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Arguments For and Against Banning Boxing. Since completing university, Paul has worked as a bookseller, librarian, and freelance writer. Born in the UK, he now lives in Florida. Boxing has existed in some form since at least 688 BC when the ancient Greeks made it an essay, Olympic game, but its history has often been a controversial one. Fans argue that the sport encourages physical fitness and discipline, as well as providing a way for young people way to remove themselves from poverty. Research Paper! Critics, however, believe that boxing is about my family in english, barbaric, unacceptably dangerous and should be banned. Modern boxing developed in in the mla format the UK and USA in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. The Marquess of Queensberry rules, drafted in my family 1867, eventually helped boxing to make the gradual transition into being a modern sport after a long period when it had possessed only dubious legitimacy. Below are the main arguments for and against that are employed by people debating the issue of whether boxing should be banned. Boxing is the only sport you can get your brain shook, your money took and your name in the undertaker book.
Boxing is see a research paper, a lot of white men watching two black men beat each other up. Arguments for Boxing Being Banned. The sport is barbaric and no better than an organized physical assault, which would be illegal in any other context. Essay My Family In English! The fact that the participants are taking part voluntarily is case, irrelevant - in some senses, boxing resembles dueling, which was a normal part of life for many years, but is now banned. There are injuries that occur accidentally in other sports, but in boxing causing a head injury in the form of a knockout to your opponent is actually one of the main objectives.
Although deaths that occur during fights are rare, many doctors believe that boxing should be banned because of the eye and in english, brain injuries that can be caused by repeated punches to war 1 essay the head. These injuries may go unnoticed at the time, but cause the about, boxer serious problems in nursing later life. There are very few professional fighters who's brains end up unscathed by the end of their career. Professional boxing glamorizes violence and essay about in english, the concept of becoming rich and famous through physical aggression. This sends children especially the entirely wrong message. Although boxing may appear to nursing case studies offer a quick and easy route to about riches, it is in fact a poor choice.
Apart from the very real health risks, boxers are commonly exploited economically and even the most successful ones can often end up penniless. All of the sports have a safety net, but boxing is the only sport that has none. So when the fighter is through, he is through. While he was fighting his management was very excited for him, but now that he is persuasive speech abortion, done, that management team is moving on. The trouble with boxing is that too often it ends in sadness. Essay About My Family In English! Stone carvings show that Sumerians engaged in boxing fights over 5,000 years ago. Boxing disappeared after the Romans for a long time and didn't reappear until the late 1600s in England.
The fighting was brutal, with bare-knuckle bouts continuing until one of the boxers could no longer continue. Rule changes came in problems research 1743, with the London Prize Ring Rules, and again over a century later when the Marquess of my family, Queensberry rules introduced gloves and three minute rounds with one minute breaks. Abortion Pro Life! Boxing is like jazz. The better it is, the essay about in english, less people appreciate it. Arguments Against Boxing Being Banned.
Boxing requires a high degree of physical fitness, if you wish to be successful, so it teaches young people to look after their bodies. There is no general intent in boxing to nursing case cardiac injure the opponent. Rather, the primary aim is to score the most points by hitting strictly defined regions of the body. The sport teaches discipline. As well as things like exercise and essay, diet, it also informs young people when, and when not to fight, emphasizing the paper, need for establishing mental control as well as physical. It also gives young people self-defense skills and can increase self-esteem, including the ability to defend themselves if physically assaulted. The vast majority of boxers train and fight not because they want to make lots of money, but because they enjoy it as a sport. Essay About My Family! Nobody is forced to box or watch a fight, all participants do so through their own free will. Colorful Essay! Those who don’t like the about, sport should just ignore it if they don’t like it. Critics unfairly target boxing because it more obviously resembles a fight, rather than other sports which can be physically aggressive, such as ice hockey, or rugby, where there is a puck, or a ball to provide the focus.
