilization of open city spaces than constructing buildings.

I too feel this is the better option of the two. I will clarify the stance I have assumed by elaborating on how do i turn my dissertation into a book, how trees counter the problems of both noise and air pollution. The first reason to favor trees over buildings is that trees are known to be effective in reducing the overall noise levels within an othello essay environment. To elaborate, one of the most discomforting yet often ignored aspect of city life is the constant clamor of vehicles, which is a causal factor in a number of psychological disorders. Given these conditions, the significance of my dissertation, trees emerges from the fact that they are a highly cost-effective ways to reduce noise as the natural, soft twigs and my dissertation a book leaves of trees act as natural noise absorbents. Thus, it is reasonable to prefer trees over buildings. The second point in support of tree plantation pertains to the role of trees in keeping the pollution levels within a city under control.

To expand on, the extent to which air pollution has becomes a cause of concern in urban dwellings is highlighted by the ever increasing number of phd thesis electronic, people migrating to countrysides for fresh air. This is an into extreme step, I believe, which can easily be avoided, as the natural mechanism within a tree to absorb toxic gases, and to growing a third world country essay, convert them into my dissertation, oxygen presents itself as a feasible alternative remedial measure. Trees can thus be of immense importance in urban landscapes. To sum up, trees are the answer to the two major problems facing cities namely, excessive noise, and polluted air. So, in conclusion, I reaffirm that planting trees is more important for cities than adding more buildings. P.S Keep up the good work. You are an inspiration. It’s a good essay. Try to be more accurate with linking devices ” To expand on,…” is not the right linker to use. Instead, use “In other words”. Sorry but I try not to give band scores.

I don’t have time to give accurate assessment so it’s best you find a teacher online. But I will say, you are doing very well in essay on yourself, all your marking criteria. Hi Liz, I need 6.5 bands please check the i turn my dissertation into, following essay and write your comments. These days, in cities and disasters towns people are facing problems of pollution. How Do I Turn My Dissertation Into A Book? To stop pollution. Irony? we are in need of planting trees. The places look more beautiful if there are green trees. I strongly believe that planting trees in open city is very important for several reasons which shall be discussed in this essay. Firstly, Trees create a peaceful living environment. Some time we are fed-up from noisiness and want to sit alone in how do, the green area to make our mind fresh. Engineering? The temperature is very high if the ratio of trees is very low, trees maintain the how do my dissertation into a book, temperature and keep cool in the summer. Trees produce oxygen and create a better quality of air which is othello irony essay very important for us.

Furthermore, green area is pleasant for everyone to enjoy their weekends. I read an article in one of the English newspaper which was very interesting, the topic name was “The importance of trees in i turn my dissertation a book, our daily life”. Natural Essay? In that article they mentioned, if a human being feels thirsty, only then he knows the how do my dissertation, worth of water. He wrote trees are also important just like water in our daily life. Many developing countries are planting trees to produce oxygen.

I am giving you the real life example of my city. Radio Waves Research? 10 years ago we are facing problems of pollution, hot weather and no rain. Our city governor announced on National Television that we are suffering from weather conditions and pollution problem, we need planting trees to make our life pleasant. On 20th May 2005, I remember we started planting 1 million trees in our city. Through planting trees, Our city became most popular in our country. In conclusion, Planting trees is the most important for atmosphere and a better environment. I recommend planting trees is essential to make our life better. This essay is about planting trees rather than building houses.

You failed to mention houses in the whole essay. Always answer the full essay question. I tried to follow your helpful advice and rewrote the same essay hoping to avoid my previous mistakes .. I hope that you kindly comment on my essay and give me your valuable feedback. Urban greening is considered by i turn into some to be of high importance than subsidising housings. I completely agree with this opinion because I believe it will improve urban climate and offer safe and friendly society. To start with, the reason why I believe trees enhance weather in cities is that trees, through transpiration and shadow casting, mitigate the rising rates of day-time peak temperature of not only green and open spaces but also neighbouring housings. This can benefit local inhabitants by offering a moderate climate and low cooling cost. Therefor, I think providing livable cities with tolerated weather more important than constructing houses. Furthermore, planting trees in parks and open spaces can participate in lowering crime rates such as petty crimes. Trees provide shades ,pleasant climate and up in a third world spectacular sceneries which make park and open places ideal for how do i turn my dissertation into local residents to relax ,socialise and natural disasters essay introduction practice variable activities.

Experts suggest that this tend to how do i turn, reduce unlawful actions through minimising life stress and social tension.Thus, I believe the preference of establishing safe community over building houses holds merit. In conclusion, I completely support the argument in favour of tree planting in urban areas over building houses. Can I Buy A Cheap? I believe enhancing city climate and i turn into a book mitigation of extreme weather conditions, in addition to radio waves, helping in creating safer urban community is far more important than merely constructing shelters. * of higher importance #128578; Much better. How Do I Turn My Dissertation Into A Book? It is organised and engineering coherent.

Make sure you don’t make spelling mistakes with linking words “therefor” = “therefore”. When you start a new main point which is a continuation of your position, you can start the paragraph with “Another point to consider is that planting trees in how do i turn a book, parks …”. This is electronic a more appropriate linking word than “Furthermore” which is often used inside a paragraph to add a supporting point. There are still errors with vocabulary “tolerated weather” = “tolerable weather” but luckily the number of errors is lower than your previous essay. Also try to shorten your conclusion – it should never be longer than the introduction – it’s a waste of words and how do my dissertation a book time. Thank you so much, I can’t describe how grateful I am to your valuable feedback. Every time you add something new and useful to essay on yourself, my writing. My question is, do I still in the 6.5 territory?? You are borderline 7 with this essay. Why borderline?

Can you please clarify more what borderline means? Is it due to grammatical errors or essay structure? Or is it the how do my dissertation into a book, lexical resources? What is growing up in world essay my weaker point here? And could this essay score 7 or 7.5 with corrections you just advised me? It is because I don’t have time to assess your writing in how do a book, detail. I don’t offer free marking. Also examiners can vary by 0.5 in band scores so saying borderline means you are around that score. Wish you best of luck. Does the below introduction justify the can i buy a paper shredder, topic. A few individuals believe that fixing plants in open spaces of how do a book, urban area is of much value while others think that constructing houses is more significant.In my opinion, I agree that planting trees is the key to healthy environment.

That’s fine but keep your vocabulary accurate. We don’t use the collocation “fixing plants”. here is the answer for the question above. it took me more than 40 minutes to write it. looking foreword to reading your valuable comments. Some people think that planting trees in natural, open spaces in cities and i turn my dissertation into towns is more important than building houses. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Urban greening is considered an important way to establish sustainable and livable cities.

It is also believed by many to up in world country, be of higher importance than subsidize housing. I completely agree with the former statements, and the reasons behind my opinion are explored in how do my dissertation a book, the following paragraphs. To start with, planting trees and other vegetation in urban areas improves its inhabitants’ health. Firstly, it reduces noise pollution by acting as a noise buffer. Moreover, optical shield of the noise source creates a psychological reduction in othello, noise perception. Secondly, trees provide spectacular sceneries that help people to relax and my dissertation into a book mitigate life stress, which subsequently enhance individual’s psychological well-being. Irony? Finally, trees minimize air pollution by filtering particles and pollutants as a result lowering the risk of lung diseases. Thus it is clear that planting trees is highly important as it improves people’s health through minimizing stress and pollution, which translate into how do i turn a book, lower health-care cost. Furthermore, the impact of planting urban areas, in terms of minimizing health-care cost, improve quality of life and regulation of urban climate, can benefit socially disadvantaged group in particular.

Low income and phd thesis electronic engineering low social status inhabitants are unable to afford energy-intensive cooling of the flat or leaving the i turn my dissertation, city during thermal inversion. Trees, through transpiration and casting shadows, can lower day-time peak temperature not only essay, within green and open spaces, but also in the neighboring housings. Therefore, this reduces cooling costs for low-income people. In addition, trees provide shade and pleasant environment that encourage people to use parks for relaxation and engaging in social activities. Experts suggest, this can reduce crime rates substantially by minimizing social tension and how do into a book life stress. Thus, the country essay, necessity of my dissertation, urban greening holds merit. In conclusion, planting trees and other vegetation in cities and towns is crucial to improve health, safety and up in a third country essay life quality for urban population. I believe creating a healthy and safe community is how do a book more important than merely building shelters. Please, kindly comment on a third country essay, my response to the question given.. I scored 6.5 in writing twice so I tried to improve my writing this time in order to reach 7..

My exam is on the 18th this month. Any commen will be most appreciated. If you are aiming for band 7, then only use vocabulary that you are 100% sure is correct “optical shield of the noise source” is my dissertation a book very confusing and engineering has no clear meaning. Also try to organise your ideas and have clear topic in each paragraph. How Do I Turn? Your ideas in can i shredder, the first and second body paragraphs are too similar – both about health, both about relaxation. You must plan ideas more carefully and my dissertation a book make sure that ideas and supporting points are not the same in both paragraphs. I strongly thought I would score 7 with this essay!!

I feel helpless! Second thing, optical sheild of the noise source is a term I used from on yourself for interview a pdf file which is talking about the i turn into a book, topic. Do you mean it is growing a third country essay not proper for ielts? Thank you so much. It looks like a learned phrase that you learned and applied in order to get a higher score – it does not appear to be your natural language which reflects your actual level. Use natural language to express your opinions.

Sorry if I’m asking too many questions, but what you suggest to how do a book, make these phrases seem natural? I know their meaning and use but I don’t often use them. I usually use simple language in my writing which I thought translated into low band score as 6.5. It’s a good question. There’s a difference between using a good range of vocabulary and essay memorising a sentence or phrase to put in i turn a book, your essay to get a good score. The words you used were not your own. It was easy to see because the rest of your essay was not at that level. When you wrote “optical shield of the noise source creates a psychological reduction in noise perception” what you mean is “by seeing the trees, people automatically perceive less noise”. The first phrase is from an expert in growing a third world country essay, the field of both psychology and the environment, the letter phrase is from someone with excellent English. So, don’t copy phrases that are clearly not your own. IELTS is a test of your English, not your memory and ability to use other people’s English.

Does that make it clearer? Let me know if it is still confusing. I know many students find it difficult to understand between learning words to improve your vocabulary range and how do my dissertation into a book memorising phrases or sentences from phd thesis engineering other people to get a higher score. Thank you for clarifying this point, I was not aware of this problem. How Do? Is there anything you kindly suggest that I can do to othello irony, increase my band score? I need 7 as I mentioned before, but I always score 6.5. I want to i turn, learn sophisticated academic language, but I don’t know the right approach to doing so.

I wrongly assumed it can be done by memorising phrases rather than words. One more thing, is my way of irony essay, writing this reply clear and acceptably in ielts? Your vocabulary is already band 7 – it seems. That isn’t the problem. You need to work on into, paragraphing, organising ideas and planning supporting points. All of which is 25% of your marks. You have a long list of ideas which you have pushed into one essay and divided them into two body paragraphs without clear planning.

It would be better to select just three ideas, have three body paragraphs – one for each. Alternatively, have one body paragraph about waves paper, how trees help the climate and pollution. Then another body paragraph about how do my dissertation into a book, how it helps promote a better neighbourhood and reduce crime. Those are completely different ideas that do not overlap at irony essay all. It must all be planned and how do my dissertation a book organised. You should also work on topic sentences as well which are the main points written in one full sentence at the start of each body paragraph – it helps the reader understand the actual content of that paragraph. Try working on essay writing skills instead. Your level of English already seems to be band 7 but that’s hard to say for waves paper sure unless you write an essay which does not contain phrases that you copied from elsewhere. oooops my apologize.

here it’s correct version. It has been thought that it would be a good notional idea to allocate much more spaces in order to how do into a book, make more green areas and natural disasters essay gardens rather than building houses. Personally, I would strongly support this view for a couple of reasons. To start with , giving much more priority to how do my dissertation, creating residential houses over where cheap shredder developing the green areas may become problematic consequence in urban places.My hometown, for example, has turned from one of the beautiful place to the comparatively ugliest town all over the regions. it has been fully surrounded by many kinds of skyscraper buildings. As a result residents rarely spare their leisure times for outdoor activities.

However, providing trees can create a better lifestyle. In other words it makes a peaceful living environment which promotes a better living standards. In addition, it produces oxygen which can counterattack heavy pollution and provide fresh air. Another example is the state university of Tashkent. I Turn Into A Book? There have been more orchards provided and evergreen trees which can reduce pollution as well as producing producing fresh air.

In conclusion, I would recommend planting a large number of trees in order to make better environment. Although constructing houses is vital for othello population, planting trees are much more fundatmental for the quality of life in i turn into a book, term of health and ecology. You have answered the question and provided relevant main points – that’s great. Unfortunately, there are quite a lot of errors in can i paper shredder, both grammar and how do my dissertation into vocabulary which will reduce your score. A Third? Also try to i turn my dissertation, avoid repeating ideas in buy a, your supporting points – examples are to i turn into a book, give a clearer illustration, not to repeat the same information. Spend time working on your English language – see my useful website page in the IELTS Extra section for links. i’m sure this is correct version, I’ve reviewed with my fellows, what would u recommend? Please post any issues that you’ve seen on me. It has been thought that it would be a good notional idea to allocate much more spaces in order to make more green areas and gardens rather than building houses.

Personally, I would strongly support this view for a couple of for interview, reasons. To start with , giving much more priority to creating residential houses over developing the green areas may become problematic consequence in how do, urban places. My hometown, for example, has turned from one of the beautiful place to the comparatively It has been thought that it would be a good notionally idea to allocate much more spaces i’m sure this is correct version, I’ve reviewed with my fellows, what would u recommend? Please post any issues that you’ve seen on me. It has been thought that it would be a good notional idea to allocate much more spaces in order to make more green areas and gardens rather than building houses. Personally, I would strongly support this view for a couple of waves research, reasons. To start with , giving much more priority to creating residential houses over developing the green areas may become problematic consequence in urban places. My hometown, for example, has turned from one of the how do into, beautiful place to essay, the comparatively ugliest town all over the regions. it has been fully surrounded by many kinds of skyscraper buildings. As a result residents rarely spare their leisure times for outdoor activities. However, providing trees can create a better lifestyle. In other words it makes a peaceful living environment which promotes a better living standards.

In addition, it produces oxygen which can counterattack heavy pollution and how do i turn into a book provide fresh air. Another example is the on yourself, state university of Tashkent. There have been more orchards provided and evergreen trees which can reduce pollution as well as producing producing fresh air. in conclusion, I would recommend planting a large number a large number terms in order better environment. Sorry, I don’t understand your paragraphing – how many paragraphs do you have?

I’m an only applicant among these students. I would be very happy if u could make some comments and estimations in my writing skills, although I’ve copied an my dissertation into ideas, structures, ranges from ur post as well as from other students. i make sure ur posts is aimed using appropriately in some essays, doesn’t it? if it’s true, let’s see how i’ve used appropriately, more precisely in what degree i’ve copied #128512; one more question, does it effect to engineering, my skill or not? It has been thought that it would be a good notionally idea to allocate much more spaces on purpose of making green areas and gardens rather than building new houses. Personally, I would strongly believe this view for how do a couple of reasons. Firstly, giving much more priority to create residential blocks over the developing the electronic, green areas may seem fairly determinal consequence in a book, social places. Let’s take my hometown as an example, it has turned from one of the beautiful places to another monstrous ugly town all over the Uzbekistan parts.

Because it has been fully surrounded by such kind of skyscraper buildings. As a result residents no longer find to spend their leisure times outside and they can’t afford to participate outdoor activities. Nevertheless trees have been under limited condition. Secondly, providing trees can create a better lifestyle. To be more exact, it would probably make a peaceful living environment which promotes a better living standard. In addition it also produces an oxygen acid which can counterattack against heavy pollution and make a better quality of air. One of more examples is my accommodation. There have been more orchards provided and fir trees can help reducing heavy pollution. In conclusion, I would recommend planting more trees in order to make better environment and to irony, take part in outdoor activities in the cities. The ideas and structure is fine.

The problem is vocabulary and grammar which means your level of English. There are quite a lot of errors which might reduce your score. You need to review your grammar tenses, using plurals, uncountable nouns and i turn also check how to use words accurately. Waves Research? Go to my useful website page in my dissertation, the IELTS Extra section and phd thesis start working on your English. Also don’t use contractions (don’t – do not) and avoid giving examples of my dissertation into a book, yourself or your friends – write about people in natural disasters essay introduction, general. This is the very first time I visit this site so I am wondering whether I could john this page and have my essay evaluated by you? If possible, I would be very grateful. Wish you all the how do i turn into, best! I don’t offer essay marking. Othello? However, if you want to post an my dissertation essay, I will try to find time to give you a comment.

Unfortunately, I can’t promise comments because it depends on how much time I have available. Anyway, it’s good practice for you to up in a third country essay, try and if I’m too busy, other students might comment. I have followed the instruction and tried to write it again. I am totally confused about i turn into a book, how to write. I am going to sit an up in a third exam, so please guide me. I am hoping your favour on me.

Some people prefer to spend their lives doing the same things and avoid change. Others, however, think that change is always a good thing. Over the half century, an unanticipated change has occurred in all areas of human lives due to the scientific and technological break-through. However, unwillingness to cope up with the pace of i turn my dissertation a book, time is a major concern for some people. In my opinion, I believe that dynamism of time cannot be an individual choice; it is a natural process while it is not necessary that newness can be favorable for all. On the one hand, longing to stay in an unchanged circumstance harbors such an eerie faith that the stable situation may be the safest and most satisfactory zone for some people. Reluctance to change themselves towards the new innovations is where can i cheap shredder a great hurdle for them owing to possessing inability so as to adapt newness and i turn a book enjoy the irony, past automated life style, for instance. Due to my dissertation, which, they are always prone to remain the same. On the essay for interview, other hand, the matter of fact is that tendency to cherish modern invention such as internet, mobile, tablet and more always stimulates the majority of people to spend luxurious life styles . Happiness, success, satisfaction and progress are the consequences of willingness to expand the horizon of thoughts as per the mobility of my dissertation into, time.

To illustrate, technological advancement in on yourself for interview, medical, security, administrative and more sectors has made these realms faster and more authentic. In conclusion, the preference of people about doing the same thing or neglecting changes varies. I, however, believe that change is a natural phenomenon, which must be abided by human being s for my dissertation a book their existence; otherwise the can i shredder, progress will be halted. So, everybody most amalgamate with the pace of time. Certainly better. The only issue now is into a book that you have presented an natural essay introduction opinion which does not agree with either side. This is called a balanced approach. It’s fine to do this. I Turn My Dissertation Into? But it means you must have a third body paragraph to phd thesis electronic engineering, explain your opinion. You will need to balance out the length of your body paragraphs to include a third – that means being more selective with which supporting points to use. I am going through lessons.

I have found it more different than other instructors’ methods of i turn my dissertation a book, writing an othello irony essay essay. However, i have made an effort to i turn my dissertation into a book, write as per your guidelines. Please, suggest and help me know the score( Could you help me to know individually such as TA, CC, LR and GR) Hoping to have a quick response from! Some people prefer to spend their lives doing the same things and avoid change . Others, however, think that change is essay always a good thing. Discuss both these views and give your opinions. Change is inevitable. Over the half century, an unanticipated change has occurred in all areas of how do i turn my dissertation a book, human lives due to the scientific and othello irony technological break-through. How Do I Turn My Dissertation A Book? However, unwillingness to engineering, cope up with the pace of how do i turn into a book, time is a major concern for some people. I, therefore, personally believe that dynamism of time cannot be an individual choice; everybody should evedeavour to adapt its pace. Longing to research, stay in how do i turn my dissertation, an unchanged circumstance harbors such an eerie faith that the stable situation may be the safest and phd thesis electronic engineering most satisfactory zone for some people.

Reluctance to change themselves towards the new innovations is a great hurdle for them owing to possessing inability so as to into a book, adapt newness and enjoy the past automated life style, for instance. The matter of fact is othello irony essay that tendency to cherish modern invention such as internet, mobile, tablet and more always stimulates the majority of people to spend luxurious life styles since the global phenomenon of scientific innovation has brought abundance of how do i turn my dissertation a book, opportunities and prosperity. Happiness, success, satisfaction and progress are the consequences of willingness to expand the horizon of can i buy a cheap shredder, thoughts as per i turn into the mobility of introduction, time. To illustrate, technological advancement in medical, security, administrative and how do my dissertation more sectors has made these realms faster and more authentic. On Yourself For Interview? It, therefore, must be utilized up to the maximum level which definitely will provide better result than the a book, past and traditional method. In conclusion, everything gets changed with the pace of time. It is natural essay a natural phenomenon, which must be abided by human being s for their existence; otherwise the progress will be halted.

So, I opine that everybody most amalgamate with the pace of time. This is a discussion essay. You should introduce the two sides in your introduction. You should explain why people believe these two sides in the body paragraphs. Please seem my model essays to learn more about writing a discussion essay: http://ieltsliz.com/tag/model-essay/ Missed you so much for the last month . You were on i turn my dissertation a book, a holiday and I hope that you have enjoyed your time so much . I wish you all success and happiness . Herein , my response essay to the topic question enclosed below . Please , check it ant tell me what band score it deserves . Thanks so much Liz for your help and great efforts . Some people think that planting trees in open spaces in cities and towns is more important than building houses . To what extent do you agree or disagree ? It has been thought that providing more residential blocks to natural disasters, citizens should be the my dissertation, intrinsic target for municipalities all the world over country . However a new trend has emerged , debunking this notion and advocating the idea that gardens and green areas should be allocated much more space than houses . Personally , I strongly embrace this new trend for how do a couple of reasons . Firstly , giving much more priority to building houses and increasing the residential block over increasing the green areas in a city has created many monstrous ugly cities , lacking most facilities for essay excursions , apart from endangering citizens health . Take Cairo for example , it has turned from one of the most beautiful capital cities all over the world to one of the ugliest monstrous cities globally because the municipalities in Cairo turned most of public gardens into residential blocks . I Turn My Dissertation Into? As a result, people no longer find gardens for spending leisure time and practicing outdoor sports such as golf , tennis and so on . Thus , expanding houses and limiting planting trees have had a detrimental impact . Secondly , increasing the planted areas and essay public gardens has proven to be a compelling necessity because it is healthier and much more beneficial not only for individuals but for the whole community as well . Green areas are considered to be the lungs of the city which helps to dispose of the detrimental emanating pollutants , leaving the how do i turn, air fresher and healthier . That’s why most citizens in on yourself, new cities which enjoy larger green areas enjoy healthier and how do i turn my dissertation into longer lives than their counterparts living in those monstrous ugly cities , according to for interview, recent heath reports . Moreover , citizens can practice outdoor sports and keep themselves fit all the time . I Turn My Dissertation? As a result , their job performance and productivity rates are higher . Thus , increasing green areas within cities is beneficial for both individuals and societies . In conclusion , while some believe that the priority should be given to building houses rather than planting trees , I believe that increasing vegetated open places has gone beyond being a priority ; it has become a compelling requisite and , there fore , I have advocated this notion in this essay . It’s a good essay. However, you really need to work on your grammar and vocabulary if you want to be sure of band 7.

1. Vocabulary: “Firstly , giving much more priority to building houses and increasing the residential block over on yourself for interview increasing the green areas in a city has created many monstrous ugly cities , lacking most facilities for excursions , apart from endangering citizens health.”. I don’t understand “lacking most facilities for excursions”. Are you refering to “trips” or “paths” – the meaning is unclear. 2. Grammar: “… increasing the green areas in a city has created many monstrous ugly cities , lacking most facilities for excursions , apart from endangering citizens health .” = “…has created monstrous cities, lacks … and endangers …” – you need verbs not nouns for this list. 3. Grammar: “Thus , expanding houses and limiting planting trees have had a detrimental impact .” = “… has had a detrimental impact” (gerunds are singular) 4. Grammar: don’t use contractions in i turn my dissertation, IELTS writing “That’s” = “That is” 5. Grammar: ” As a result , their job performance and productivity rates are higher” = “… will be higher” you need a future form. 6. “increasing vegetated open places ” = vegetated is completely wrong. Don’t over paraphrase because it will lead to too many mistakes and a lower score. 7. Technique: “here fore , I have advocated this notion in this essay .” – you don’t need to refer to this essay in your actual writing. Your essay structure is fine.

You are using linking quite well. Your ideas are developed. Just work on producing accurate vocabulary and try to work on your grammar. Thanks so much , Liz . How fast and accurate you are ,Liz ! just one issue ; Apart from the misuse of vocabulary ; Concerning your comment no.2 ” grammar ” Isn’t ” increasing the green areas in a city has created many monstrous ugly cities , lacking facilities of excursions , apart from endangering citizens health . Electronic? ” equal to ” Increasing the green areas in a city has created many monstrous ugly cities which lack facilities of excursions , apart from endangering citizens health . How Do? I mean to say that it is not a list as you commented , it is a relative clause which is shortened in that way . Furthermore , you commented that I have to use ” endangers ” instead of ” endangering ” because it came after a preposition . I did not intend to use a list in radio research paper, that sentence so I don’t have to use parallel structures , rather I intended to use a complex sentence . This point is ambiguous for me . How Do I Turn My Dissertation? so please reconsider only that point . Again , Thanks so much for your nice spurring comments . For your first point, it’s best to use the clause “which lack …” to make that clearer to growing up in world country, the reader. My Dissertation Into A Book? Without “which” is paper shredder becomes difficult for the reader to understand. However, you’ll still need to work on the choice of word “excursion” as I am completely confused by this. The point about “endanger” is mainly because I couldn’t clearly understand your whole sentence – it is fine to use “apart from endangering” but only if it fits grammatically with the my dissertation into, rest of the sentence. You’ll need to re-write the whole sentence with the right vocabulary and engineering grammar to check it all. Thanks so much Liz for that precious piece of advice . Would it be ok is I adjust it to be ; Apart from endangering peoples health , increasing residential blocks in a city has created many ugly monstrous cities which lack green areas where people can practice outdoor sports . Much better.

Now I understand completely. My Dissertation A Book? Don’t forget to write “people’s”. Good to see you back. Hope you’ve had a pleasent break. Just wondering if you do online essay corrections now. I would like to attend your online course if you have free time to can i cheap paper, do it.

Please let me know. Unfortunately I don’t offer any private lessons or essay marking services. However, I will soon be opening IELTS Liz Store which will sell complete in-depth video lessons on different types of IELTS essays. I hope to have my first video ready very soon. As soon as it’s ready, I’ll post a notice and how do also a link to my store on this blog. Here is my essay.

Hopefully you can take some time and give comment on that so that I can improve myself better. Up In Essay? Many thanks! It is of a controversial issue whether to give priority to how do i turn into, housing or planting trees in open space of cites and towns. Up In A Third World Essay? As to what I believe, the best policy is to fullfil the primary demand of how do i turn into a book, human beings which is to reside before planning further. As a rule of thumb, to cheap, provide enough shelters for how do i turn my dissertation into a book all residents of a city is an essential requirement. Essay On Yourself For Interview? This approach makes sure the settlement of a society with high security and good citizens’ contribution. Obviously, an effort to i turn into a book, eliminate the homeless people number possibly minimizes the risks of crime and violent conflicts on streets. It should also be noticed that people without much burden of searching for a place to live will work best to serve their country.

One more fact is that children who are taken care of under roofs definitely enjoy better education than those having to live out on the road. Housing facilitation, therefore, prepares for phd thesis engineering the future of the how do my dissertation into, national economy with a high-quality workforce. In addition, to keep people indoor is an action appealed by humanity. By giving a lot of room for setting up houses, even poor family can get a chance to radio waves research, build their own apartment. Logically, before the rich think of a large house with beautiful surrounding having many trees, they should be sympathetic with those who have much less money. All in all, considering all the above reasons to spare land for i turn into a book house setting, the matter of houses or trees turns out to be not difficult to decide. Although trees are fundatmental for research the quality of life in term of health and ecology, there should be other solutions better than taking the place of houses in the context of rising popularion. Environmental pollution is i turn my dissertation a book one of the major burden that the world is facing today.Inorder to control this harmful threat many people appreciate the idea of growing trees in can i buy a cheap paper shredder, free spaces of urban areas rather than constructing flats and apartments. However, it sometimes negatively affect the basic needs of human.so,i partly agree with the statement.

This essay substantiates my views about the aforementioned issue. Write a clear opinion in your thesis statement. Don’t tell the examiner what you plan to do – the examiner knows you will explain your views. Instead, just make your opinion very very clear. Thank you for the advice. please send me a proper way to write an introduction for this essay and point out what all are the mistakes that i made. Sorry but I won’t have time to do that. Check the introductions of the other student’s essays and the feedback I have given them to learn more about this essay question. There’s an issue that growing trees inside the major and minor cities are more significant than constructing houses. In my opinion, both factors have important role in human life because house is the one who shield and protect us while, trees are the one who give us fresh air and maintain our ecosystem. Firstly, shelter considered as one of the how do i turn, basic needs in the human life because it secured and keeps us away from harm or injury. However, serious preparation and plan to the location and essay on yourself for interview site must be prioritized due to the limited space and increasing different kinds of infrastructures.

In other words, government must focus on establishing houses which are affordable, comfortable and accessible to the amenities and work place. How Do My Dissertation A Book? Finally, creating parks, and parking space must be substituted into housing project which can be aid to the growing population, help to diminish homeless individuals and create a productive community. On the other hand, planting trees inside the radio waves research paper, city is also essential. As what as we know, trees provide fresh air which can counteract against how do heavy pollution and enhance healthy leaving, while at summer, they bear the scorching rays of sun, gives a cool shade, and essay on yourself buffer the smokes from how do my dissertation a book cars and factories. Moreover, growing trees is the optimum way to aid and on yourself helps our mother earth to i turn my dissertation a book, recover from the harmful and poisonous deed of humans. Furthermore, trees and green inside metropolis provides peaceful and calm environment which lead to better living and put awareness of responsibility to our ecosystem. In my conclusion, building houses and planting trees are both essential in humans life, therefore, mutual consideration and othello essay attention must be addressed to i turn into, both of these factor. Avoid contractions in disasters introduction, your writing: “There’s” = “there is”. A Book? Also avoid writing “we”. Use the third person “as we know” = “it is where can i cheap paper known that”. Hopefully other students can give you comments on the content, ideas and how do my dissertation a book language of your essay.

Thanks for posting it. thank you so much liz. I have one concern, in general ielts are they just giving an engineering argumentative essay, because, I have seen some different types of essay. Thank You so much for the time and how do i turn my dissertation a book effort. There are all types. Waves Paper? Please see my 100 essay questions in my dissertation into, the writing task 2 section of this blog to see a list of types at the bottom of the electronic, page. Can we write this kind of essays using bullet points as you mentioned, or Paragraph by. Paragraph ,Which is more effective in terms of IELTS marking? You cannot use any bullet points in how do into a book, your essay. Everything must be written in growing country essay, full sentences. These are only ideas for how do i turn into a book you to can i buy a, use or adapt for how do i turn my dissertation into a book your essay.

Here’s a link to my model essay so you can see how essays should be written: http://ieltsliz.com/tag/model-essay/ Hope you are well ! kindly see my comment below related to this topic . Waves Paper? Please if you have time try to give your feedback and band score which i worth . I will take IELTS on my dissertation a book, Saturday ,11th April 2015 . Thank you in advance . It is believed by some that planting trees in urban areas is more significant than constructing houses . In my opinion , i think that it would be better to increase the number of real estates in cities and radio waves research paper towns than creating parks which consider important partly . On the one hand , cities or urban areas are familiar with the rise of population which has to i turn into a book, be faced by increasing the number of buildings to solve people’s problems in finding suitable houses or flats for living . moreover , rare of housing can lead to enhancing of committing crimes which society will suffer from its consequences in the future . in essay introduction, other words, real estates investments playing an effective role in developing cities and it consider a principal resource of income which hiring huge number of workers and i turn into a book employees . Essay For Interview? as well as most of people who live in rural areas in particular youths category whom desiring to complete their higher studies will come to cities whereas the universities and institutions and this will demand housse for them . on the other hand , planting trees is highly important for how do my dissertation into people who live in phd thesis electronic engineering, cities to i turn, be able to breath a clear air without pollution . the benefits of plants not only for creating oxygen which enable people to find comfortable ecosystem but also to show a pleasant view which impact in mental health directly . further, people who live in cities need to find places for relaxing in weekend after a hard work during the week . in conclusion , both buildings and trees are very important for cities . however , housing is the most significant one . This is an opinion essay. That means the only information which you include in this essay is your opinion. The instructions do not ask you to radio paper, discuss the other side but only to how do i turn my dissertation into a book, present your opinion. Your opinion, which you have given in essay, the introduction, is that building houses is more important than parks. So your essay should only explain why is how do my dissertation it more important to radio paper, create housing than parks. But in this essay you have decided to write one full body paragraph which gives the opposite view about why parks are important. How Do I Turn Into? This will reduce your score a lot.

You must give a very clear opinion (what exactly do you think) and world country then explain your opinion in the body paragraphs. Make sure your introduction and conclusion have the same opinion – in how do i turn my dissertation into a book, this essay they are different. Realy i can not find enough word to express how to thank you . I am gratitude for your efforts to on yourself, help me . I will follow your advice and how do my dissertation hope i can get good score . Finally , if i did as you advised me with these vocabularies and grammar which band score i will get ?? I appriciate your support and thanks again . Unfortunately, I don’t have time to give band scores any more. Be careful with your capital letters – you are forgetting to use them at the beginning of sentences. A million thanks. In my view, with the type of question, we should provide supports for one side (means deciding clearly where our position is). Is it right? By the way, my essay is below. Please give me some comments, thanks all. For many people, growing trees in urban space areas is much more essential than construting buildings.

In my opinion, planting trees is should be put in the first priority. One one hand, growing trees in cities or towns brings several advantages for city atmostphere. Essay On Yourself? It is how do i turn my dissertation a book obvious that trees take an very important role in balancing the natural introduction, city air, which is pulluted heavily. Every day, there is i turn my dissertation a book a large amount of waves paper, carbon dioxide in the air emitted from a huge number of transports, factories and green houses. Trees are known as an effective mechanism to reduce the hamful gases in a book, the air.

Because trees absorb carbon dioxide and phd thesis emit oxygen. I Turn My Dissertation Into? Therefore, trees make the city air better and where can i cheap shredder reduce city temperature. On the other hand, trees in cities bring nature to city life. There is an increasingly tendency that city residents often go away from cities to rural areas where there are many trees and how do i turn my dissertation wildlife. Planting trees in urban areas is the simplest way to create natural environment in the cities themselves because wildlife usually live with trees. Radio Waves? So planing trees in cities offers city citizens an opportunities to live in natural environment without to access to i turn my dissertation into a book, rural areas. Trees in cities may also help to natural disasters, reduce the pressure that majority of city people are suffered. In addition, trees make city senery more attractive and peaceful.

In conclusion, the appearance of trees in cities is associated with many plus points and I strongly support planting trees than building houses in i turn into a book, the free spaces of disasters introduction, cities. You have given a clear opinion and have presented good ideas. How Do Into? However, please be careful with your linking devices. “On the one hand…” and “On the other hand…” are used for opposite points in a discussion essay. In this essay, all body paragraphs support the same side so don’t use those linking devices. Instead, start your first body paragraph normally and natural disasters essay introduction your second body paragraph with “Another point to i turn my dissertation into, consider is engineering …”. Thank you so much Liz. Hope you are always happy.

First of how do i turn my dissertation a book, all , thanking you for this valuable lessons.I am new to your website.i found it really helpful.i read this recent topic idea and tried to answer it on a balanced view.kindly give your valuable feedback and bandscore. It is often considered by essay introduction some that growing trees in urban areas is more significant than constructing houses.While i often argue that planting trees in cities are essential to how do i turn my dissertation a book, protect the ecosystem ,i also believe that building houses are often crucial to meet the demands of the increasing population. On the disasters, one hand,i believe that planting trees in city areas is necessary due to several reasons.Firstly,trees and into green areas often provide peaceful environment to the inhabitants of the city which enhances both physical as well as mental health.Secondly,being plants releases oxygen which counteract against heavy pollution of the city thus provide better quality of engineering, life.Thirdly,planting trees reduces noise pollution as it could often drop the sound intensity.Finally,trees provide urban wildlife a better place to live in how do into a book, and play a better part in ecosystem of the city. On the other hand, I strongly believe that constructing houses is also significant as shelter is the basic requirement of human population.Moreover, urban space is essay on yourself for interview often limited therefore priority should be probably given to housing as to meet the fundamental demands of the increasing population.For instance ,China which is the world largest population of the world housing should have major priority rather than creating pleasant green areas and parks.In addition, without increase in housing, urban area is my dissertation unable to grow and develop which is essential in a world with increasing population. In conclusion,protecting the ambience as well as meeting the housing demands of on yourself for interview, city population is essential.Hence balanced approach is needed from the society as well as the individual both in planting trees and constructing houses in urban areas. These ideas are extremely valuable and helpful. Thank you for how do i turn sharing your ideas. in such clear and concise way. Current IELTS exam topics and questions: Share your IELTS test results.

Useful Links for IELTS Line Graphs in WT1. WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for September 2017. IELTS Writing Questions September 2017. Answer to yesterday’s paraphrasing exercise 3.

Hi, my name is Elizabeth (Liz). I'm an radio experienced IELTS teacher from the my dissertation, UK and radio waves research a graduate of the University of London. I have been teaching for over 16 years and for the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in IELTS. I have taught in a number of countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and into a book Vietnam, where I taught at the British Council.

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Sequence thinking vs. cluster thinking. Note: this is an unusually long and abstract post whose primary purpose is to help a particular subset of our audience understand our style of reasoning. It does not contain substantive updates on our research and recommendations. GiveWell – both our traditional work and GiveWell Labs – is fundamentally about maximization: doing as much good as possible with each dollar you donate. This introduces some major conceptual challenges when making certain kinds of comparisons – for example, how does one compare the impact of distributing bednets in how do i turn my dissertation a book sub-Saharan Africa with the impact of funding research on potential high-risk responses to climate change, attempts to promote better collaboration in the scientific community or working against abuse of animals on growing up in a third world country factory farms? Our approach to i turn a book, making such comparisons strikes some as highly counterintuitive, and irony, noticeably different from that of other “prioritization” projects such as Copenhagen Consensus. Rather than focusing on i turn into a book a single metric that all “good accomplished” can be converted into introduction (an approach that has obvious advantages when one’s goal is to maximize), we tend to how do my dissertation a book, rate options based on a variety of a third country essay, criteria using something somewhat closer to (while distinct from) a “1=poor, 5=excellent” scale, and how do i turn into a book, prioritize options that score well on multiple criteria. On Yourself For Interview? (For example, see our most recent top charities comparison.) We often take approaches that effectively limit the weight carried by any one criterion, even though, in theory, strong enough performance on my dissertation into a book an important enough dimension ought to be able to offset any amount of weakness on other dimensions. Relatedly, we look into a broad variety of causes, broader than can seemingly be justified by a consistent and stable set of values. Many others in the effective altruist community seem to have a strong and definite opinion on questions such as “how much animals suffer compared to essay, humans,” such that they either prioritize animal welfare above all else or dismiss it entirely. (Similar patterns apply to views on the moral significance of the far future.) By contrast, we give simultaneous serious consideration to reducing animal suffering, reducing risks of global catastrophic events, reforming U.S. intellectual property regulation, global health and nutrition and more, and think it’s quite likely that we’ll recommend giving opportunities in several of these areas, while never resolving the fundamental questions that could (theoretically) establish one such cause as clearly superior to the others.

I believe our approach is justified, and in order to explain why – consistent with the project of how do i turn, laying out the basic worldview and epistemology behind our research – I find myself continually returning to the distinction between what I call “sequence thinking” and “cluster thinking.” Very briefly (more elaboration below), Sequence thinking involves making a decision based on a single model of the world: breaking down the where can i buy a cheap paper, decision into how do i turn a book a set of key questions, taking one’s best guess on each question, and accepting the conclusion that is irony implied by i turn my dissertation, the set of best guesses (an excellent example of this sort of thinking is electronic Robin Hanson’s discussion of cryonics). I Turn? It has the form: “A, and B, and C … and N; therefore X.” Sequence thinking has the essay on yourself for interview, advantage of how do i turn my dissertation, making one’s assumptions and beliefs highly transparent, and as such it is often associated with finding ways to make counterintuitive comparisons. Cluster thinking – generally the more common kind of thinking – involves approaching a decision from multiple perspectives (which might also be called “mental models”), observing which decision would be implied by each perspective, and weighing the natural essay, perspectives in order to arrive at a final decision. Cluster thinking has the form: “Perspective 1 implies X; perspective 2 implies not-X; perspective 3 implies X; … therefore, weighing these different perspectives and how do i turn, taking into account how much uncertainty I have about each, X.” Each perspective might represent a relatively crude or limited pattern-match (e.g., “This plan seems similar to other plans that have had bad results”), or a highly complex model; the on yourself, different perspectives are combined by weighing their conclusions against each other, rather than by how do i turn my dissertation a book, constructing a single unified model that tries to account for all available information. A key difference with “sequence thinking” is the engineering, handling of certainty/robustness (by which I mean the opposite i turn my dissertation of Knightian uncertainty ) associated with each perspective. Perspectives associated with high uncertainty are in essay some sense “sandboxed” in cluster thinking: they are stopped from carrying strong weight in the final decision, even when such perspectives involve extreme claims (e.g., a low-certainty argument that “animal welfare is into 100,000x as promising a cause as global poverty” receives no more weight than if it were an argument that “animal welfare is 10x as promising a cause as global poverty”). Finally, cluster thinking is often (though not necessarily) associated with what I call “regression to up in essay, normality”: the stranger and more unusual the how do i turn into a book, action-relevant implications of a perspective, the higher the radio waves paper, bar for how do into, taking it seriously (“extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence”). I’ve tried to summarize the difference with the essay for interview, following diagram.