Likewise, the high degree of world, strategy and tactics employed by boxers are often missed by inexperienced observers. Boxing is a way for people to remove themselves from poverty. Other doors that may not be an essay my family in english, option for a young boxer, such as a college education, and the sport provides another route to research papers social and economic advancement. Essay About! At the very least it can provide a sense of self-respect. Without boxing, because of nursing studies, my neighborhoods, who knows what would have happened to me. It was always about following the leader. And I definitely was not a leader. Boxing gave me discipline; a sense of self.
It made me more outspoken. It gave me more confidence. Sugar Ray Leonard. Boxing is essay in english, a sport. We allow each other to hit each other, but I'm not treating my opponent like my enemy. Writing A Research In The! We're doing a job to my family entertain people. Do you think that boxing should be banned? The brutalities of nursing case studies cardiac, a fight with bare hands, the crushed nasal bones, maimed lips, and other disfigurements, which call for the utter abolition of boxing in the interests of humanity, at essay my family in english once disappear when the contestants cover their hands with large, soft-leather gloves. John Boyle O'Reilly. 15 Boxing Champions With the Most Impressive Reach/Arm Span. by Charles Nuamah 0. Greatest Sports Rivalries: Muhammad Ali vs.
Joe Frazier. by EJ Lambert 6. Chuck Wepner: The Man who Inspired the Movie “Rocky” by Readmikenow 11. Why Roberto Durán Is the Greatest Boxer of All Time. Persuasive Speech Pro Life! How to Use the Dempsey Roll in Boxing. by CJMcAllister 1. Why Roberto Durán Is the Greatest Boxer of All Time. 15 Boxing Champions With the about my family, Most Impressive Reach/Arm Span. by persuasive pro life, Charles Nuamah 0. I think boxing should not be banned. Hi this is a good story and boxing shouldn't be banned.
HEY SUP NOTHING MUCH 6 months ago. Boxing SHOULD NOT be banned because not just boxing is essay in english, dangerous, but any other sports could be dangerous. So if we ban boxing, what is going to be banned next? Volleyball? Water polo?
Soccer? Football? Hockey? I have so, many reasons why boxing should not be banned but this is one of the reasons why. Max Spiller 6 months ago. Person on writing paper in the mla format, the Internet 7 months ago. I think that boxing should be banned on tv and in real life. Sure, people think it's fun and you train for self defense, but if you look at it differently, you are pretty much beating another person up! That's not cool bro. About In English! teri an hortan ryder 8 months ago. it should be banned because it promotes little children to world war 1 essay introduction fight and hurt people. A cool star 9 months ago. About My Family! I think it should not be banned from the earth it is because it is very important for the peoples to save from the people who love fighting. no dont ban boxing.
Enjoy every bit of life 11 months ago. I vote for not banning boxing. There are a number of see a research paper, dangerous sports (auto racing, American football, rugby,bull riding rodeo, X-games sports etc) and you can't ban all of them. If it isn't banned at least adjust the rules of pro boxing: i.e. use the rules and the headgear presently found in essay about in english amateur boxing to help mitigate some of the severe consequences of introduction, boxing while maintaining the essay about my family, skill, discipline physical fitness etc mentioned in the arguments against boxing being banning. Boxing shouldn't be banned because the people in world the ring are willingly hitting each other. No one person was ever forced to box. Most of the time it was an alternative to going to jail.
If the essay about in english, men in the ring were forced to do what they do it wouldn't be considered a sport it would be a punishment. Speech! Every hit in boxing builds strategy skills. Constantly looking for essay my family in english an open hit. conor mcgregor 12 months ago. boxing should NOT be banned :) DOUBLE MMA CHAMP AND UFC TRIPLE BELT 12 months ago. Boxing, Karate, Tai Jutsu and all other forms of Martial Arts should be respected and not banned due to their cultural richness. Wow there shouldn't really be a debate on this, boxing should just be banned all up. Problems Education! i think it should be banned because people getting hurt i dont want that. The reasons for not banning boxing were poor excuses and about my family in english, completely untrue. An article from neurological studies was the education research, strongest argument by itself, and our 21st century era has outgrown boxing. What boxing officials don't seem to grasp is that boxing gloves and head protection doesn't protect because the human head wasn't designed to essay in english take much in studies cardiac blows, regardless if it has artificial padding around it. The protection just adds a ton of weight that moves under force and impacts the head. Regardless of how they change the regulations, boxing is my family in english, meant to impact the head for force the nursing cardiac, opponents to knockout or submit when they've had enough blows. Why people agree that bõing should not be banned.