Variation in shape size represents variation in the “certainty/robustness” associated with different perspectives, which matters a great deal when weighing different perspectives against i turn my dissertation into a book each other for cluster thinking, but isn’t an inherent part of on yourself for interview, sequence thinking (it needs to how do i turn, be explicitly modeled by inserting beliefs such as “The expected value of waves paper, this action needs to be discounted by 90%”). I don’t believe that either style of thinking fully matches my best model of the “theoretically ideal” way to i turn into, combine beliefs (more below ); each can be seen as a more intellectually tractable approximation to natural disasters, this ideal. I believe that each style of i turn, thinking has advantages relative to the other. I see sequence thinking as being highly useful for idea generation, brainstorming, reflection, and discussion, due to the way in which it makes assumptions explicit, allows extreme factors to where can i cheap, carry extreme weight and generate surprising conclusions, and how do i turn my dissertation a book, resists “regression to waves research, normality.” However, I see cluster thinking as superior in its tendency to reach good conclusions about which action (from a given set of options) should be taken. I have argued the latter point before, using a semi-formal framework that some have found convincing, some believe has flaws, and how do i turn my dissertation, many have simply not engaged due to its high level of abstraction. In this post, I attempt a less formalized, more multidimensional, and hopefully more convincing (more “cluster-style”) defense. Following that, I lay out why I think sequence thinking is important and is probably more undersupplied on a global scale than cluster thinking, and discuss how I try to combine the two in my own decision-making. Separately from this post, I have also published a further attempt to formalize the can i cheap paper shredder, underlying picture of an idealized reasoning process. By its nature, cluster thinking is hard to i turn into, describe and model explicitly. With this post, I hope to reduce that problem by a small amount – to help people understand what is happening when I say things like “I see no problem with your reasoning, but I’m not placing much weight on it anyway” or “I think that factor could be a million times as important as the others, but I don’t want to give it 100x as much attention,” and what they can do to change my mind in such circumstances. (The general answer is to reduce the uncertainty associated with an argument, rather than simply demonstrating that no explicit flaws with the argument are apparent.) In the remainder of this post, I:

Elaborate on my definitions of natural essay introduction, sequence and my dissertation into, cluster thinking. More Give a variety of arguments for why one should expect cluster thinking to result in superior decisions. Irony Essay? More Briefly note and link to a new page (published alongside this post) that attempts to formalize, to some degree, the “idealized thought process” I’m envisioning and how it reproduces key properties of cluster thinking. More Lay out some reasons that I find sequence thinking valuable, even if one accepts that cluster thinking results in superior decisions, and defend the idea of switching between “sequence” and how do i turn my dissertation into a book, “cluster” styles for different purposes. I believe sequence thinking is superior not only for radio research, purposes of how do i turn my dissertation into a book, discussion and reflection (due to buy a paper, its transparency), but also for how do my dissertation a book, reaching the sort of deep understanding necessary for intellectual progress, and for generating novel insights that can become overwhelmingly important. More Briefly discuss why cluster thinking can be confusing and challenging to deal with in a discussion, and outline how one can model and respond to cluster-thinking-based arguments that are often perceived as “conversation stoppers.”More Close with a brief discussion of how I try to combine the two in my own thinking and actions. More. Before I continue, I wish to note that I make no claim to originality in othello essay the ideas advanced here.

There is substantial overlap with the concepts of foxes and hedgehogs (discussed by how do my dissertation, Philip Tetlock); with the model and combination and electronic engineering, adjustment idea described by Luke Muehlhauser; with former GiveWell employee Jonah Sinick’s concept of i turn my dissertation, many weak arguments vs. A Third World? one relatively strong argument (and his post on Knightian uncertainty from a Bayesian perspective); with former GiveWell employee Nick Beckstead’s concept of common sense as a prior; with Brian Tomasik’s thoughts on cost-effectiveness in an uncertain world; with Paul Christiano’s Beware Brittle Arguments post; and probably much more. Defining Sequence Thinking and how do i turn my dissertation, Cluster Thinking Say that we are choosing between two charities: Charity A vaccinates children against rotavirus, and Charity B does basic research aiming to improve the odds of eventual space colonization. Phd Thesis? Sequence thinking and cluster thinking handle this situation quite differently. Sequence thinking might look something like: Charity A spends $A per child vaccinated.

Each vaccination reduces the my dissertation, odds of natural disasters essay introduction, death by B%. (Both A and B can be grounded somewhat in how do my dissertation further analysis.) That leaves an introduction estimate of (B/A) lives saved per dollar. I will adjust this estimate down 50% to account for i turn my dissertation, the fact that costs may be understated and evidence may be overstated. For Interview? I will adjust it down another 50% to into, account for uncertainties about organizational competence. Charity B spends $C per where buy a cheap paper shredder year. How Do I Turn My Dissertation Into? My best guess is that it improves the odds that space colonization eventually occurs by D%. I value this outcome as the equivalent of E lives saved, based on my views about when space colonization is likely to occur, how many human lives would be possible in these case, and how I value these lives. Growing A Third World Essay? (C, D, and E can be grounded somewhat in further analysis.) That leaves an estimate of (D*E)/C) lives saved per dollar. How Do I Turn My Dissertation Into? I will adjust this estimate down 95% to account for othello essay, my high uncertainty in these speculative calculations. I will adjust it down another 75% to account for uncertainties about into organizational competence, which I think are greater for Charity B than Charity A; down another 80% to account for the fact that expert opinion seems to look more favorably on othello irony essay Charity A; and down another 95% to account for the fact that charities such as Charity A generally have a better track record as a class.

After all of these adjustments, Charity B comes out better, so I select that one. Cluster thinking might look something like: Explicit expected-value calculations [such as the above] imply quite a strikingly good cost-per-life-saved for Charity A, and I think the estimate isn’t terribly likely to be terribly mistaken. That’s a major point in favor of Charity A. I Turn A Book? Similar calculations imply good cost-per-life-saved for Charity B, but this is a much more uncertain estimate and phd thesis, I don’t put much weight on i turn my dissertation into it. The fact that Charity B comes out ahead even after trying to adjust for other factors is a point in phd thesis electronic favor of Charity B. In addition, Charity A seems like a better organization than Charity B, and expert opinion seems to favor Charity A, and organizations such as Charity A generally have a better track record as a class, and all of these are signals I have a fair amount of confidence in. Therefore, Charity A has more certainty-weighted factors in its favor than Charity B. Note that this distinction is not the same as the distinction between explicit expected value and holistic-intuition-based decision-making. Both of the thought processes above involve expected-value calculations; the two thought processes consider all the same factors; but they take different approaches to weighing them against each other.

Specifically: Sequence thinking considers each parameter independently and doesn’t do any form of “sandboxing.” So it is much easier for one very large number to how do i turn, dominate the entire calculation even after one makes adjustments for e.g. Disasters Essay Introduction? expert opinion and other “outside views” (such as the track record of the general class of organization). More generally, it seems easier to my dissertation a book, reach a conclusion that contradicts expert opinion and other outside views using this style. This style also seems more prone to zeroing in on disasters introduction a particular category of charity as most promising: for my dissertation a book, example, often one’s estimate of the value of space colonization will either be high enough to essay, dominate other considerations or low enough to make all space-colonization-related considerations minor, even after many other adjustments are made. The two have very different approaches to what some call Knightian uncertainty (also sometimes called “model uncertainty” or “unknown unknowns”): the my dissertation a book, possibility that one’s model of the world is making fundamental mistakes and phd thesis electronic engineering, missing key parameters entirely. How Do I Turn? Cluster thinking uses several models of the world in parallel (e.g., “Expert opinion is irony correct”, “The track record of the general class of an how do my dissertation into organization predicts its success”, etc.) and limits the for interview, weight each can carry based on how do robustness (by which I mean the opposite on yourself for interview of Knightian uncertainty: the i turn into a book, feeling that a model is waves research paper robust and unlikely to be missing key parameters); any chain of how do my dissertation into a book, reasoning involving high uncertainty is essentially disallowed from phd thesis electronic engineering, making too much difference to the final decision, regardless of the i turn my dissertation into, magnitude of effect it points to. Phd Thesis Electronic Engineering? Sequence thinking involves the into, use of a single unified framework for decision analysis and by default it treats “50% probability that a coin comes up heads” and “50% probability that Charity B will fail for a reason I’m not anticipating” in fundamentally the same way. When it does account for uncertainty, it’s generally by adjusting particular parameters (for example, increasing “0.00001% chance of irony essay, a problematic error” to “1% chance of a problematic error” based on the chance that one’s calculations are wrong); after such an how do a book adjustment, it uses the “highly uncertain probabilities adjusted for uncertainty” just as it would use “well-defined probabilities,” and world, does not disallow the final calculation from carrying a lot of weight.

Robustness and uncertainty. For the remainder of this piece, I will use the term robustness to refer to i turn my dissertation into a book, the “confidence/robustness” concept discussed immediately above (and “uncertainty” to refer to its opposite). I’m aware that I haven’t defined the term with much precision, and I think there is substantial room for sharpening its definition. One clarification I would like to make is essay for interview that robustness is not the same as precision/quantifiability; instead, it is intended to capture something like “odds that my view would remain stable on this point if I were to gain more information, more perspectives, more intelligence, etc.” or “odds that the i turn my dissertation a book, conclusion of this particular mental model would remain qualitatively similar if the model were improved.” Regression to normality. A final important concept, which I believe is loosely though not necessarily related, is that of regression to normality : the stranger and more unusual the implications of an argument, the more “robustness” the phd thesis, supporting arguments need to have in order for i turn into a book, it to be taken seriously. One way to model this concept is to consider “Conventional wisdom is on yourself correct and what seems normal is good” to be one of the how do into a book, “perspectives” or “mental models” weighed in waves paper parallel with others. How Do I Turn Into A Book? This concept can potentially be modeled in sequence thinking as well, but in practice does not seem to can i cheap paper shredder, be a common part of sequence thinking. A couple more clarifications. Note that sequence thinking and into, cluster thinking converge in the case where one can do an expected-value calculation with sufficiently high robustness. Essay On Yourself For Interview? “Outside view” arguments inherently involve a substantial degree of uncertainty (there are plenty of examples of expert opinion being wrong, of longstanding historical trends suddenly ending, etc.) so a robust enough expected-value calculation will carry the decision in both frameworks.

Note also that cluster thinking does not convert “uncertain, speculative probabilities” automatically into how do into a book “very low probabilities.” Rather, it de-weights the conclusions of electronic, perspectives that overall contain a great deal of my dissertation into, cumulative uncertainty, so that no matter what conclusion such perspectives reach, the conclusion is not allowed to have much influence on one’s actions. Summary of disasters, properties of sequence thinking and cluster thinking. X; C implies X; … therefore X”) Why Cluster Thinking? When trying to compare two very different options (such as vaccinations and i turn, space colonization), it seems at on yourself for interview, first glance as though sequence thinking is superior, precisely because it allows huge numbers to carry huge weight. The practice of how do my dissertation into a book, limiting the weight of uncertain perspectives can have strange-seeming results such as (depending on robustness considerations) giving equal weight to “Charity A seems like the better organization” and phd thesis electronic engineering, “Charity B’s goal is 200 billion times as important.” In addition, I find cluster thinking far more difficult to formalize and i turn my dissertation, describe, which can further lower its appeal in public debates about where to cheap, give. Below, I give several arguments for expecting cluster thinking to produce better decisions. It is important to note that I emphasize “better decisions” and not “correct beliefs”: it is often the case that one reaches a decision using cluster thinking without determining one’s beliefs about anything (other than what decision ought to how do into a book, be made). In the example given in the previous section, cluster thinking has not reached a defined conclusion on how likely space colonization is, how valuable space colonization would be, etc. and natural disasters introduction, there are many possible combinations of these beliefs that could be consistent with its conclusion that supporting Charity A is superior. Cluster thinking often ends up placing high weight on “outside view” pattern-matching, and often leads to conclusions of the form “I think we should do X, but I can’t say exactly why, and some of the most likely positive outcomes of this action may be outcomes I haven’t explicitly thought of.” The arguments I give below are, to some degree, made using different vocabularies and different styles.

There is some conceptual overlap between the different arguments, and some of the how do i turn my dissertation into, arguments may be partly equivalent to growing up in a third world country, each other. I have previously tried to use sequence-thinking-style arguments to defend something similar to cluster thinking (though there were shortcomings in how do a book the way I did so); here I use cluster-thinking-style arguments. Sequence thinking is essay on yourself prone to i turn my dissertation into a book, reaching badly wrong conclusions based on a single missing, or poorly estimated, parameter. Sequence-style reasoning often involves a long chain of propositions that all need to waves, be reasonable for the conclusion to hold. As an example, Robin Hanson lays out 10 propositions that cumulatively imply a decision to sign up for how do into, cryonics, and irony, believes each to have probability 50-80%. How Do My Dissertation A Book? However, if even a single one ought to have been assigned a much lower probability (e.g., 10^-5) – or if he’s simply failed to think of a missing condition that has low probability – the radio waves research paper, calculation is completely off. In general, missing parameters and overestimated probabilities will lead to how do i turn my dissertation a book, overestimating the likelihood that actions play out as hoped, and world essay, thus overestimating the desirability of how do into, deviating from “tried and where buy a paper shredder, true” behavior and behavior backed by outside views. Into A Book? Correcting for missed parameters and phd thesis electronic, overestimated probabilities will be more likely to cause “regression to normality” (and to how do my dissertation a book, the predictions of other “outside views”) than the essay for interview, reverse. Cluster thinking is more similar to empirically effective prediction methods.

Sequence thinking presumes a particular framework for thinking about the how do my dissertation a book, consequences of one’s actions. It may incorporate many considerations, but all are translated into a single language, a single mental model, and in some sense a single “formula.” I believe this is at odds with how successful prediction systems operate, whether in finance, software, or domains such as political forecasting; such systems generally combine the othello irony essay, predictions of multiple models in how do my dissertation ways that purposefully avoid letting any one model (especially a low-certainty one) carry too much weight when it contradicts the irony, others. On this point, I find Nate Silver’s discussion of my dissertation into, his own system and the relationship to the work of Philip Tetlock (and the related concept of foxes vs. hedgehogs) germane: Even though foxes, myself included, aren’t really a conformist lot, we get worried anytime our forecasts differ radically from those being produced by growing a third country essay, our competitors. Quite a lot of evidence suggests that aggregate or group forecasts are more accurate than individual ones … “Foxes often manage to do inside their heads what you’d do with a whole group of how do my dissertation, hedgehogs,” Tetlock told me. Essay On Yourself? What he means is that foxes have developed an how do i turn my dissertation ability to emulate this consensus process. Instead of asking question of a whole group of experts, they are constantly asking questions of natural disasters essay introduction, themselves. Often this implies that they will aggregate different types of information together – as a group of people with different ideas about the how do into a book, world naturally would – instead of treating any one piece of introduction, evidence as though it is the Holy Grail.

The Signal and the Noise, pg 66. In sequence thinking, a single large enough number can dominate the entire calculation. I Turn My Dissertation? In consensus decision making, a person claiming radically larger significance for a particular piece of the picture would likely be dismissed rather than given special weight; in a quantitative prediction system, a component whose conclusion differed from others’ by a factor of 10^10 would be likely to be the result of a coding error, rather than a consideration that was actually 10^10 times as important as the others. This comes back to the points made by where buy a, the above two sections: cluster thinking can be superior for my dissertation a book, its tendency to buy a cheap, sandbox or down-weight, rather than linearly up-weight, the how do i turn my dissertation, models with the most extreme and deviant conclusions. A cluster-thinking-style “regression to essay on yourself for interview, normality” seems to prevent some obviously problematic behavior relating to knowably impaired judgment. One thought experiment that I think illustrates some of the advantages of cluster thinking, and especially cluster thinking that incorporates regression to normality, is imagining that one is clearly and knowably impaired at my dissertation a book, the moment (for example, drunk), and contemplating a chain of reasoning that suggests high expected value for some unusual and extreme action (such as jumping from a height). A similar case is that of a young child contemplating such a chain of reasoning. In both cases, it seems that the person in question should recognize their own elevated fallibility and take special precautions to avoid deviating from “normal” behavior, in a way that cluster thinking seems much more easily able to accommodate (by setting an absolute limit to the weight carried by an uncertain argument, such that regression to normality can override it no matter what its content) than sequence thinking (in which any “adjustments” are guessed at using the same fallible thought process). The higher one’s opinion of othello irony essay, one’s own rationality relative to other people, the less appropriate the above analogy becomes. But it can be easy to overestimate one’s own rationality relative to other people (particularly when one’s evidence comes from analyzing people’s statements rather than e.g. their success at how do i turn a book, achieving their goals), and some component of “If I’m contemplating a strange and potentially highly consequential action, I should be wary and natural, seek robustness (not just magnitude) in my justification” seems appropriate for nearly everyone. Sequence thinking seems to tend toward excessive comfort with “ends justify the means” type thinking.

Various historical cases of violent fanaticism seem somewhat fairly modeled as sequence thinking gone awry: letting one’s decisions become dominated by a single overriding concern, which then justifies actions that strongly violate many other principles. How Do? (For example, justifying extremely damaging activities based on Marxist reasoning.) Cluster thinking is far from radio research paper, a complete defense against such things: the robustness of a perspective (e.g., a Marxist perspective) can itself be overestimated, and furthermore a “regression to how do, normality” can encourage conformism with highly problematic beliefs. However, the basic structure of cluster thinking does set up more hurdles for growing a third world, arguments about “the ends” (large-magnitude but speculative down-the-line outcomes) to justify “the means” (actions whose consequences are nearer and clearer). I believe that invoking “the ends justify the means” (justifying near and clear harms by pointing to their further-out effects) is sometimes the right thing to do, and how do my dissertation, is sometimes not. Specifically, I think that the worse the “means,” the more robust (and not just large in claimed magnitude) one’s case for “the ends” ought to be. Cluster thinking seems to accommodate this view more naturally than sequence thinking. When uncertainty is high, “unknown unknowns” can dominate the electronic, impacts of into a book, our actions, and cluster thinking may be better suited to optimizing “unknown unknown” impacts.

Sequence thinking seems, by its nature, to rely on listing the possible outcomes of an action and for interview, evaluating the action according to its probability of achieving these outcomes. I find sequence thinking especially problematic when I specifically expect the unexpected, i.e., when I expect the outcome of an action to depend primarily on factors that haven’t occurred to me. And I believe that the sort of my dissertation, outside views that tend to get more weight in cluster thinking are often good predictors of “unknown unknowns.” For example, obeying common-sense morality (“ends don’t justify the means”) heuristics seems often to introduction, lead to unexpected good outcomes, and contradicting such morality seems often to lead to unexpected bad outcomes. My Dissertation? As another example, expert opinion often seems a strong predictor of “which way the arguments I haven’t thought of yet will point.” It’s hard to formalize “expecting unknown unknowns to be the where can i cheap shredder, main impact of one’s action” in a helpful way within sequence thinking, but it’s a fairly common situation. In particular, when it comes to donations and other altruistic actions, I expect the bulk of the impact to come from unknown unknown factors including flow-through effects. Broad market efficiency. Another way of i turn my dissertation, thinking about the case for cluster thinking is to consider the dynamics of broad market efficiency. Waves? As I stated in how do my dissertation a book that post:

the more efficient a particular market is, the higher the on yourself, level of intensity and intelligence around finding good opportunities, and therefore the how do i turn my dissertation, more intelligent and essay on yourself, dedicated one will need to be in my dissertation order to consistently “beat the market.” The most efficient markets can be consistently beaten only by the most talented/dedicated players, while the least efficient ones can be beaten with fairly little in the way of talent and dedication. When one is considering a topic or action that one knows little about, one should consider the broad market to be highly efficient; therefore, any deviations from the status quo that one’s reasoning calls for are unlikely to be good ideas, regardless of the magnitude of benefit that one’s reasoning ascribes to them. (An amateur stock trader should generally assume his or her opinions about stocks to growing a third country essay, be ill-founded and to how do my dissertation a book, have zero expected value, regardless of radio waves research, how strong the “inside view” argument seems.) By contrast, when one is considering a topic or action that one is relatively well-informed and how do i turn my dissertation into, intelligent about, contradicting “market pricing” is not as much of a concern. This is a special case of “as robustness falls, the potential weight carried by an argument diminishes – no matter what magnitudes it claims – and regression to normality becomes the stronger consideration.” Sequence thinking seems to over-encourage “exploiting” as opposed to “exploring” one’s best guesses. I expect this argument to othello irony essay, be least compelling to most people, largely because it is how do a book difficult for me to draw convincing causality lines and give convincing examples, but to me it is on yourself for interview a real argument in favor of cluster thinking. It seems to me that people who rely heavily on sequence thinking have a tendency to arrive at i turn my dissertation, a “best guess” as to what cause/charity/etc. Othello Essay? ought to be prioritized, and to focus on into taking the actions that are implied by their best guess (“exploiting”) rather than on actions likely to lead to growing a third world country, rethinking their best guess (“exploring”). How Do Into? I would guess that this is because: To the extent that sequence thinking highlights opportunities for learning, it tends to focus on a small number of research paper, parameters that dominate the model, and these parameters are often the least tractable in terms of learning more (for example, the value of i turn my dissertation a book, space colonization). It thus seems often to encourage continued debate on largely intractable topics. Growing A Third World Essay? Cluster thinking highlights many consequential areas of uncertainty and promises returns to clearing up any of them, leading to more traction on my dissertation a book learning and more reduction in “unknown unknowns” over time.

Sequence thinking has a tendency to make different options seem to differ more in value, while cluster thinking tends to make it appear as though any high-uncertainty decision is a “close one” that can be modified with more learning. Radio Paper? I believe the latter tends to be a more helpful picture. Cluster thinking tends to a book, have heavier penalties for uncertainty, due to its feature of not allowing the disasters essay, magnitude of a model parameter to overwhelm adjustments for uncertainty. When people are promoting speculative arguments, having to contend with and i turn a book, persuade “cluster thinkers” seems to cause them to do more investigation, do more improving of their arguments, and generally do more to increase the robustness of their claims. In the domains GiveWell focuses on, it seems that learning more over time is paramount. We feel that much of the effective altruist community tends to be quicker than we are to dismiss large areas as unworthy of exploration and to phd thesis engineering, focus in on a few areas. Formal framework reproducing key qualities of how do i turn into a book, cluster thinking. Cluster thinking, despite its seeming inelegance, is in phd thesis electronic some ways a closer match to what I see as the how do into, “idealized” thought process than sequence thinking is.

On a separate page, I have attempted to provide a formal framework describing this “idealized” thought process as I see it, and how this framework deals with extreme uncertainty of the kind we often encounter in making decisions about where to give. According to this framework, formally combining different mental models of the world has a tendency to cap the decision-relevance of highly uncertain lines of reasoning – the on yourself, same tendency that distinguishes cluster thinking from sequence thinking. For more, see my full writeup on this framework, which I have confined to another page because it is long and how do i turn, highly abstract. Advantages of sequence thinking Despite the above considerations, I believe it is extremely valuable to engage in sequence thinking. In fact, my sense is that the world needs more sequence thinking, more than it needs more cluster thinking. While I believe that cluster thinking is more prone to making the correct decision between different possible (pre-specified) actions, I believe that sequence thinking has other benefits to where can i buy a cheap paper, offer when used appropriately. To be clear, in this section when I say “engaging in sequence thinking” I mean “working on generating and improving chains of reasoning along the lines of explicit expected-value calculations,” or more generally, “Trying to capture as many relevant considerations as possible in how do i turn my dissertation a book a single unified model of the world.” Cluster thinking includes giving some consideration and weight to the outcomes of such exercises, but does not include generating them.

Many of the advantages I name have to do with the tendency of sequence thinking to radio research paper, underweight, or ignore, “outside views” and crude pattern-matches such as historical patterns and expert opinion, as well as “regression to normality”; sequence thinking can make adjustments for such things, but I generally find its method for a book, doing so unsatisfactory, and feel that its greatest strengths come when it does not involve such adjustments. Sequence thinking can generate robust conclusions that then inform cluster thinking. There are times when a long chain of reasoning can be constructed that has relatively little uncertainty involved (it may involve many probabilistic calculations, but these probabilities are well-understood and the overall model is growing a third country essay robust). The extreme case of this is in how do into some science and engineering applications, when sequence thinking is on yourself all that is needed to reach the right conclusion (I might say cluster thinking “reduces to” sequence thinking in these cases, since the sequence-thinking perspective is so much more robust than all other available perspectives). A less extreme case is how do i turn when someone simply puts a great deal of work into doing as much reflection and radio research, investigation as they can of the parameters in their model, to the point where they can reasonably be assumed to have relatively little left to learn in a book the short to medium term. People who have reached such status have, in my opinion, good reason to assign much less uncertainty to phd thesis electronic, their sequence-thinking-generated views and to place much more weight on their conclusions. (Still, even these people should often assign a substantial amount of uncertainty to their views.)

There are many times when I have underestimated the weight I ought to place on a sequence-thinking argument because I underestimated how much work had gone into investigating and reflecting on i turn my dissertation its parameters. For Interview? I have been initially resistant to i turn my dissertation, many ideas that I now regard as extremely important, such as the greater cost-effectiveness of developing-world as opposed to developed-world aid, the potential gains to labor mobility, and views of “long-term future” effective altruists on the most worrying global catastrophic risks, all of which appeared to me at first to growing a third country, be based on naive chains of how do my dissertation into, logic but which I now believe to have been more thoroughly researched – and to have less uncertainty around key parameters – than I had thought. Sequence thinking is growing up in a third world country essay more favorable to generating creative, unconventional, and nonconformist ideas. I often feel that people in the effective altruist community do too little regression to normality, but I believe that most people in the world do far too much. Into? Any thinking style that provides a “regression to normality”-independent way of essay introduction, reaching hypotheses has major advantages. Sequence thinking provides a way of my dissertation into a book, seeing where a chain of electronic engineering, reasoning goes when historical observations, conventional wisdom, expert opinion and how do into a book, other “outside views” are suspended. As such, it can generate the kind of ideas that challenge long-held assumptions and move knowledge forward (the cases I list in the immediately previous section are some smaller-scale examples; many scientific breakthroughs seem to fit in this category as well).

Sequence thinking is also generally an phd thesis important component in the formation of how do i turn my dissertation into a book, expert opinion (more below), which is for interview usually a major input into i turn my dissertation into cluster thinking. Sequence thinking is better-suited to essay, transparency, discussion and reflection. I generally find it very hard to formalize and explain what “outside views” I am bringing to a decision, how I am weighing them against each other, and why I have the level of certainty I do in each view. Many of my outside views consist of i turn my dissertation into a book, heuristics (i.e., “actions fitting pattern X don’t turn out well”) that come partly from personal experiences and observations that are difficult to introspect on, and even more difficult to share in ways that others would be able to comprehend and informedly critique them. Sequence thinking tends to consist of breaking a decision down along lines that are well-suited to essay, communication, often in how do my dissertation terms of a chain of causality (e.g., “This action will lead to A, which will lead to B, which will lead to outcome-of-interest C if D and E are also true”). This approach can be clumsy at accommodating certain outside views that don’t necessarily apply to engineering, a particular sub-prediction (for example, many heuristics are of the i turn my dissertation into, form “actions fitting pattern X don’t turn out essay on yourself for interview well for reasons that are hard to visualize in advance”).

However, sequence thinking usually results in a chain of reasoning that can be explicitly laid out, reflected on, and how do my dissertation into, discussed. Consistent with this, I think the irony essay, cost-effectiveness analysis we’ve done of top charities has probably added more value in terms of “causing us to reflect on how do i turn my dissertation a book our views, clarify our views and debate our views, thereby highlighting new key questions” than in terms of “marking some top charities as more cost-effective than others.” I have often been pushed, by radio, people who heavily favor sequence thinking, to put more work into clarifying my own views, and I’ve rarely regretted doing so. Sequence thinking can lead to deeper understanding. Partly because it is better-suited to a book, explicit discussion and growing up in a third world country, reflection, and partly because it tends to focus on i turn my dissertation chains of causality without deep integration of poorly-understood but empirically observed “outside view” patterns, sequence thinking often seems necessary in order to understand a particular issue very deeply. Understanding an on yourself for interview issue deeply, to my dissertation a book, me, includes (a) being able to make good predictions in radically unfamiliar contexts (thus, not relying on “outside views” that are based on natural disasters introduction patterns from how do my dissertation into a book, familiar contexts); (b) matching and surpassing the knowledge of other people, to the point where “broad market efficiency” can be more readily dismissed. In my view, people who rely heavily on sequence thinking often seem to have inferior understanding of subjects they aren’t familiar with, and to phd thesis electronic engineering, ask naive questions, but as their familiarity increases they eventually reach greater depth of understanding; by contrast, cluster-thinking-reliant people often have reasonable beliefs even when knowing little about a topic, but don’t improve nearly as much with more study. At GiveWell, we often use a great deal of sequence thinking when exploring a topic (less so when coming to a final recommendation), and often feel the need to apologize in advance to how do i turn into a book, the people we interview for asking naive-seeming questions. In order to reap this benefit of sequence thinking, one must do a good job stress-testing and challenging one’s understanding, rather than being content with it as it is.

This is where the “incentives to investigate” provided by cluster thinking can be crucial, and this is radio research why (as discussed below) my ideal is to how do into a book, switch between the two modes. Sequence thinking can be a good antidote to scope insensitivity, since it translates different factors into a single framework in a third which they can be weighed against each other. I do not believe scope insensitivity is the only, or most important, danger in making giving decisions, but I do find sequence thinking extremely valuable in correcting for it. Many seem to a book, believe that sequence thinking is less prone to various other cognitive biases, and in general that it represents an antidote to the risks of using “intuition” or “system 1.” I am unsure of world essay, how legitimate this view is. When making decisions with high levels of i turn into a book, uncertainty involved, sequence thinking is (like cluster thinking) dominated by intuition. Many of the most important parameters in one’s model or expected-value calculation must be guessed at, and it often seems possible to essay for interview, reach whatever conclusion one wishes. Sequence thinking often encourages one to implicitly trust one’s intuitions about difficult-to-intuit parameters (e.g., “value of space colonization”) rather than trusting one’s more holistic intuitions about the choice being made – not necessarily an improvement, in my view. Cluster thinking and argumentation I’ve argued that cluster thinking is generally superior for reaching good conclusions, but harder to describe and i turn into a book, model explicitly.

While I believe transparency of thought is useful and important, it should not be confused with rationality of research, thought. I’ve sometimes observed an intelligent cluster thinker, when asked why s/he believes something, give a single rather unconvincing “outside view” related reason. My Dissertation? I’ve suspected, in some such cases, that the disasters introduction, person is actually processing a large number of different “outside views” in a way that is difficult to how do i turn into, introspect on, and being unable to cite the full set of perspectives with weights, returns a single perspective with relatively (but not absolutely) high weight. I believe this dynamic sometimes leads sequence thinkers to underestimate cluster thinkers. One of my hopes for phd thesis electronic, this piece is to help people better understand cluster thinking, and in particular, how one can continue to make progress in a discussion even after a seemingly argument-stopping comment like “I see no problem with your reasoning, but I’m not placing much weight on it anyway” is made. In such a situation, it is important to ask not just whether there are explicit problems with one’s argument, but how much uncertainty there is in one’s argument (even if such uncertainty doesn’t clearly skew the calculation in one direction or another) and whether other arguments, using substantially different mental models, give the how do into, same conclusion. When engaging with cluster thinking, improving one’s justification of a probability or other parameter – even if it has already been agreed to by both parties as a “best guess” – has value; citing unrelated heuristics and patterns has value as well. To give an essay example, many people are aware of the basic argument that donations can do more good when targeting the how do my dissertation a book, developing-world poor rather than the disasters essay introduction, developed-world poor: the developing-world poor have substantially worse incomes and how do into a book, living conditions, and the interventions charities carry out are commonly claimed to growing a third, be substantially cheaper on per-person or per-life-saved basis. However, many (including myself) take these arguments more seriously on learning things like “people I respect mostly agree with this conclusion”; “developing-world charities’ activities are generally more robustly evidence-supported, in addition to cheaper”; “thorough, skeptical versions of how do i turn my dissertation into, ‘cost per for interview life saved’ estimates are worse than the figures touted by charities, but still impressive”; “differences in wealth are so pronounced that “hunger” is defined completely differently for the U.S. vs. My Dissertation Into? developing countries“; “aid agencies were behind undisputed major achievements such as the eradication of smallpox”; etc. The function of paper, such findings isn’t necessarily to how do my dissertation, address specific objections to phd thesis engineering, the basic argument, but rather to my dissertation into, put its claims on more solid footing – to improve the robustness of the disasters, argument. The balance I try to strike As implied above, I believe sequence thinking is valuable for idea generation, reflection and discussion, while cluster thinking is best for making the final choice between options.

I try to use the two types of thinking accordingly. GiveWell often puts a great deal of work into understanding the causal chain of a charity’s activities, estimating the “cost per life saved,” etc., while ultimately being willing to accept some missing links and place limited weight on these things when it comes to i turn into, final recommendations. However, there are also times in which I let sequence thinking dominate my decisions (not just my investigations), for the following reasons. One of the buy a cheap, great strengths of how do i turn into, sequence thinking is its ability to generate ideas that contradict conventional wisdom and easily observable patterns, yet have some compelling logic of their own. For brevity, I will call these “novel ideas” (though a key aspect of irony essay, such ideas is that they are not just “different” but also “promising”). I believe that novel ideas are usually flawed, but often contain some important insight. Because the value of new ideas is high, promoting novel ideas – in a way that is likely to how do i turn into, lead to stress-testing them, refining them, and ultimately bringing about more widespread recognition of disasters introduction, their positive aspects – has significant positive expected value. At the same time, a given novel idea is unlikely to be valid in its current form, and quietly acting on it (when not connected to “promoting” it in the marketplace of ideas, leading to its refinement and/or widespread adoption) may have negative expected value. One example of this “novel ideas” dynamic is the charities recommended by GiveWell in 2006 or 2007: GiveWell at that time had a philosophy and how do, methodology with important advantages over other resources, but it was also in a relatively primitive form and natural essay introduction, needed a great deal of work. How Do Into? Supporting GiveWell’s recommendations of that time – in a way that could be attributed to essay, GiveWell – led to my dissertation, increasing attention and influence for GiveWell, which was evolving quickly and becoming a more sophisticated and influential resource. However, if not for GiveWell’s ongoing evolution, supporting its recommended charities would not have had the radio research paper, sort of expected value that it naively appeared to how do into, (according to our over-optimistic “cost per life saved” figures of the time). Phd Thesis? (Note that this paragraph is intended to give an example of the “novel ideas” dynamic I described, but does not fit the themes of the post otherwise.

Our recommendations weren’t purely a product of sequence thinking but rather of a combination of sequence and cluster thinking.) For me, a basic rule of thumb is that it’s worth making some degree of how do i turn my dissertation a book, bet on growing a third novel ideas, even when the ideas are likely flawed, when it’s the kind of bet that (a) facilitates the stress-testing, refinement, and growing influence of these ideas; (b) does not interfere with other, more promising bets on how do i turn into a book other novel ideas. Where? So it makes sense to start, run, or support an my dissertation organization based on a promising but (because dependent on sequence thinking, and in tension with various outside views) likely flawed idea … if (a) the organization is well-suited to waves paper, learning, refining, and stress-testing its ideas and growing its influence over time; (b) starting or supporting the organization does not interfere with one’s support of other, more promising novel ideas. It makes sense to do so even when cluster thinking suggests that the how do i turn my dissertation into a book, novel idea’s conclusions are incorrect, to the extent that quite literal endorsement of the novel idea would be “wrong.” When we started GiveWell, I believed that we were likely wrong about many of the things that seemed to us from an inside, sequence-thinking view to be true, but that it was worth acting on these things anyway, because of the above dynamic. (I am referring more to our theories about buy a shredder how we could influence donors and have impact than to how do my dissertation, our theories about which charities were best, which we tried to essay on yourself for interview, make as robust as we could, while realizing that they were still quite uncertain.) We believed we were onto some underappreciated truth, but that we didn’t yet know what it was, and were “provisionally accepting” our own novel ideas because we could afford to do so without jeopardizing our overall careers and because they seemed to how do i turn, be the research, novel ideas most worth making this sort of bet on. We expected our ideas to evolve, and how do i turn my dissertation a book, rather than taking them as true we tried to stress-test them by examining as many different angles as we could (for example, visiting a recommended charity’s work in the field even though we couldn’t say in advance which aspect of our views this would affect).

There were other novel ideas that we found interesting as well, but incorporating them too deeply into phd thesis electronic our work (or personal lives) would have interfered with our ability to participate in this dynamic. The above line of argument justifies behavior that can seem otherwise strange and into, self-contradictory. For example, it can justify advocating and acting to some degree on a novel idea, while not living one’s life fully consistently with this idea (e.g., working to promote Peter Singer’s ideas about the case for giving more generously, while not actually giving as much as his ideas would literally imply one should). When considering possible actions including “avoiding factory-farmed meat,” “giving to the most apparently cost-effective charity,” etc., I am always asking not only “Does this idea seem valid to me?” but “Am I acting on this idea in engineering a way that promotes it and facilitates its evolution, and does not interfere with my promotion of how do a book, other more promising ideas?” As such, I tend to change my own behavior enough to reap a good portion of the benefits of supporting/promoting an othello irony idea but not as much as literal acceptance of the idea would imply. How Do My Dissertation Into? I have a baseline level of stability and conservatism in the way I live my life, which my bets on novel ideas are layered on top of in where cheap a way that fits well within my risk tolerance. Promoting a sequence-thinking-based idea in a cluster-thinking-based world leads to how do i turn a book, examining the where can i cheap paper, idea from many angles, looking for many unrelated (or minimally related) arguments in its favor, and how do my dissertation a book, generally working toward positive evolution of the idea. Disasters? The ideal, from my dissertation a book, my perspective, is to use cluster thinking to growing up in a third world country essay, evaluate the ultimate likely validity of ideas, while retaining one’s ability to how do my dissertation into, (without undue risk) promote and get excited about sequence-thinking-generated ideas that may eventually change the world. For one with few resources for idea promotion and exploration, this may mean picking a very small number of bets. For one who expects to influence substantial resources – as GiveWell currently does – it is rational to simultaneously support/promote work in up in a third world essay multiple different causes, each of i turn into, which could be promising under certain assumptions and parameters (regarding how much value we should estimate in the far future, how much suffering we should ascribe to animals, etc.), even if the radio waves, assumptions and parameters that would support one cause contradict those that would support another.

When choosing between causes to support, cluster thinking – rather than choosing one’s best-guess for each parameter and going from how do i turn into, there – is called for. Thanks for the excellent post! How do you incorporate specific and confident “adjustments” into your cluster thinking process, such as the Synsepalum dulcificum example I gave in Model combination and adjustment? Great post, I expect it will be referenced often in the future. I think getting results extremely favoring one cause or intervention by many orders of magnitude in expected value often isn’t so much a problem with sequential thinking, as of only radio waves paper, exploring the maximum potential gains for some causes but not others.

For example, if one thinks that political activity is how do my dissertation a book generally more leveraged than paying for direct interventions, then evaluating cause A against growing up in a third country essay cause B with the assumption that cause A interventions will be political but cause B interventions won’t can distort. How Do My Dissertation? Similarly, attending to impact on othello irony essay future generations when assessing cause X but not cause Y can produce a big skew. But if one factors out how do such common influences and can i paper shredder, makes the maximalist case for plausible top picks in EV terms they won’t be ten orders of magnitude apart (in absolute value, at least, they may differ in expected sign). Then one can apply all sorts of i turn my dissertation into a book, particular arguments and lines of evidence to weight those cases for high value against one another. There’s also the general problem of people not flagging whether they are talking about values within a model or all-things considered (perhaps because of confusion themselves, perhaps to avoid distraction in a piece, perhaps for rhetoric). I think sequence thinking is perhaps a bit more efficient. How do factor graphs fit into where can i buy a cheap paper shredder either the sequence or cluster thinking paradigms? “I’ve suspected, in some such cases, that the person is actually processing a large number of different “outside views” in a way that is difficult to introspect on, and being unable to how do i turn my dissertation into, cite the full set of perspectives with weights, returns a single perspective with relatively (but not absolutely) high weight.” I like this point.

But it also looks very similar to rationalisation, where the response to having one argument refuted is to simply raise a new one, regardless of how important each was in for interview forming the original conclusion. Do you have any feeling for how to recognise the difference between rationalisation and sophisticated assimilation of perspectives in your own mind, or how to detect interact with it in others? Thanks for the comments, all. Luke: the sort of “adjustment” you describe could be integrated into existing models (“I usually like Thai food, though these aren’t usual circumstances”) and/or represented as its own model (“I expect miraculin to change my tastes, and I’m quite confident in this, enough to outweigh the how do i turn my dissertation a book, predictions of other models”). Or it could be integrated using a different process entirely; I meant this post to contrast two simplified models of radio waves research, thinking rather than to propose any particular “complete” formula for reaching decisions. Carl : I agree that the method you suggest for comparing causes (e.g., making sure to include the how do i turn my dissertation a book, maximalist case for all possibilities) will lead to a degree of world, convergence, but I think it’s hard to say just how much convergence. A sequence thinking framework often requires that one make extremely uncertain guesses regarding, e.g., the flow-through effects of bednets or the probability of how do i turn a book, existential risk aversion, and for interview, variation in such guesses alone (even within the range of defensibility) can overwhelm other important factors in the final estimate (perhaps not by i turn into, ten orders of magnitude, but by essay, enough to i turn, cause high sensitivity to these guesses). I also think it’s worth noting that a “cluster thinking” style led me to be skeptical of essay on yourself, various claims about massive differences even before arguments about flow-through effects were on how do i turn my dissertation into my radar. Where Cheap Paper Shredder? I think cluster thinking often helps one reach reasonable conclusions without having to how do i turn my dissertation into, get as many things right (compared to on yourself, sequence thinking); it allows more margin for error. Michael Miller: my feeling is a book that cluster thinking is generally more efficient, in the sense of reaching reasonable conclusions with less effort/time/mental resources. Radio? Good sequence thinking requires building a careful model of the world, and i turn into, taking great care not to get any particular piece badly wrong or omit a major consideration.

It also tends to involve high-stakes guesses about uncertain parameters. Cluster thinking tends to be less sensitive to any one parameter, so it requires less precision, especially when a large number of perspectives are integrated. Note that the two are not distinguished by shredder, what information they use but by how they weigh different considerations against how do i turn into a book each other; I think “find which way each consideration points and limit the weight of the more uncertain ones” tends to be easier than “figure out how to integrate each consideration within a unified model.” Possibly for these reasons, cluster thinking seems to waves research paper, me to how do i turn my dissertation into, be more common, especially among those who have limited time to think things through. I’m not familiar with factor graphs, so can’t answer your other question. Helen Toner: the up in a third, main thing I’d say is that detecting the difference between a justified “cluster-style” view and an unjustified, rationalized view is often not easy. I often mistake one for the other, in how do both directions. I’d like to see sequence thinkers recognize this difficulty more and be slower to where can i buy a paper shredder, jump to the conclusion that a particular person’s position is not worth considering, especially when there are other reasons to believe that person is credible.

I usually require a lot of thought and information to decide one way or the other, and in the meantime I put an intermediate amount of weight on the person in question’s view. Great post! This dyad of reasoning styles seems to show up in many domains, including artificial intelligence ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neats_vs._scruffies ), economics (central planning vs. free markets), and politics (authoritarianism vs. democracy, http://www.amazon.com/Democratic-Reason-Politics-Collective-Intelligence/dp/0691155658 ). Unfortunately, it seems we are doomed to my dissertation into a book, peculiar behaviour with either method. Let’s say we are making a cluster-thinking comparison of Charity A, which focusses on raising the likelihood of space colonisation, against Charity B, which helps people but has no expected impact on phd thesis electronic engineering space colonisation. My Dissertation? At the time, we believe the solar system is the only thing that exists. Othello Irony Essay? Nonetheless, thanks to the great expanse of the solar system, Charity A gets maximum marks (5 out of a book, 5) for possible expected impact. But when all ‘clusters’ are combined into natural essay introduction an overall judgement, it still comes out behind Charity B. Soon after, scientists go away and make a huge discovery – in fact there are 100 billion galaxies each with 100 billion stars. My Dissertation? The universe is 10^22 larger than we thought!

We naturally decide to go back and reassess Charity A against Charity B. However, because we are boxing in the importance of the observation ‘expected value is high because space is huge’, Charity B remains better by about the same margin. Despite what seems like an extraordinary increase in waves research the importance of leaving Earth – however valuable we thought it was before – our decision remains the same. On the other hand, someone who exclusively uses sequence thinking is how do into a book vulnerable to on yourself, Pascal’s mugging and can easily become ‘fanatical’ – impossible to convince that anything else is important no matter how many other considerations can be brought to bear. I value this post for laying out the pros and cons of how do i turn into a book, each style. Because there are so many, it’s easy to agree with the list of the considerations but still reach a different conclusion. Personally, I am most worried about scale insensitivity, both outside of the effective altruism movement and inside it. As a result, I would rather see more use of sequence thinking, though nobody I know favours using just one approach. A conjecture on my part: Cluster thinking seems to be a good way to improve your median outcome, or improve your accuracy in a binary prediction.

It will lower your chances of failing because of a single mistake in one part of your calculation. Where Cheap Paper Shredder? But when it fails, it can fail hugely, for failing to give sufficient weight to an insight that was much more important than others. In particular, its scope insensitivity means that while we should expect it to fail less often, its failures will be concentrated in the scenarios that matter most (those where your potential impact was highest). As a result, it may still lower your average/expected outcome. Robert, I do agree that each style of thinking leads to peculiar behavior; I see each as only an approximation of the how do i turn my dissertation, ideal thought process. That said, depending on the particulars, I wouldn’t necessarily characterize the behavior you’re describing (re: a discovery about the disasters essay introduction, size of the universe) as peculiar or wrong.

The ideal thought process as I see it could easily, quite rationally and consistent with expected value maximization, have just such a reaction. More at the technical supplement to the post. For my part, I would disagree with the claim that cluster thinking tends to optimize for how do i turn into, the median but not the expectation. Many of the examples in this post (e.g., the disasters introduction, one about impaired judgment as well as the bit about ends vs. means) were meant to imply this by showing how sequence thinking leads to things that seem “clearly wrong/irrational” and not just “wrong most of the time.” The technical supplement also spells out how do i turn into why I think this. I think sequence thinking becomes more valuable when it interacts in the appropriate way with the marketplace of ideas. I think the natural essay introduction, best combination is my dissertation a book sequence thinking for exploration and where can i buy a paper, cluster thinking for evaluation, as outlined at the end of the post, and I think this combination is how do i turn likely to do well at addressing scope insensitivity issues, if a subset of people choose to othello irony essay, explore seemingly high-priority issues and work on strengthening the i turn my dissertation, case for research paper, them. A problem with Cluster thinking is that what the system has is not multiple perspectives but the system’s beliefs about other perspectives. In sequence thinking the system can hold this set of beliefs:

In cluster thinking what we have is. [holds system belief_2 perspective_1] [holds system belief_n perspective_1] [holds system belief_2 perspective_k] [holds system belief_n perspective_k] It isn’t really other perspectives it is what the how do i turn a book, system believes other perspectives to waves research, be, which may or may not be accurate. Thanks for this post and your attempt at a more technical description of a model. I appreciate both, in different ways.

I like the how do i turn my dissertation a book, way that this post provides an explicit discussion of the radio research, trade-offs between these different style of approaches. I Turn My Dissertation A Book? I had been planning to write a piece on the pros and cons of explicit models (similar to irony, what you have called sequence thinking), as I think it is useful to have this more widely known and my dissertation a book, discussed. But you’ve already covered most of the ground, as well as a couple of points I hadn’t thought of. One major technique which I think is important but which you don’t mention is othello irony this: if you have several models which give very different answers, this provides evidence that you should go back and re-examine your assumptions, searching for more consistency. This is close to the time-honoured tradition of “sanity-checking” the results of calculations. It can be abused, and you shouldn’t put too much confidence in how do i turn my dissertation the fact that several models agree if you had to massage them to waves research, do so, but it is one of the more important tools available to us in trying to my dissertation a book, integrate these different types of thinking. I like the fact that you have tried to write down precise versions of the procedure in the linked post. As you remark, one of the general virtues of essay for interview, sequence thinking is that it allows more precise discussion and refinements, in a way that cluster thinking does not.

Unfortunately, there are a number of unclarities and what appear to be mistakes in that write-up (for example in how do the worked example you appear to conflate expected value and median, when these diverge in important ways in the example). I take the on yourself, post as having value in gesturing towards the sort of i turn a book, way that you think we should be exploring this area, and paper, the type of analysis you would like to see more of, but I worry that it is too far from working at how do my dissertation a book, the moment to be worth trying to use. That’s not necessarily a problem — it’s often the case with early-stage models. But does it agree with your thinking? I am happy to provide more detailed comments, and explore how we could improve it, but I’m not sure this is the right forum for that. Holden, thanks for writing this interesting post and taking the time to explain your approach to decision-making in detail. As informally outlined, I think the ideas here have a lot of merit. One thing you didn’t highlight is that cluster thinking can highlight opportunities for learning. When two seemingly important perspectives disagree, it often indicates that there is phd thesis electronic something important to be learned about one of the perspectives or how it should be applied. People who focus on one perspective to the exclusion of others can miss out on these learning opportunities.

Some concerns/additional thoughts about cluster thinking: (A) I think it was interesting to see your response to my dissertation into, Helen’s concern about rationalization in cluster thinking. It is hard to essay, tell whether some other cluster thinker is how do i turn rationalizing, but I’m at least as concerned about my own rationalization. If I have 10 arguments for my view, unless someone painstakingly refutes a few of my arguments at natural essay, once (a level of attention that is rare), there’s a concern that I’ll say, “Well, sure you overcame one of the arguments for my view, but I have nine other arguments.” Going back to my comment above, it would be important for a good cluster thinker to revisit their other arguments whenever one of how do i turn into a book, them gets a good pummeling. (B) Another aspect of your informal framework (presented in the main post) that seems problematic is the focus on making decisions on where can i cheap paper shredder the basis of certainty-weighted perspective, to the exclusion of importance-weighted perspectives.

Abstractly speaking, it seems that one very uncertain but very important perspective should be able to outweigh other perspectives. I Turn Into? More concretely, if the engineering, arguments against X are all of the i turn my dissertation, form “doing X would be weird,” “doing X would be rude,” and “doing X would violate company policy,” but the arguments in against doing X are of the form “I can imagine a way in which doing X would cause a nuclear meltdown,” I want a decision procedure that allows me to not do X. (C) Perhaps related to phd thesis electronic engineering, (B), suppose you’re ranking giving opportunities in terms of intervention quality, organization quality, room for more funding, and monitoring and a book, evaluation (toy example). Disasters Introduction? Should we give to a highly transparent opera charity run by great people that has lots of room for more funding rather than a vaccination charity that is just average (or maybe pretty good) along the other dimensions? I worry that your framework would make the my dissertation, opera charity more competitive than I think it should be. I guess the devil would be in the details. A couple of issues/questions regarding the disasters, technical framework you’ve developed: I believe that your formal framework (presented here: https://www.givewell.org/modeling-extreme-model-uncertainty) puts more weight on a model that has a lot of variance, but clearly higher expected value than a model with low variance and low expected value.

And sometimes that seems like a mistake. For example, suppose I have two models m_1 and m_2, and suppose e_1 = 1000, e_2 = 10000, u_1 = 10, and u_2 = 100. Using your formula, I get that the expectation of taking the bet is: [1000/(10^2) + 10000/(100^2)] / [1/(10^2) + 1/(100^2)] = 1089 (approximately) So my overall expected value of this bet is dominated by i turn, m_1, but intuitively it should be dominated by where paper shredder, m_2, which is saying the impact is almost definitely greater than 1000. Put another way, your framework sees a huge difference between switching the u_i on the two models above, but I don’t think that’s justified. A second issue that I only realized after reading this a few times was that the models you’re describing aren’t necessarily incompatible ways of looking at how do a book, a question; instead they are sort of complementary. Paper? This makes sense in the informal framework—and reinforces the how do my dissertation, “sanity check” phenomenon that Owen and I describe above. However, it does seem fairly different from what I would think is the typical Bayesian way of thinking about othello irony uncertainty over multiple models. Usually, the into a book, models/hypotheses one would consider would be mutually exclusive rather than complementary. Operating in that kind of framework, my first instinct for calculating overall expected value would be to have a probability distribution Pr over the m_i and look at:

Can you say more about why you didn’t approach the problem in this way? I’m particularly curious about why there isn’t anything like a prior over phd thesis electronic models in your framework. To clarify a bit: I generally agree with you about the strengths and into a book, weaknesses of cluster thinking, and your diagnosis that the EA crowd is more sequence-thinking oriented than lots of people. I’m more concerned about the formal model than the informal model. With the informal model, my main concern is that using it leads to rationalization. I think Nick makes an important distinction in how we may think about model combination. Two natural and natural disasters essay introduction, opposed approaches are: (1) Assume that one and only one of the i turn, models is correct, and update in a Bayesian manner. (2) Assume that all of the models give independent information about the world. Of course in essay on yourself fact neither of these can be right. It is how do i turn my dissertation into a book certain that none of our models is an entirely accurate description of the world.

But if we have two models which tell us radically different things, each with a similarly high level of confidence, the appropriate conclusion is on yourself for interview not that the true value lies somewhere in the middle, and into, each was unlucky with the amount of noise; rather we should think that one of the natural introduction, models is how do my dissertation into badly wrong. Questions of how to combine models are studied in electronic engineering machine learning. They’re mostly looking at classification tasks, and they don’t appear to how do a book, have any methods we could port over to estimation tasks directly, but it seems worth being aware of the area, as there may be some shared insights: The other problem with Cluster Thinking is (I believe) that the mind seeks coherence, and while it may hold beliefs about what others believes (other points of view) it generally accepts or rejects these points of view when it comes to reasoning. On Yourself For Interview? Paul Thagard has done some research on Coherence in General, and Jean Piaget did some work on the assimilative and accommodative processes involved in accepting new information and changing one’s opinion.

In fact, in how do i turn my dissertation a book his book, The Development of Thought, (1978, 1985) he states that “A system of assimilation tends to feed itself” which I take to phd thesis electronic, mean that a cognitive system will seek to into, coherently integrate new information, accepting information compatible with what it already believes and rejecting information that is incompatible with its beliefs. I think coherence will be an issue if one is to seriously implement Cluster Thinking. By the way, I have no preference to Sequence or Cluster thinking, I think they are both new concepts which give another lens to a third country essay, mental models. These are just my observations. Great post! A small comment: I think it might be unfair to hold up the Copenhagen Consensus as the i turn into, paradigm of sequence thinking. While they give cost-benefit analysis a significant role in their evaluations, it’s always followed by a qualitative discussion of the essay on yourself for interview, strengths and how do, weaknesses of the model. Moreover, their overall ranking is based on the judgement of a panel of leading economists, using the CBA as an disasters input, but often not ranking in order of CB ratio. This looks like cluster thinking to i turn my dissertation into, me! Thanks for growing up in country essay, the further comments, all.

Michael Miller: I’m still not following you. How Do I Turn? I didn’t mean to irony essay, define cluster thinking via “forming models of what other people think” but rather “using different mental models with different implications.” For example, “Historical patterns imply this action won’t go well; best-guess expected-value calculations imply that it will.” Owen, thanks for all the thoughts. I Turn Into A Book? A few responses: On revisiting models when they disagree: I agree that this can be a very useful thing to do, and think it often belongs in sophisticated versions of the “model combination and adjustment” step. Note that a common “adjustment” is to natural essay, discard outliers, which would largely reinforce the how do into a book, qualitative tendencies of disasters essay, cluster thinking (as opposed to sequence thinking). I agree with your general comments on the formal model – it is how do i turn my dissertation into a book meant to gesture at how I’m thinking rather than to be used as a tool. I think it’s very poorly suited to radio waves research paper, actual use in making decisions, and may never get there. That said, I’d still be happy to have your more detailed comments if it’s convenient for i turn, you to share them. This comment thread seems like an appropriate place to do so; email would work too. On means vs. medians: Jacob and I were aware of this issue but neglected to address it explicitly in the writeup.

We purposefully used distribution types that are extraordinarily fat-tailed, in order to pre-empt claims that inappropriately thin tails are doing most of the work. The result of this is that we used distributions with some strange properties. The means follow the same qualitative pattern as the medians, but they are much higher, so much so that even the “pessimistic” models imply very high expected value. To get more intuitive means, we would have had to use much less intuitive parameters and/or use less fat-tailed distributions. Natural Essay Introduction? I think what we did works as an illustration, but you’re right that it neglects to mention this issue. Re: complementary vs. mutually exclusive models (both Owen and Nick) : the idea is that the models are not mutually exclusive, but simply represent different ways of reasoning toward a conclusion. I believe that in real-world decision-making (as well as in many algorithmic prediction systems), it is more common to have multiple ways of looking at a problem (which be correlated and overlapping) than it is to be deciding between multiple mutually exclusive models of the world, one of which is i turn into strictly best.

If doing the latter, I agree that Nick’s approach would be right, but for the former case, it is up in world country essay important to use all the into a book, information we have about the different levels of model uncertainty for different models, and the approach I’ve proposed seems to do that better than simple probability-weighting of conclusions. I agree with you about the danger of natural essay, rationalization. I also think sequence thinking can be used for rationalization, but one advantage of sequence thinking is its transparency, which (if one seeks out criticism) may work against rationalization. I used the phrase “certainty-weighted” once in the post for shorthand, but I didn’t mean to imply that cluster thinking uses the level of how do a book, certainty as the only input into growing a third country essay the decision-weight carried by each perspective. Rather, I’d say that the weight of each perspective is how do my dissertation *limited* according to othello essay, the degree of certainty. The idea is something more like “Extraordinarily uncertain arguments can only matter a little; moderately certain arguments can matter a lot, if they say that something is very important; highly certain arguments can matter overwhelmingly, if they say that something is overwhelmingly important.” I think this formulation avoids a lot of the how do into, problems that pure certainty-weighting would have, and largely addresses the point about the opera charity (though I could imagine cases in which I’d rather give to a particular opera charity than to up in country, a particular vaccination charity). That said, the basic idea that “a sufficiently uncertain perspective can’t carry the i turn a book, decision no matter how important it claims to be” seems important to cluster thinking, and defensible, on the grounds that getting rid of waves research paper, that property seems to open the doors to many of the problematic properties of my dissertation into, sequence thinking (those related to phd thesis engineering, high sensitivity to a small number of i turn my dissertation into a book, uncertain parameters). Regarding this: “For example, suppose I have two models m_1 and m_2, and suppose e_1 = 1000, e_2 = 10000, u_1 = 10, and u_2 = 100. ” The conclusion you find problematic seems reasonable to me. It’s true that model 2 is very confident that the action has very high expected value, but model 1 is enormously more confident that it doesn’t. After discussing this with another staffer, I think the intuition that this is wrong comes from the fact that it is a strange case due to the small degree of overlap between the two probability distributions; I think it can be argued that the formula’s result is reasonable and intuitively defensible, but it would take an extended writeup or discussion (which I’d be willing to have offline if you’d like). On using mental models.

Lets take a real example. Suppose we have a computer program which uses both Sequence Thinking and on yourself, Cluster thinking. How would we represent their models. I’ll use The Premise Language for my dissertation a book, shorthand (see http://premiseai.tumblr.com): (let believe :who :what) (let exists :what)

(let not-exists :what) [believe :who Buddhists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Atheists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Christians :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Muslims :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Jews :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Agnostics :what (or [exists :what God] [not-exists :what God])] [believe :who Hindus :what [exists :what Gods]] (let viewpoint :which :what ) [viewpoint :which Buddhism. [believe :who Buddhists :what [not-exists :what God]]

[believe :who Atheists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Christians :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Muslims :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Jews :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Agnostics :what (or [exists :what God] [not-exists :what God])] [believe :who Hindus :what [exists :what Gods]]

[viewpoint :which Atheism. [believe :who Buddhists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Atheists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Christians :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Muslims :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Jews :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Agnostics :what (or [exists :what God] [not-exists :what God])] [believe :who Hindus :what [exists :what Gods]] [viewpoint :which Christianity. [believe :who Buddhists :what [not-exists :what God]]

[believe :who Atheists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Christians :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Muslims :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Jews :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Agnostics :what (or [exists :what God]

[not-exists :what God])] [believe :who Hindus :what [exists :what Gods]] [viewpoint :which Islam. [believe :who Buddhists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Atheists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Christians :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Muslims :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Jews :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Agnostics :what (or [exists :what God]

[not-exists :what God])] [believe :who Hindus :what [exists :what Gods]] [viewpoint :which Judaism. [believe :who Buddhists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Atheists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Christians :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Muslims :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Jews :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Agnostics :what (or [exists :what God] [not-exists :what God])]

[believe :who Hindus :what [exists :what Gods]] [viewpoint :which Agnosticism. [believe :who Buddhists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Atheists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Christians :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Muslims :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Jews :what [exists :what God]]

[believe :who Agnostics :what (or [exists :what God] [not-exists :what God])] [believe :who Hindus :what [exists :what Gods]] [viewpoint :which Hinduism. [believe :who Buddhists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Atheists :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Christians :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Muslims :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Jews :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Agnostics :what (or [exists :what God]

[not-exists :what God])] [believe :who Hindus :what [exists :what Gods]] In both cases Sequence thinking and Cluster thinking it is the othello, cognitive system holding the belief sets. My Dissertation? Ergo, it is the cognitive system’s belief set about another party’s beliefs, and not the other party’s beliefs themselves. In the above example, All parties are in agreement on one another’s positions. However, suppose one party holds a viewpoint which differs from the cognitive system’s representation of othello irony essay, their viewpoint. For example, (Let’s use the Agnostics since they don’t care): [viewpoint :which Agnosticism. [believe :who Buddhists :what [exists :what God]]

[believe :who Atheists :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Christians :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Muslims :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Jews :what [not-exists :what God]] [believe :who Agnostics :what [exists :what God]] [believe :who Hindus :what [not-exists :what Gods]] Suppose the how do into a book, cognitive system held the world country, above beliefs about agnosticism. How Do I Turn Into A Book? It would be wrong from our perspective. However, in where can i buy a shredder my view, all mental models are approximations and may omit certain pertinent propositions, because they are models.

And we may get another’s viewpoint wrong. So the my dissertation, cognitive system winds up using its model of other viewpoints for reasoning, however accurate or inaccurate. My contention is that all models are approximate, especially mathematical ones. That was my point. I’m coming at phd thesis engineering, this from an implementation perspective. How can you use a model if you don’t form it first. Where do the models come from then? Moreover I’m coming at this from a constructivist implementation perspective. How Do I Turn A Book? My approach is to disasters, form models within an how do i turn artificial cognitive system.

One has to natural disasters introduction, form the model before it can be used for reasoning or decision making. It can be argued that even people form models, before they use them, and their models can be more or less accurate. @Owen Cotton-Barratt: I’m late to how do i turn, the party on can i buy a cheap this one, but there are some ensemble methods for regression in machine learning. Gradient boosted regression trees, regression forests, and AdaBoost are three such methods (AdaBoost is typically used for classification but has been generalized to regression contexts also). AdaBoost seems the most analogous to model combination as humans do it, and in how do my dissertation a book particular to the “many weak arguments” reasoning that has been written about in the past.

Ben: I think there are few if any examples of 100% “pure” sequence thinking; with that said, I see the Copenhagen Consensus as being about as close as we generally see. Othello? All of the analysis and reasoning they publish is focused around their cost-benefit ratio analysis, and i turn my dissertation into, generally speaking, a significant portion of the discussion is devoted to radio waves, discount rates, to which the results are often highly sensitive. It’s true that at the end of the process, there is i turn into a panel that changes some of the conclusions, but the reasoning behind the changes does not seem to be disclosed, and the cost-effectiveness estimates seem to be at the center of the process. Holden, thanks for the response. Here are my comments on the formal model and worked example. I’ll separate them into different posts for legibility. This isn’t an error as such, but I think it would help to stress the distinction between in-model chance and uncertainty about the model. It isn’t clear to me that it’s right to pull all of the uncertainty about the model into othello F_i. I quite like keeping a distinction between uncertainty about model parameters (which you deal with via F_i or similar), and uncertainty about the my dissertation into a book, possibility that the model is fundamentally incorrect. One reason to do this is that there is buy a cheap paper no clean line between what constitutes one or two models. * We might have two approaches for modelling a variable, A and B.

* Now we notice that there’s a slight variation of A, A’; we’re not sure if this is better. * Taking the how do i turn, geometric mean of A, A’, and can i buy a cheap, B may give quite a different answer to taking the geometric mean of A and B, although really we’ve gained very little information. Note that A and A’ are giving far from independent information. One solution might be to have a credence in A which then gets divided (more or less) between A and A’. How Do I Turn My Dissertation? Better yet might be keeping track of independence. The model combination method of taking the geometric means has weak justification.

I agree that invariance under future Bayesian updates is an attractive property. This is accounting for radio, the fact that the models may not be independent. However, it’s claimed “The geometric mean is the only way to do this while also treating all the models symmetrically.” Is there a proof of this, or a reference? It seems like the how do i turn into, method of assuming that exactly one of natural disasters essay, your models is correct will also work, so long as you update your credences over how do i turn my dissertation into a book which is the correct model as well as updating your model. This seems perhaps more natural than the geometric means method (although assuming that exactly one is correct seems an essay error). I’m not saying that the geometric mean is definitely wrong, but you haven’t convinced me that it’s ideal. Using the geometric mean method also gets you into problems with your other statements. How Do My Dissertation A Book? You said: “Using non-Gaussian distributions and/or other combination methods would complicate the where can i buy a cheap shredder, actual formula for calculating overall expected value, but in general would not change the qualitative picture: when combining two probability distributions, it is robustly true that a “fatter” distribution will cause less of an update from the distribution it is combined with, and that a sufficiently “fat” distribution (approximating constant probability density) will cause negligible such updating regardless of where its midpoint lies.” With the method of my dissertation, taking geometric means rather than multiplying together the probabilities, the final claim is on yourself for interview false. If you take the how do i turn into, geometric mean with of a sensible distribution with one fat enough to othello irony, be essentially flat over the area in question, you’ll end up close to taking the how do my dissertation into a book, square root of the probability density of your original distribution (and renormalizing).

With a distribution with the right kind of tail, this could make it much more thick-tailed and shift the mean up considerably (indeed arbitrarily far). For example if the probability density falls off with an inverse square of the value, then its square root is an radio improper distribution, so precisely how fat the fat distribution is carries a lot of weight. On the way your example uses medians and how do, calls them expectations, you said: “On means vs. Othello? medians: Jacob and how do into a book, I were aware of engineering, this issue but neglected to my dissertation into, address it explicitly in the writeup.” I’m afraid I can’t really see how this is defensible. It means that the example is misleading people instead of clarifying. Can I Cheap Paper? You might counter that it helps to demonstrate the how do i turn into a book, point you think is important, but it really gives people an illusion that they understand what’s going on. It’s not the same as a simplifying assumption, because these are flagged so people realise that the assumption has gone in. Instead it’s been slipped in paper silently. You said: “We purposefully used distribution types that are extraordinarily fat-tailed, in order to pre-empt claims that inappropriately thin tails are doing most of the work.

The result of this is that we used distributions with some strange properties. The means follow the my dissertation into a book, same qualitative pattern as the medians, but they are much higher, so much so that even the “pessimistic” models imply very high expected value. To get more intuitive means, we would have had to use much less intuitive parameters and/or use less fat-tailed distributions.” I think there were four reasonable approaches here: 1. Produce a toy example which uses thin-tailed distributions. 2. Irony? Produce an example with thick-tailed distributions, and explain why the how do into, mean values are higher than expected. (This is a key feature of heavy tailed distributions which deserves to waves, be more widely understood!) 3. Do both of the i turn, above – have a quick proof-of-concept example with the thin-tailed distributions, and essay for interview, an example to show the effects you get with thick-tailed distributions. 4. Post the example you did, with a disclaimer that the technical details are not correct because means/medians, but that you’ve simplified and don’t think this changes things substantially. Actually, do you have the how do my dissertation into a book, numbers that come out of using expectations in your worked example? I would have loved to see these. I haven’t put this into any kind of stats package, but I think that the geometric mean approach will mean that expectations are rather more sensitive to uncertain models than the medians, for the reasons I outlined in growing essay the comment above.

@Ben Kuhn: Thanks for the search terms! I suspected there was something more relevant out there. What we’re trying to how do my dissertation a book, do here isn’t quite a regression task (we generally don’t have training data that we believe; we’re using some other process for weighing the relative merits of different models), although it’s closer to that than to a classification problem. From some quick reading, it seems that the analogous procedure to Adaboost in natural disasters our context would be to how do i turn, weight the various models according to how much we believe them, take a simple weighted average of the corresponding distributions F_i, and then use the radio research, median value of this combination. Does that sound right to how do i turn into a book, you?

@Owen: What do you mean by essay, saying “we generally don’t have training data that we believe?” How do we decide between models other than picking the one that most successfully accounts for what we’ve already seen (combined with some sort of inductive bias*)? @Ben: I suppose I mean that the inductive bias, or something like it, is doing a lot of work. A Book? We often build causal models, where we have data to support the different parts of the model, but not for the thing as a whole (because we’re trying to predict something that we’ve never been able to natural essay, measure). What are some instances in i turn which expert opinion is disasters essay NOT an input into how do my dissertation a book cluster thinking? Here’s a reference for the geometric mean derivation: The formalization of the world, property claimed is “external Bayesianity”; my original claim, which Holden cites in his post, is true except in some very degenerate cases. The latter part of your comment is correct, though.

We initially were taking the product rather than the geometric mean, and forgot to modify that paragraph to how do i turn into a book, account for the change. Thanks for the further comments, all. Re: your first comment, it seems to world, me that the best solution is keeping track of independence; this could be formalized via the covariance between different models. My simplified model implicitly assumes independence, which isn’t right (and exaggerates the added robustness one gets from i turn, each additional model). Fair points about the geometric mean. Your last comment notwithstanding, using the geometric mean does seem to preserve most of the qualitative properties stressed in cluster thinking, but I agree that there are cases in which it would not. Phd Thesis? Fair point about the lack of my dissertation a book, disclaimer; I’ve now added one. Research? The medians/means are as follows … Model 1 22545/156373660163; model 2 1456/2463; model 3 512/2495; combination 961/5289; first alternative combination 6569/11674; second alternative combination 896/5310. Note also that the full code is available. almondguy : cluster thinking could rely on a number of a book, historical patterns or general heuristics without incorporating expert opinion.

For example, I might believe team X is likely to win a baseball game because it wins more than half its games, its opponent loses more than half its games, its starting pitcher has a winning record, and it’s playing at home (and the home team wins more than half the time); that’s 4 “outside views” without detailed conceptual models or expert opinion incorporated. @ Jacob: Thanks for essay on yourself, the reply and the link. Re. the geometric mean derivation, it seems to me that a key assumption in that paper is my dissertation a book that the pooling operator itself isn’t updated in light of new information. That makes some sense in a panel-of-experts context, but it’s not clear that it’s necessary in the model combination context. For instance the naive “Bayesian updating” of where buy a cheap paper, different models where you also update your credence in which one of them is correct — this seems to have the analogous property to ‘external Bayesianity’, but does it by altering the weighting that the my dissertation, different models get in the combination. @ Holden: thanks for natural essay, those replies. I agree that covariance may well be the how do i turn into, best way forward for dealing with model covariance (although I don’t think I know exactly how to do it). The means/medians in the worked example are particularly interesting. It’s not clear that they support the same qualitative point as the disasters introduction, median. My Dissertation? When you made the first model wildly more optimistic and also wildly more uncertain, that lowered the median but over doubled the mean. Owen: the waves research paper, key qualitative point, in my view, is i turn into what one obtains after model combination in different cases.

When using either the mean or the median, a wildly more optimistic and uncertain model has little effect on growing world essay the result after combination, while a more robust model greatly increases the expected value. BTW, Jacob pointed out to me that using the geometric mean assumes a “high degree of dependence” between models; the independence assumption is only implicit when using the how do i turn my dissertation, product method of combination. I really like this post. Some technical comments are below. (I wouldn’t be at all surprised if I’ve missed/misunderstood something/made a mistake somewhere, but for electronic engineering, simplicity I’m dropping that caveat throughout. Also, let me know if you want me to how do, write up the details.)

1. In the technical supplement, you discuss the estimate where you weight your various models by the reciprocals of their variances. If your models m_i are uncorrelated (or in practice sufficiently well approximated as uncorrelated) then that is the optimal linear weighting of your models in the sense of minimizing variance of the combined estimate. This conclusion requires no hypothesis on the distributions at all, other than finite second moments. Can I Buy A Cheap Shredder? In particular, it does not require a Gaussian assumption. 2. As you note in reply to Owen, you’re implicitly assuming independence or, more precisely, the weaker hypothesis that the distributions are uncorrelated.

In particular, it is how do i turn into not sufficient that the distributions are Gaussian. Electronic? It would be good to make this explicit. So e.g. the sentence “If all the F_i = N(e_i,u_i)… the resulting probability distribution has expectation…” is false as written (i.e. it depends on that implicit assumption). 3. To generalize your formula to support correlated models, let V be the [nxn] covariance matrix of the n models. So your formula handles the case that V is diagonal.

Let e=(e_1,…,e_n) be the n-vector of expected values. Then the a book, analogous formula is the normalization of the essay, sum of the entries of the how do i turn my dissertation, vector V^ e. If we write (W_ij) for the entries of V^ , the expected value of the variance minimizing linear weighting of the othello essay, models is given by (sum_ W_ij e_j) / (sum_ W_ij). Into? The only essay, hypotheses required here are that V is how do i turn my dissertation into a book non-singular and all second moments are finite. Comments are closed. Want to stay updated on GiveWell's research?

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20 Essential Korean Recipes to Know and Love. Kimchi, Korean barbecue, and jjigae—your starter guide to the great wide world of into a book Korean food. A delicious verve of heat runs through Korean recipes. The cuisine is as rich as it is communal, with meals often beginning with many side dishes known as banchan . Korean recipes are often accompanied by kimchi, a spicy fermented vegetable dish mostly consisting of cabbage and root vegetables and where buy a cheap paper shredder, spicy seasoning. Meats feature prominently in i turn Korean recipes, such as Korean fried chicken, barbecued meats, and growing world country, spicy stir-fried pork. To start, we've rounded up our favorite Korean recipes so you can enjoy the i turn my dissertation into a book, food of this fiery peninsula. Korean Fried Chicken. Up In! Double-frying chicken wings is the secret in Korean recipes to how do my dissertation into achieving the essay on yourself, delicate, crackly crust that is the hallmark of this popular Korean specialty, made famous in this country at the Los Angeles restaurant Kyochon. Cathy Danh wrote about this snack in i turn into a book The Other KFC for our March 2010 issue. Korean Spicy Stir-Fried Pork Belly. Jeyuk bokkeum stir fried pork.

Bokkeum is an umbrella term given to dishes—often made with inexpensive, strong-flavored cuts of meat—that are stir-fried over high heat. Pork belly is the most popular version, but other classics include octopus, mackerel, and dried anchovies. World! The sweet and how do i turn into, spicy gochujang-laced marinade helps the meat caramelize as it cooks. Get the recipe for Korean Spicy Stir-Fried Pork Belly » Ssamjang korean barbecue paste. While this thick, spicy-sweet paste—a combination of doenjang and gochujang—is primarily used to glaze barbecued meats or as a condiment for othello essay, lettuce wraps, it can also be a dip for cold vegetables like carrots, cucumber, or Korean peppers. The inclusion of how do my dissertation walnuts is chef Hooni Kim's personal touch, which adds earthiness and gives the sauce more texture. Get the recipe for essay, Ssamjang (Korean Barbecue Paste) » Make this quick and easy dipping sauce as an accompaniment to Gamjatang (spicy pork neck and potato stew). This recipe is adapted from Koreatown: A Cookbook.

Get the recipe for Gamjatang Sauce » Quick Basic Kimchi. Getting tired of your plain winter root vegetables? Throw some homemade kimchi on there to how do i turn a book spice up a standard dish. Can I Buy A Cheap Shredder! Get the recipe for Quick Basic Kimchi » Doenjang Jjigae (Fermented Soybean Stew) doenjang jjigae korean soybean stew. It took chef Hooni Kim one year to perfect his recipe for dashi, which he uses as the base of this everyday Korean stew. Gochujang adds a subtle layer of heat to the broth, and doenjang boosts its richness and silkiness. Into A Book! Get the recipe for Doenjang Jjigae (Fermented Soybean Stew) » Korean Rice Cakes. Arang, a Korean restaurant in New York, takes a Korean recipes classic—ddukbokki, or spicy rice cakes—and adds on an oh-so-American layer of othello irony melted cheddar for a stroke of fusion brilliance that recalls nachos as much as Korean cooking. This recipe is based on co-owner Sunny Lim's notes, plus korean recipes in how do i turn my dissertation a book Matt Rodbard's Koreatown: A Cookbook. Korean Grilled Beef Ribs (Kalbi) Pineapple juice sweetens and phd thesis, tenderizes beef short ribs in a book this classic Korean grilled dish.

Ask your butcher for bone-in short ribs cut in half crosswise. Essay For Interview! Get the recipe for Korean Grilled Beef Ribs (Kalbi) » Korean Rice Cakes. This spicy pork recipe comes from the kitchen of Arang, in New York, where it's used to into a book make ddukbokki, spicy rice cakes. Phd Thesis Engineering! Get the full recipe here. Get the recipe for how do my dissertation into, Korean Rice Cakes » korean scallion pancakes. These crispy fried scallion pancakes from othello essay chef Hooni Kim, traditionally paired with a refreshing makgeolli, or Korean rice beer, can be a vehicle for my dissertation a book, any number of ingredients. Instead of, or in addition to, the scallions, you can fill pajeon with garlic chives, ramps, chrysanthemum leaves, small squid, shrimp, thin slices of Korean chile, or julienned carrots. To get the pancakes as crispy as possible, make sure the batter is very cold and radio waves paper, the pan smoking hot and slicked with plenty of oil.

Get the recipe for i turn, Pajeon (Scallion Pancakes) » Su jung kwa is a traditional Korean tea made from cinnamon, ginger, spices, sweet dried dates, and pine nuts that's commonly served as an after-dinner drink or dessert. Chef Hooni Kim serves a chilled cocktail version at his New York restaurant Danji that gets a smoky kick from rye whiskey. Essay Introduction! Date jujubes, also known as red dates, Chinese dates, or Korean dates, are commonly used in Korean cuisine for their natural sweetness and purported medicinal properties. Both jujubes and dried persimmons can be found online and in most Korean and Chinese grocery stores. Get the recipe for Su Jung Kwa » Korean Clam Soup. A simple, light soup not short on how do my dissertation a book, heat or spice.

It's traditionally served over a butane flame, so the broth remains hot, and a heavy dose of waves paper heat is delivered from two types of thinly sliced chiles. Get the recipe for Korean Spicy Clam Soup » A classic hearty Korean stew made with meaty pork neck, potatoes, and nutty perilla seeds. Sesame seeds cannot be substituted for the perilla in this recipe; seek perilla seed, also called wild sesame seed, out at Asian markets. Optional but recommended: Serve this dish with its accompanying dipping sauce. How Do I Turn My Dissertation Into! Get the recipe for Gamjatang » Korean Soba Salad. A medley of thinly sliced vegetables is piled up with a mound of cold buckwheat noodles. Get the world, recipe for Korean Cold Buckwheat Noodles » Korean Noodles with Beef and Vegetables (Chap Chae) Korean Noodles with Beef and Vegetables (Chap Chae) Penny De Los Santos. When I was growing up in how do my dissertation a book Korea, my grandmother would make chap chae for family reunions. Whenever she started stir-frying the shredded beef and vegetables together in a big wok, I would wander into her kitchen, wondering when the party was going to begin. The finished dish is festive and delicious. I love the combination of slippery sweet potato noodles turned golden from the disasters essay introduction, cooking juices and how do into a book, soy sauce, crunchy vegetables, and radio paper, tender, juicy beef.

For my own family, chap chae is how do i turn into a book, still a sign of celebration: Whenever I make it, my son walks in, asking when the party is starting. Kyung Up Lim Get the recipe for othello, Korean Noodles with Beef and Vegetables (Chap Chae) » Ginger Cookies Dipped in Honey (Yak Kwa) Ginger Cookies Dipped in Honey (Yak Kwa) Deep-fried and then drenched in a honey syrup, yak kwa are a traditional Korean sweet flavored with sesame oil and fresh ginger juice. Get the recipe for Ginger Cookies Dipped in Honey (Yak Kwa) » Korean Rice Cake (Songpyeon) Korean rice cakes, known as songpyeon , are half moon-shaped dumplings that are stuffed with fillings like sweet potatoes, chestnuts, red beans, or nuts, and then steamed and served with honey. Get the recipe for how do i turn, Korean Rice Cake » Fish Ssam with Spicy Chile Sauce. Ssam , which is Korean for where shredder, wrapped, refers to the lettuce wraps that enclose spicy grilled fish in how do into a book this recipe from Matthew Rudofker, executive chef at New York City's Momofuku Ssam Bar. Essay! Get the recipe for my dissertation a book, Fish Ssam with Spicy Chile Sauce » Korean kimbap is similar to Japanese sushi, but typically uses cooked or pickled ingredients. In this version, bulgogi (marinated beef) is paired with vegetables and egg. Get the recipe for Kimbap » Homemade dumplings take some work, but they're worth the effort for essay for interview, a rich pork filling livened up with funky kimchi. How Do I Turn My Dissertation A Book! Get the recipe for Pork and Kimchi Potstickers » At Saveur, we recommend all kinds of products we think you'll love. In some cases, we receive a commission for purchases made through this site, but if a product link shows up in an editorial article, it's there for radio waves paper, one reason: We love it.

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ewf write a song I'll Write a Song for You. That's the Way of the World Got to i turn my dissertation Get You Into My Life On a famous episode of Seinfeld, Elaine dances (in the up in country essay kindest definition of the word) to their hit Shining Star. You might have seen them on an episode of Grace Under Fire (Grace and Nadine drive all night to their concert, miss the my dissertation performance, but sing Let's Groove with the band in a local bar). Mariah Carey and Crystal Waters have borrowed their carefully orchestrated rhythm tracks for Top 40 hits, while songs like That's The Way Of The World and September have been remade by phd thesis electronic engineering everyone from Herb Alpert to John Tesh. The music of Earth Wind Fire can not be easily categorized, although many in the entertainment industry tried. They brought jazz, bebop and fusion to pop audiences; they brought progressive rock to RB fans.

They didn't need a 70's Preservation Society for their music - their classic hits have stood the how do into a book test of essay introduction time, every song polished and i turn my dissertation a book performed on buy a shredder, an endless highway of i turn into college concerts and faith. Electronic Engineering! The Grammys, the gold and i turn platinum records, the American Music Awards - all were a by-product of Earth Wind Fire's popularity, but the music and where can i buy a the message remain the key to this day. Even as they approach their third decade of my dissertation a book musical expertise, Earth Wind Fire's origins can be traced back through the roots of Chicago blues and soul, through the jazz and othello essay fusion excursions, back to i turn my dissertation a book the beginnings of othello irony essay music itself. What we know as Earth Wind Fire today has to how do i turn my dissertation a book start with its creator and producer, Maurice White. Up In A Third! Born in i turn, Memphis in 1941, White moved to essay on yourself for interview Chicago as a teenager and found work as a session drummer for Chess Records (the story has it that Leonard Chess asked Maurice to bring a few friends over for a recording session; Maurice showed up with his entire college band). By 1967, he was the new drummer in the famed Ramsey Lewis Trio, replacing Red Holt. During the two years White performed and toured with the Trio, Ramsey Lewis showed him a Kalimba, an i turn, African thumb piano. Othello Irony! That instrument and its unique sound became the into focal point of White's musical dream. In 1969, Maurice left the Ramsey Lewis Trio, and joined two friends in Chicago, Wade Flemons and electronic Don Whitehead, as a songwriting team. We started a group out of just writing songs and commercials around Chicago, said Maurice. We were writing a lot of songs, so we decided to form a recording group.

We had a recording contract with Capitol, and called ourselves the how do 'Salty Peppers,' and irony had a marginal hit in the Midwestern area called 'La La Time.' (Capitol 2433) . It was only i turn my dissertation into a book released in the Midwest, and where can i buy a cheap paper it did fairly well for a book an unknown band. The Salty Peppers' second single, Uh Huh Yeah (Capitol 2568) didn't fare as well, and Maurice decided it was time for radio paper a change of location - and a change in the band's name. I Turn Into A Book! We never made any appearances or anything like that as the Salty Peppers, said Maurice. I moved out to Los Angeles, and when the band came out there, we signed a new contract. Before that, I renamed the group after my astrology chart of Sagittarius. I was into astrology pretty heavy, and shredder there were three elements in my astrological charts - earth, air and fire, and I changed air to how do i turn my dissertation a book wind. Verdine White, Maurice's younger brother, joined the where can i buy a cheap paper band in my dissertation into a book, 1970 as their new bassist. We grew up in Chicago, there was a lot of music on the radio at the time - a lot of natural disasters essay introduction Motown and how do i turn a book jazz, both on the radio and at the Regal Theatre, where we went a lot. Natural! My father is a doctor, so he played a lot of jazz music in his office.

Maurice had this idea of putting together a band like that - that could encompass all the different kinds of musicality we were exposed to. The group was pretty much in existence, and i turn a book he asked me to come out, and I came out in a third world essay, June 1970. And the first couple of years were really those testing years of cutting records. Earth Wind Fire spent three years on how do into a book, Warner Bros., recording two studio albums and natural essay introduction the soundtrack for Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, a box-office smash that paved the my dissertation into way for black-themed films throughout the 1970's. We had done this Sweet Sweetback soundtrack, said Verdine White. which was actually the can i buy a cheap shredder first black soundtrack. Maurice knew Melvin Van Peebles really well, and Melvin was putting together this wayout film that was going to be real different and how do my dissertation real revolutionary. Phd Thesis! We recorded that soundtrack over two days at Paramount Recording Studios on Santa Monica Boulevard. At that time, Earth Wind Fire were still finding their identity. They even signed some female vocalists - Sherry Scott (who sang on I Think About Loving You), who was later replaced by Jessica Cleaves. In 1971, while Earth Wind Fire played a gig in Denver, Maurice heard about a singer with a local band - a singer with a range that could rumble the seats with his baritone, yet harmonize with the angels on every high note. That singer, Philip Bailey, remembers that night.

Our band, 'Friends and Love,' was actually doing some of the Earth Wind Fire songs, and we opened the show for how do i turn a book Earth Wind Fire when they came to Denver to play a promotional tour. We had been familiar with their music through a mutual friend of for interview ours, Perry Jones, who later became a promotional man for Warner Bros. I moved out to Los Angeles when they began to reform their band, Maurice asked me to be in the group. I think that Maurice liked the fact that I had a very identifiable sound in into a book, terms of my range, and the timbre of my voice. Electronic Engineering! Maurice and I began to how do into a book do all the natural introduction vocals on all the records after Head To The Sky, and we really developed a sound together, which became the trademark sound of Earth, Wind Fire. My melodic sensibility was something that was added, and how do a book Maurice had the waves experience of being a songwriter and producer, and was my mentor and into teacher for many years. But Warner Bros. didn't know how to promote this new combo - the only other funk band on their label was Charles Wright and the Watts 103rd Street Rhythm Band. And after eighteen months, Maurice disassembled his band and formed a new Earth Wind Fire from its ashes. College kids were hip to us far beyond the radio research acknowledgment of the how do i turn into record industry, said Maurice. We were on disasters introduction, tour, we normally did a lot of college touring, and we had a manager who actually booked John Sebastian into New York City. And so what happened as a result of into a book us opening for John Sebastian, Clive Davis was in the audience.

And he saw us for the first time, and he came over and talked to us about joining CBS. It would be a perfect match. CBS had successfully promoted another progressive rock/soul band, Sly The Family Stone. They backed and distributed the Philadelphia International label, home of the Gamble Huff songwriting and producing team. We were in the middle of irony cutting what we thought was our third album for Warners, said Verdine White, and Clive bought our contract from them. Clive has great insight. He put us in the right places.

He gave us proper marketing, he took the time necessary to break a group like this. How Do I Turn A Book! A group like this wouldn't be broken overnight. Essay On Yourself! With us, we wanted to play concerts, we didn't want to play two sets a night, three sets a night, we wanted to do concerts which showed off our musicality. Between 1971 and 1975, Earth Wind Fire played the colleges, the universities, the clubs and how do into a book the performance halls, and every night they would use jazz and introduction fusion progressions to keep their songs fresh and their chops sharp. Our whole vision, said Philip Bailey, was creativity within a form. My Dissertation Into A Book! It was derived from the phd thesis greats before us, Miles Davis and John Coltrane and into all the great singers. We really were lovers of jazz and fusion. We were jazz musicians at essay heart playing popular music. We would take every opportunity we could, whether it meant adding a bebop horn lick or progressive chord changes to our songs.

We made fusion and jazz a commercial entity. In May 1974, Mighty Mighty (Columbia 46007) became Earth Wind Fire's first hit on the pop charts, peaking at #29. 'Mighty Mighty' wasn't a big Top 40 hit, said Verdine, because at how do i turn my dissertation into the time Top 40 radio was scared of 'Mighty Mighty,' because they thought it was a song about Black Power. But it was a start. While Mighty Mighty was on the charts, Earth Wind Fire worked with Sig Shore, the mastermind behind the motion picture Superfly, on a new film about the dark side of the recording industry. That's The Way Of The World starred Earth Wind Fire as The Group, a new recording act. In the film, Harvey Keitel hears The Group performing, and for interview produces their first album. The film's title is repeated throughout the film as a shrug of the shoulders to the music world. Earth Wind Fire performed the songs in the film, and Maurice had a small speaking part as leader of how do The Group. We actually recorded one of the songs, 'Happy Feelin',' at a roller skating rink during the essay on yourself movie, said Philip Bailey. We had a truck outside, we actually recorded it then, we went to how do my dissertation the studio and tried to do it over, but the feel that we had in the roller rink was the one.

So we just used that one. Our performance in That's The Way Of The World was us running into a van and the van driving off, said Verdine White. There was some concert footage in the end, that was it. When we saw the film, we said this is going to be a major flop, we need to get our record out before the film comes. The music was so different, and we didn't want the film to irony hurt the music. The strategy paid off. The music Earth Wind Fire recorded during that time period - later released as the album That's The Way Of The World (Columbia 33280) broke through to new audiences. And when songs from the motion picture were repackaged into Earth Wind Fire's 2-album set Gratitude (Columbia 33694), the group reached the top. Five songs from that album blasted onto pop and soul radios around the country - the tender ballad Reasons, the into a book inventive Sing A Song, the growing a third world sultry Can't Hide Love, the title track from their film That's The Way Of The World, and their first #1 hit, Shining Star. I Turn My Dissertation Into! As for the film, it bombed upon release, was re-released under the name Shining Star, and research paper flopped again. It was incredible, the most incredible feeling, said Maurice White.

Our song, 'Shining Star,' was the #1 song in the country. That was our dream come true, it was unbelievable. Many of those early hits came from the long years of touring and soundchecks, the improvisation every night that generated a new guitar lick, the musical dexterity born from how do my dissertation inspiration and dedication. Even their second song to reach the pop Top 10, Sing A Song (Columbia 10251), found its genesis in natural disasters introduction, a soundcheck. The creative process took place in the studio, said Maurice, and it continued to the stage. When we were preparing for a gig, we would make up songs, and i turn my dissertation into a lot of songs later became album tracks. That's how Sing A Song was discovered. We were on stage, just having a sound check. Disasters Introduction! In the studio, there was a process too. I had so many years in my dissertation into a book, the recording studio as a producer, it was very easy for me to a third essay capture a song. Other tracks, like the complex hit Getaway (Columbia 10373), came from outside the group.

Verdine White remembers when he heard Getaway for how do the first time. I originally heard it from a guy named Chuck, who was producing this flute player named Bobbie Humphries. And I heard this song, and I said to him, 'That would be a great song for us.' He wanted to produce it for us, but that wasn't about to happen. So we got the tune, took it into othello irony essay, the studio and cut it. It was a smash, too - it was totally different, it was like Yes with a little funk under the bottom. It had uptempo and breaks, and a lot of upbeats in it.

'Getaway' was written by i turn Beloyd Taylor and Peter Carr, said Philip Bailey. It was really bebop, like if you sang the cheap lick at the top. How Do I Turn Into! But Maurice had a real uncanny thing for just locking up those rhythms. Essay For Interview! Al McKay was just the rhythm master, it was a hook that just caught. How Do I Turn My Dissertation Into A Book! It was like a train, all the engines were moving and running, everything was in sync.

It had a repeating hook, the electronic music and the rhythm that became very catchy. How Do My Dissertation! But 'Getaway' was still very, very out there. Can I Cheap Shredder! And I think only Earth Wind Fire could have done that kind of thing right there. Even as Earth Wind Fire's music blended into how do my dissertation into, the pop mainstream, Maurice White found time to radio waves paper produce other artists and groups. A Book! Ramsey Lewis asked him to produce an album, and the Lewis-EWF collaboration Sun Goddess (Columbia 33194) is still a jazz staple. Essay! White produced Top 10 hits like Free and It's Gonna Take A Miracle for Deneice Williams, a former member of Stevie Wonder's Wonderlove backup group. Another track Maurice produced, the Emotions' Best Of My Love (Columbia 10544), went to #1 on both the pop and RB charts. I Turn My Dissertation! We were cutting rhythm section records, said Verdine. Maurice would produce the records, him and essay for interview Charles Stepney at the time, and how do we'd play on them and up in world country essay then Ramsey would play on them, or maybe Deneice Williams or the Emotions would sing on them.

Our schedule was such at the time that if we were in the studio for three weeks, we would be cutting tracks - and those tracks might be for one act or another. It was one continuing musical flow. These additional artists became part of one of the largest touring packages of the how do my dissertation into 70's. The Emotions, Deneice Williams and Ramsey Lewis would be the opening acts. A group that Verdine White produced, Pockets, also toured in the group. Then Earth Wind Fire took the stage. Their concerts were loaded with pyrotechnics, magic, laser lights, flying pyramids and levitating guitarists, all supported by a solid musical performance every night. Up In A Third World Country Essay! Magician Doug Henning directed many of their tours throughout the 1970's, and the band - including Larry Dunn (keyboards), Al McKay (guitar, sitar), Fred White (drums) and Andrew Woolfolk (sax, flute) would leviate, teleport, explode on stage - all for their audience's entertainment. We started the massive tour around 1975, said Verdine. How Do I Turn My Dissertation Into! We thought that for the high ticket prices at the time, the public should see something they had never seen before. Natural Disasters! Most concerts were just concerts, and how do i turn we thought it was time that people would see something they never saw before.

What I started to do, said Maurice White, was put on the tour some of the acts that I was also producing at the time, the Emotions, and also Deneice Williams. Electronic! Sometimes we would use Ramsey Lewis too, so everybody on my dissertation a book, the tour were from albums I was producing. It was like the essay moving circus comes to town. We had ten semis carrying equipment and my dissertation instruments, and we had our own plane. But the music came first. Growing Up In A Third Country Essay! First we were musicians, and we were very serious musicians rather than just there for the hits. How Do I Turn Into! Our first love was music. We were just a band.

Which just happened to have a couple of hits. Maurice also incorporated the where can i buy a paper Kalimba and i turn into its sound into Earth Wind Fire's vision of world-wide and world-inspired music, even naming their production company Kalimba Productions. Essay! During that period of time, I always studied metaphysics and Egyptology. It got so interesting, what I was trying to do was share with the how do i turn my dissertation audience what we were learning at the time. As we learned more, we went about engineering trying to share it with the how do my dissertation audience, bring a message to electronic engineering the music. And Maurice's studies appeared not only in my dissertation into a book, the music, but also on radio waves paper, the Shusei Nagaoka-designed album covers. All 'n All (Columbia 34905), for how do i turn into example, displayed Rameses II's pyramid as neighbor to an Imhotep-inspired futuristic metropolis. Raise! (ARC/Columbia 37548) showed an irony essay, Egyptian statue with a mechanical exoskeleton. Ankhs, crosses, statues of Shiva and Buddha and William Shakespeare - all were incorporated into the intricate album artwork of Earth Wind Fire covers.

Maurice always studied astrology, numerology, astronomy, said Verdine. How Do My Dissertation Into A Book! We introduced Trancendental Meditation to a lot of the black audience. That was very new for them. Where Can I Cheap! Of course, the Beatles had brought TM to the people in the 1960's, but we brought it into the 70's to an audience that was looking for how do into something alternative. I even met the Maharishi in 1970.

When you really look at the three cornerstones of religion - Judaism, Christianity, Islam - and all of the engineering world's religions, they all bear witness to each other. In 1978, Earth Wind Fire appeared in another motion picture, the Beatles movie tribute Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. In the film, the band played themselves, performing Got To Get You Into My Life at into a book a concert hall. The film itself was a commercial bomb (Peter Frampton recalls his experiences with the Sgt. Pepper movie in Goldmine #447), and although the soundtrack shipped triple platinum, it allegedly was returned triple platinum. Yet despite musical performances on the soundtrack from Aerosmith, Peter Frampton, the Bee Gees and Alice Cooper, Earth Wind Fire's remake of the Beatles classic was the highest charting pop single from the soundtrack. Once more, we had a movie that flopped on us, said Maurice White, but we had a #1 hit out of it, 'Got To Get You Into My Life.' We actually recorded our parts on the set.

Robert Stigwood called us and essay for interview asked if we wanted to be in a movie, said Verdine. We said okay, it could be interesting. At that particular time, you didn't see a lot of musical blacks in movies - there was The Wiz, but that was a horrible movie. We had three songs to how do into a book choose from electronic engineering - 'Got To Get You Into My Life' and two ballads. We just did the song Chicago-style.

Some people thought George Martin produced the song, but Maurice produced it. I remember that day, it was cold as heck, said Philip Bailey, and it was an all-day, all-night kind of thing. How Do A Book! That was one that really catapulted us into a whole new arena. That was an exciting move, because the where can i buy a paper Beatles - that's legendary, and how do i turn my dissertation the magnitude - we were honored to natural disasters essay introduction be asked on my dissertation into a book, that, really. That was a good experience for us. We recorded the song in Colorado, in a little studio up in Boulder. We rehearsed the horns for that song in Denver, went up to where can i buy a cheap paper shredder Boulder in the snow, and recorded the whole song in i turn into, one night.

The success of Got To Get You Into My Life drew more fans to a third Earth Wind Fire's music, and the group responded with excursions into ice-melting ballads (I'll Write A Song For You, After The Love Has Gone), booty-shaking disco (Boogie Wonderland, Let's Groove) and i turn my dissertation into a book more metaphysics (Fantasy, Jupiter). We started to for interview expand a little bit, said Verdine, and started writing better songs. Boogie Wonderland really was capturing the tail end of the disco era. We didn't think of it as disco, we thought of it as a song with a 4/4 beat. Clubs always had that kind of music, they just called it disco - the industry always has to call it something. As an artist, said Philip Bailey, I'm just blessed that songs like that came our way. I Turn My Dissertation A Book! I remember one that we didn't get and I always wished we could have - Jeffrey Osborne's 'Love Ballad.' He had a great hit with that one. Maurice loaned Earth Wind Fire's signature Phoenix Horns - Don Myrick on saxophone, Louis Satterfield on trombone, Rahmlee Davis and Michael Harris on trumpets - to waves his other production projects, the Emotions, Ramsey Lewis and Deniece Williams.

Then, on a tour of i turn my dissertation into Europe, somebody else took interest in where paper shredder, the famed horn section. We used to tour so much, said Maurice, we used to tour Europe. Phil Collins had an how do into a book, opportunity to see us. He would recruit our horn section whenever we weren't using it. Sure enough, Collins imported the Phoenix Horns into Genesis tracks like No Reply At All and irony essay Paperlate, and on his solo hits like I Missed Again, Sussudio and I Cannot Believe It's True.

I sometimes had to call and make an appointment to see my own horn section, said Maurice. They even toured with Genesis and Phil Collins for how do i turn my dissertation a while. In 1983, Earth Wind Fire released the Electric Universe album. It was also their last release for four years. The whole scene was changing, said Verdine. There was an explosion of video artists. At that time, MTV wasn't playing black artists - the only black artists they played at that time were Michael Jackson, Lionel Ritchie and Prince. There was BET to play black videos, but they didn't have the same money behind MTV. It hurt a lot of those groups, because the audience didn't know who those groups were, and where buy a paper shredder they only knew about groups that had the how do my dissertation visibility. Rick James was the first black artist to irony essay really bitch about MTV, and he was right at the time.

They were playing acts that hadn't had hit records, and he had hits at the time. I put the group on how do i turn, hiatus in a third essay, 1983, said Maurice, because I just wanted to rest from touring. I had been touring for how do my dissertation into a book 10 years, and essay it was time for how do my dissertation a book me to take a rest. Essay! The only things I ever saw was the road or the studio, that was my whole life for ten years. How Do My Dissertation Into! So I left the band for a while. We kind of put everything on hold, and in the process of doing that, I cut a solo record.

The two hits from that album was 'Stand By Me' and another song called 'I Need You.' I think that was the best thing that ever happened to us, said Verdine, because it was time to shut down. We had made enough records to define our careers - I tried to convince Maurice to natural essay shut down after the Raise! record in 1981, because I felt we needed a break, just to live. We had slammed pretty hard for 13 years. I think people should stop, particularly in creative endeavors, to catch up and see where you are. And times were starting to change, too. We were having our own interest in things we wanted to do. During the hiatus, Philip Bailey released a solo album, Chinese Wall. While it was not his first solo album (Bailey recorded a series of i turn my dissertation a book gospel LP's for the Myrrh and Word labels), it was his most successful.

The first single from that album, a duet with Phil Collins called Easy Lover (Columbia 04679) went gold, and the music video of Bailey and Collins rehearsing their collaboration hit #1 on natural disasters, MTV's video playlist. I really didn't know that much about Phil's music until the Phoenix Horns introduced us and I went to how do i turn my dissertation into a concert of his. It wasn't a stargazing thing - when we got together, it was mutual admiration for each other's musicianship. It definitely was a boost for me - not only domestically, but also internationally. Still, to paper this day, I can do that song and people will know it.

Phil Collins is how do a book, one of the most down to earth famous people that we ever worked with. Meanwhile, during the hiatus, Verdine White worked behind the scenes, writing and directing videos. He produced a Level 42 album, and promoted go-go bands like Trouble Funk and E.U. When you are known for one entity, people think that's the only thing you know. Othello Irony! But music is music. Contrary to popular belief, said Verdine, we didn't have pop radio in our pocket.

For Earth Wind Fire, we had to into a book continue to have an RB smash in order to even raise the eyebrows of pop radio. Research Paper! We never really knew if the mainstream market would like our record or not - and in some instances, maybe if the song had been played, it might have been a hit. We were always judged by what happened on RB radio first. Even after having the countless chart hits that we did, it was still - when a record came out, it had to go RB first, in opposed to my dissertation into a book just getting played on the radio. When you listen to 'After The Love Is Gone,' and if you listen to Earth Wind Fire's catalog, I'm sure there was at radio waves paper least one song in the bunch that pop radio - if they had known about it, would have been a hit. We were always walking that fine line - was the song too RB, or too pop? Of course, this is all hindsight. These were not things that we focused on or complained about - we were making music, and that was what we did. In 1987, CBS Records spoke to Philip Bailey and Maurice White separately, convincing both that a reunion of Earth Wind Fire would be beneficial for all parties. We began to i turn into realize the real appreciation that people had for the band and what we had done.

We saw that the whole Earth Wind Fire was bigger than its parts. It made sense to continue with what we had started. So we said, let's do it album by album, one disc at a time. Electronic! We knew that we couldn't go back to i turn the old band and start over again, because it would have been a mess. I'm very glad that we were pretty mature about us understanding that - or our reunion would have lasted less than nine weeks. Thanks to an ingenious young songwriter, the group had a comeback hit. Waves Paper! Philip and I was in San Francisco, said Maurice. How Do My Dissertation! Going to the studio one day, we went out to the car and there was a cassette tape attached to the door handle. We got the tape and up in country put it in the car stereo, and played it.

It was 'System of how do i turn my dissertation Survival.' This guy, Skylark, wrote the song, and instead of can i buy a shredder disturbing us at i turn my dissertation a book the hotel, he taped the tape to the door handle of my car. That was a good way to get material to othello essay me. I wouldn't mind if my car was covered with cassette tapes, as long as they were as good as 'System of Survival.' But by 1990, Earth Wind Fire's time with Columbia was ending. Their 1989 release Heritage did not sell well, despite cameo appearances on the disc from how do my dissertation into a book Sly Stone and MC Hammer.

The upper echelon of CBS Records had also changed - while Earth Wind Fire had achieved success under label presidents Clive Davis and Walter Yetnikoff, there was increasing friction between the band and new label president Tommy Mottola. Our deal with CBS was with Yetnikoff, said Verdine, and we had a key man clause - that meant if Yetnikoff left, we left too. Research Paper! Although I liked Tommy, Tommy's a really good guy, we just decided to move on. Mo Ostin at Warner Bros. had wanted us to come where he was. We had re-signed with Columbia in 1982, and i turn my dissertation Mo wanted us to come to natural essay introduction Warner Bros. then, but Walter wouldn't let us out of the contract. Their exodus from Columbia may have been spurred by a new hit single by my dissertation their Columbia labelmate, Mariah Carey.

In 1991, friends called Maurice White, telling him to phd thesis engineering listen to a new track on the radio. How Do I Turn My Dissertation Into A Book! What Maurice heard was the Earth Wind Fire's rhythm track for the Emotions' 70's classic Best Of My Love, but the Emotions' voices were replaced by Mariah Carey - singing entirely different lyrics. And when the disc jockey announced the song's title had been changed to Emotion, White hit the roof. I don't mind if someone records a song and gives us credit for writing a tune, that's fine, that's not a problem, that's a compliment. But when somebody just rips you off, steals your song and tries to get away with taking the credit for engineering writing it - we received no writing or publishing credit for that song. Everybody that heard the song knew it was a ripoff of 'Best Of My Love.' How close can you get? It seems to be a trend that's happening now, but I think eventually somebody's going to come along, they're going to put the creativity back into music. A Book! It's unfortunate that a lot of fans and a lot of people that received the music get it watered down, and a lot of times they don't know what the buy a paper original is. That's really too bad.

In 1993, they released their new album under the Warner Bros. How Do I Turn My Dissertation Into A Book! contract, Millennium (Reprise 45274-2), earning a Grammy nomination for the track Sunday Morning. In fact, between 1975 and 1993, Earth Wind Fire received 14 Grammy nominations, winning six times. All through the Seventies, we had Grammies and phd thesis electronic engineering gold records all over the place, said Maurice. It's a great gesture. The first Grammy we ever won, I couldn't believe it. How Do I Turn My Dissertation A Book! It was like getting our first number one single. I make sure that everybody in introduction, the band gets the gold records, which we have a lot.

I could fill up the i turn a book room I'm in with the gold and platinum records we've won. But ten of othello irony essay those Grammy nominations were in the Best RB Group or Best RB Instrumental categories. First of all, said Philip Bailey, I could never understand that you could have a record with the kind of crossover success that Earth Wind Fire has had, and continue to be nominated as just an 'RB Group.' Just once I would have liked to have seen us nominated as 'Best Group,' let us compete with all the other pop and rock bands. And when Earth Wind Fire did win the golden gramophones, their acceptance speeches never appeared on the Grammy telecast. I'm not dissing the Grammy people or anything like that, said Bailey, but you know, we have seven Grammys - the band has six and I have one for my gospel work - and none of how do i turn my dissertation those Grammys were ever received on television. Not one.

That was at a time when the electronic engineering Grammys were given to the RB categories pre-telecast. How many people have seven Grammys - and we never got a chance to make a speech on television. It's kind of crazy when you think about i turn it. I'm not bitter about it or anything, it's just that when you talk about the Grammys - and we're very proud to have them, I have the ones that didn't get broken in the Northridge earthquake - but I don't think we've ever gotten the chance to feel what that really means in the larger sense of the essay world. Very few people even remember that we have this many Grammys, because they never saw it on television.

If you didn't catch that little part where they list all the ancillary awards - seven times - you wouldn't have known about our seven Grammys. Meanwhile, problems were brewing over at Warner Bros. Mo Ostin, the man who recruited Earth Wind Fire to Columbia, was himself forced out of the label. We talked about the record for a year before we cut it, said Verdine. He let us take our time and let us do what we wanted to do. When we started to i turn my dissertation into a book record, he financed our upstart costs. The leveraged takeover that cost Mo Ostin his job at Warner Bros., that was one of the world essay biggest mistakes the industry ever made. It slowed the label down, it cost a lot of talent. How Do I Turn My Dissertation A Book! A lot of artists in the late 80's-middle 90's were the victims of othello essay moguls fighting over each other for positions.

The moguls weren't fighting over records or movies - they were fighting over who was going to control the gatekeepers of this information. How Do I Turn! They got Mo out of the way because of the massive catalog that Warner Bros. Phd Thesis Engineering! had. But the only person who knew about my dissertation into a book Warner Bros. music was Mo. Although there were many achievements and accomplishments throughout Earth Wind Fire's existence, there has also been tragedy. Charles Stepney had worked with Maurice since the phd thesis electronic engineering days of Chess Records, and had produced and arranged albums for the Dells, Muddy Waters and Buddy Guy. In 1976, after helping co-produce and arrange Earth Wind Fire's Spirit album and i turn into a book Deneice Williams' This is Nicey album, Charles Stepney died of a heart attack. He was only 45. In the irony summer of 1993, former Phoenix Horns member Don Myrick, whose saxophone could be heard not only on Earth Wind Fire's albums, but also on albums from Regina Belle, the how do into Mighty Clouds of Joy, Heaven 17 and phd thesis electronic engineering Phil Collins (it's Myrick's emotional sax on how do i turn my dissertation into a book, Collins' hit One More Night), was shot to othello irony death in Los Angeles, under circumstances that still remain a mystery to how do i turn into this day. Don hadn't worked with us in almost ten years, said Philip Bailey, and so we were on to other things, we had a new Earth Wind Fire horn section.

I was in electronic, Los Angeles, and how do i turn my dissertation into a book somebody called me and othello irony essay told me what happened. I think that he had some problems that he couldn't resolve in himself - that kept putting him in how do into, situations. We were all very shocked and othello irony essay hurt that that had happened. He hadn't worked with the band in quite some time. He did a solo for me on one of i turn into my projects, and wasn't really feeling up to doing what I was used to hearing him do. But later I learned that he was back and playing really well and everything, so it was a real shock to us. He had been real sick one time and waves research close to death, we were thinking he was bouncing back. It's still shocking today.

While Earth Wind Fire continued to record and tour, Maurice White continued to produce. Into! One of his most successful and well-received projects during that time came in 1994, when at the bequest of on yourself for interview GRP Records Vice-President Carl Griffin, Maurice teamed up with Ramsey Lewis, Grover Washington, Jr., Victor Bailey and Omar Hakim as the a book Urban Knights (GRP 9815). A Third Country! White produced the sessions, and even wrote six songs for the project. I was so happy that Carl called me to do the i turn into project, said White at the time, especially with Ramsey being an old friend. The sessions were highly improvisational and a lot of the tunes were written as we went along. Since my original musical roots are in jazz, this was like coming full circle for me and it was a tremendous experience. My idea (of being a producer) is to allow everyone around you to contribute. you don't force them [to do that] but allow them to contribute. The success of the Urban Knights album prompted White and Lewis to collaborate with guitarist Jonathan Butler, saxophonist Gerald Albright and drummer Sonny Emory on can i cheap paper, a second album, Urban Knights II (GRP 9861).

Maurice White is still Earth Wind Fire's producer and their guiding light, but he retired from the stage in 1996. He now spends his time building a studio in Los Angeles, fielding offers to produce new bands and into a book performers, and contemplating a less nomadic pace. I would love to do a completely jazz/acoustic album. Sometime in the future, that's going to can i shredder be possible. I was on the road for 25 years, that's a long time in itself. I paid my dues. How Do I Turn Into! I'm doing a lot of recording now, I stay in where buy a cheap paper, the studio so much - so the best thing for me to do is build my own place.

Today, Earth Wind Fire are back on the road, touring in support of their new album In The Name Of Love (Pyramid/Rhino 72864) and their singles Revolution and i turn my dissertation When Love Goes Wrong. The first time around, said Philip Bailey, it was going by so fast. I'm having more fun now than I ever had in engineering, my life. That's not to poo-pooh that time, but in those kind of blitz situations, everything's coming at you so fast and everything's happening around you, until you don't really have time to ever savor the experience and say, wow. It went by so fast, and i turn there so much stuff going on - it was the best of times, it was the worst of times. I'm proud of the staying power, said Verdine White, the music was always strong and essay we're still here. Every time we go to the concert, there's always somebody of notoriety there from today's era - Wesley Snipes was at my dissertation a book one of our concerts, Queen Latifah was at our concert, I ran into essay on yourself, somebody from the Martin show the other night. I Turn Into! They get excited, and they're proud, too. We go to the airports, people still get excited when they see us. Othello Irony! They tell us about the songs that affected their lives. And as Earth Wind Fire perform their blend of jazz, funk, fusion, gospel, rock and i turn into pop to a new generation of fans, perhaps we can get a glimpse of their future.

In the motion picture The Fifth Element, the film mentions that the othello first four primary elements were earth, wind, fire and water. Not air - wind. The rest of the film was spent searching for my dissertation into that elusive fifth element. Irony! Maurice White found it long ago when Ramsey Lewis told him about the kalimba.

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Is James Baldwin America's Greatest Essayist? His are some of the coldest American sentences ever written. My Dissertation Into A Book! But they're about love. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster. Civil-Rights Protests Have Never Been Popular.

Sterilizing a Child, for natural essay introduction a Better Life. A New History of the First Peoples in the Americas. I want to thank everyone who pointed me toward how much Baldwin really does embrace love. I am remembering what I, myself, loved about how do i turn him as a young man. I came to college a total Malcolmite. Electronic! I kind of my dissertation into a book still am. But Baldwin was among a set of influences that talked me out of my younger self. Essay! He is how do i turn a book, tough to pin down, because he understands the anger in black people, he feels it himself, and fears it. Phd Thesis Electronic! There is how do i turn a book, something of the atheist about for interview him, though he does not directly say it. His encounters with racism leave him on the edge of i turn my dissertation violence and hatred, but The Fire Next Time is all about electronic engineering why one should walk back, all about why you should never judge yourself by the standards of the owner of the boot presently on your neck. That is how Baldwin got me.

He revealed to me that black nationalism is, itself, a kind of my dissertation into a book philosophical integration. Electronic Engineering! If you listen to any of how do into Malcolm's speeches they sound like they are straight out of the Enlightenment, and Malcolm himself uses the American revolution and the nationalism of whites around the globe as a model. Baldwin's reply is not to disasters introduction interrogate black nationalism in isolation, but to interrogate nationalism—and the nation—itself. He hates the hypocrisy and self-congratulation of how do i turn my dissertation a book white liberals and though he loves hard, though he deeply understands that race is essay for interview, a creation, he is i turn a book, never blinded by love: I cannot accept the proposition that the four-hundred-year travail of the American Negro should result merely in growing up in a third world country, his attainment of the how do i turn my dissertation into present level of the American civilization. I am far from convinced that being released from the essay on yourself for interview African witch doctor was worthwhile if I am now—in order to how do i turn into support the waves research moral contradictions and the spiritual aridity of my life—expected to become dependent on the American psychiatrist.

It is a bargain I refuse. The only thing white people have that black people need, or should want, is power—and no one holds power forever. White people cannot, in the generality, be taken as models of my dissertation how to growing up in country essay live. Rather, the white man is himself in sore need of new standards, which will release him from his confusion and how do, place him once again in fruitful communion with the depths of his own being. And I repeat: The price of the liberation of the white people is the liberation of the blacks—the total liberation, in the cities, in the towns, before the law, and in the mind.

Why, for example—especially knowing the essay on yourself for interview family as I do—I should want to marry your sister is a great mystery to me. But your sister and I have every right to marry if we wish to, and no one has the right to stop us. If she cannot raise me to her level, perhaps I can raise her to mine. These are some of the coldest American sentences ever written. When I was a young nationalist, this was the one that really shook me.

I don't what your sister—but if we wanted each other, no one has the my dissertation right to on yourself stop us. How Do I Turn A Book! It was something I'd never seen before—the black pride of nationalism fused to the undeniable morality of integration. I don't want to cherry-pick here. On the contrary, my point is that after all of this—after all his hard talk—Baldwin is still talking about love. These essays are amazing acts of intellectual and emotional courage. I got off the plane here in Greenville and called my agent (who knew Jimmy as she called him) and asked, Does anyone still write like this? The question was rhetorical. No one does.

No one had. No one will. Does Technology Need to Be Ethical? Entrepreneur Anil Dash believes that the tech world has an obligation to be more humane. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster. The president told residents to be “very proud” they hadn’t endured a “real catastrophe” like Katrina, doing little to erase the impression that he sees hurricane relief more as a political story than a human one. Making his first appearance in hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico since Maria’s landfall, President Trump offered a hearty round of congratulations to federal relief efforts and thanked the island’s governor. But the president also suggested Maria was not a “real catastrophe,” made an odd and misleading comparison to the death toll from Hurricane Katrina, and joked about how the hurricane would affect the federal budget.

It was a typically strange, disjointed appearance by the president, and for interview, it came just days after Trump spent much of the weekend picking fights with the mayor of San Juan and insisting that, against all evidence, the recovery effort had largely responded to Puerto Rico’s needs. At Muniz Air Force Base, Trump was eager to praise the work of a book federal agencies, including FEMA, the Air Force, the Navy, and research, the Coast Guard, amid a chorus of criticism that Washington’s response has been too slow and into a book, too small. But that praise led him in strange directions. A small group of othello essay programmers wants to change how we code—before catastrophe strikes. T here were six hours during the night of April 10, 2014, when the i turn my dissertation entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. People who called for help got a busy signal. Essay! One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to break into how do i turn my dissertation a book, her house. When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled. The 911 outage, at the time the largest ever reported, was traced to software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado.

Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the phd thesis server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to 911 dispatchers around the country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go. They picked a number in the millions. Civil-Rights Protests Have Never Been Popular. Activists can’t persuade their contemporaries—they’re aiming at the next generation. One common response to the national anthem protests originated by Colin Kaepernick is to my dissertation disparage them as polarizing. Joe Scarborough, host of can i buy a paper shredder Morning Joe , summed up this particular critique in i turn into, a tweet last weekend: This may be unpopular but it is a political reality: The idea here is that kneeling NFL players are committing an act of such blatant disrespect that they hand Trump an easy image with which to demagogue.

Often attendant to the idea that protesting players are shooting themselves in essay on yourself, the foot is the notion that in some other era, black protest proved to be a unifying force that altered the psychology of some critical mass of open-minded whites. Sterilizing a Child, for a Better Life. Though it can tread dangerously close to eugenics, some parents argue that sterilization improves quality of into a book life for their disabled children, and themselves. When Sophie Carter entered puberty, her parents had more to dread than just a temperamental adolescent. Sophie is now 31 but still has the essay on yourself intellectual capacity of a three-year-old. There were no concerns about drugs or boyfriends and how do a book, no chance of having “the talk” about sex with her.

The hardest part for essay Sophie’s Sydney-based parents was managing her periods. “She has an older sister and how do my dissertation, a younger sister and we tried to get her to essay use pads, but it just didn’t work,” said Merren Carter, Sophie’s mother. “People talk about stigma associated with menstruation but there was none of that at our house. I will always remember a dinner party where [Sophie] proudly showed her pad to all of into our visitors.” A New History of the First Peoples in research, the Americas. The miracle of modern genetics has revolutionized the story anthropologists tell about how humans spread out i turn into across the Earth. Europeans arriving in the New World met people all the way from the frozen north to the frozen south. All had rich and mature cultures and established languages. The Skraeling were probably a people we now call Thule, who were the natural ancestors of the Inuit in my dissertation into, Greenland and Canada and the In?upiat in phd thesis engineering, Alaska. The Tai?no were a people spread across multiple chiefdoms around the Caribbean and Florida.

Based on cultural and language similarities, we think that they had probably separated from earlier populations from South American lands, now Guyana and Trinidad. The Spanish brought no women with them in how do my dissertation, 1492, and raped the on yourself Tai?no women, resulting in the first generation of “mestizo”—mixed ancestry people. The Absurdity of the Nobel Prizes in Science. They distort the nature of the scientific enterprise, rewrite its history, and i turn into, overlook many of its most important contributors. This morning, physicists Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne, and Barry Barish received the where can i buy a cheap paper Nobel Prize for Physics, for their discovery of gravitational waves—distortions in the fabric of how do i turn a book space and time.

The trio, who led the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project that recorded these waves, will split the 9-million-Swedish-krona prize between them. Perhaps more importantly, they will carry the status of “Nobel laureate” for the rest of their lives. But what of the other scientists who contributed to the LIGO project, and whose names grace the three-page-long author list in natural disasters essay, the paper that describes the discoveries? “LIGO’s success was owed to hundreds of researchers,” astrophysicist Martin Rees told BBC News. “The fact that the Nobel Prize 2017 committee refuses to make group awards is causing increasingly frequent problems and giving a misleading impression of my dissertation a book how a lot of science is actually done.” Mass Shootings Don't Lead to Inaction—They Lead to Loosening Gun Restrictions. The most probable policy response to growing up in a third the atrocity in Las Vegas will be new laws allowing more guns to be carried into more places. “After Newtown, nothing changed, so don’t expect anything to change after Las Vegas.” How often have you heard that said? Yet it’s not true. The five years since a gunman killed 26 at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, have seen one of the i turn a book most intense bursts of can i paper gun legislation in U.S. history—almost all of it intended to ensure that more guns can be carried into more places.

In the aftermath of the Newtown massacre, gun-rights activists assertively carried openly displayed weapons into more and more places. I Turn Into! Many national chain stores banned weapons, but at least one—Starbucks—did not. In August 2013, gun-rights activists declared a “Starbucks Appreciation Day.” They made a special point that day of carrying weapons in Starbucks outlets nationwide, including the Starbucks in Newtown itself. (The store closed for the day to avert the demonstration.) The 4 Lessons Amazon Can Learn From Sears's Big Mistakes. In the middle of the 20th century, Sears accounted for a full percentage point of U.S.

GDP. By the engineering early 21st century, it was in steep decline. What happened? Shortly after the turn of century, America’s largest virtual retailer, famously founded to sell one product, made an extraordinary shift. I Turn! After years of only mailing goods to home shoppers, it started operating dozens of physical stores throughout the country. A model of operational efficiency, the essay on yourself for interview company was light-years ahead of its peers in both technology and strategy, with a devotion to low prices, unrivaled choice, and customer service. It grew to become a microcosm of the U.S. economy, spanning not only retail but also warehousing and marketing. Is the how do i turn my dissertation into a book above paragraph about othello irony Sears in the 20th century or Amazon in the 21st century?

As I wrote last week, it’s both. Sears’s playbook both explains and predicts the awe-inspiring (and, occasionally, confusion-inspiring) strategy of Jeff Bezos and his Seattle juggernaut. But as much as Amazon’s leaders can learn about their own company by studying Sears’s incredible rise, they can learn even more by studying Sears’s steep decline. The foundation of Donald Trump’s presidency is the negation of Barack Obama’s legacy. It is insufficient to state the obvious of Donald Trump: that he is a white man who would not be president were it not for this fact. With one immediate exception, Trump’s predecessors made their way to how do my dissertation high office through the up in country essay passive power of whiteness—that bloody heirloom which cannot ensure mastery of all events but can conjure a tailwind for most of them. Land theft and human plunder cleared the grounds for my dissertation a book Trump’s forefathers and barred others from it.

Once upon the field, these men became soldiers, statesmen, and scholars; held court in Paris; presided at Princeton; advanced into the Wilderness and then into the White House. Their individual triumphs made this exclusive party seem above America’s founding sins, and on yourself, it was forgotten that the former was in i turn into, fact bound to the latter, that all their victories had transpired on cleared grounds. Waves! No such elegant detachment can be attributed to Donald Trump—a president who, more than any other, has made the awful inheritance explicit. The world’s most powerful information gatekeepers neglected their duties in Las Vegas. Again. In the crucial early hours after the Las Vegas mass shooting, it happened again: Hoaxes, completely unverified rumors, failed witch hunts, and blatant falsehoods spread across the internet. But they did not do so by themselves: They used the how do i turn infrastructure that Google and growing up in world, Facebook and YouTube have built to achieve wide distribution. These companies are the most powerful information gatekeepers that the world has ever known, and yet they refuse to take responsibility for their active role in damaging the how do into a book quality of disasters information reaching the how do my dissertation a book public. BuzzFeed ’s Ryan Broderick found that Google’s “top stories” results surfaced 4chan forum posts about a man that right-wing amateur sleuths had incorrectly identified as the Las Vegas shooter.

What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an engineering individual do about climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Research shows that using curse words can persuade everyone from voters to your co-workers. Depression, anxiety, overeating, addiction, and all other mental disorders share a common mechanism.

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