mwilliams66 5 years ago from Left Coast, USA. I am in no way a proponent of essay about, boxing. In fact I very much dislike it. This however, does not taint the fact that I don't believe it should be banned. I believe it would only serve to drive it underground. What I do feel should be banned is extreme fighting and MMA. See A Paper! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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Reflexivity: A Concept and its Meanings for Practitioners Working with Children and Families. Senior Lecturer in Social Work. School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Waterfront campus. Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Philip Gillingham, B.A. (Hons), M.S.W., CQSW. Lecturer in Social Work.
School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Waterfront campus. Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Bethany Community Support. North Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Reflexivity is a concept that is increasingly gaining currency in professional practice literature, particularly in relation to working with uncertainty and as an important feature of professional discretion and ethical practice.
This article discusses how practitioners working in child and family welfare/protection organisations understood and about in english interpreted the concept of writing a research paper in the, reflexivity for their practice, as one of the outcomes of larger, collaborative research project. Essay About My Family? This project was conducted through a series of workshops with practitioners. The overall research that aimed to research paper expand practitioners’ practice repertoires from narrowly-defined risk assessment, to an approach that could account for the uncertainties of practice, included the concept of essay, reflexivity as an alternative or a complement to instrumental accountability that is increasingly a feature in child welfare/protection organisations. Paper In The Mla Format? This article discusses how the concept of reflexivity was explored in the research and how practitioners interpreted the concept for their practice. We conclude that while concepts like reflexivity are central to formal theories for professional practice, we also recognise that individual practitioners interpret concepts (in ways that are both practically and about in english contextually relevant), thus creating practical meanings appropriate to their practice contexts. Reflexivity is a concept that is increasingly gaining currency in professional practice literature, particularly in relation to papers working with uncertainty (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; 2000b) and as an important feature of professional discretion and ethical practice (Fook 1996, 1999; Taylor White, 2000). In an earlier article (D’Cruz, Gillingham Melendez, 2007), the authors critically reviewed the social work literature to explore the in english, many meanings of the world essay, concept of reflexivity for social work theory, practice and research. About My Family? In our previous article, we demonstrated how terms such as ‘reflexivity’, ‘reflectivity’ and ‘critical reflection’ are used by different authors to nursing case mean very different things (sometimes interchangeably) ( for example, Jessup Rogerson, 1999, p. Essay My Family In English? 176; Leonard, 1999,p. vii; Pease Fook, 1999, pp. 13, 17, 231; Boud, 1999; Briggs, 1999; Rea, 2000; Mosca Yost, 2001).
We proposed that there were three main variations in the meaning of the concept, each of which had slightly different, though at times overlapping, consequences for social work practice. These variations are summarized below. In the problems bilingual papers, first variation, reflexivity is regarded as an individual’s considered response to an immediate context and is concerned with the ability of service users to process information and create knowledge to guide life choices (Roseneil Seymour, 1999; Kondrat, 1999; Elliott, 2001; Ferguson, 2003, 2004). In the second variation, reflexivity is defined as a social worker’s self-critical approach that questions how knowledge about clients is generated and, further, how relations of power operate in this process (White Stancombe, 2003; Taylor and White, 2000; Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; Sheppard, Newstead, Caccavo Ryan, 2000). In the third variation, reflexivity is concerned with the part that emotion plays in my family in english, social work practice (Kondrat, 1999; Mills Kleinman, 1988; Miehls Moffat, 2000; Ruch, 2002). We surmised that the diversity of meanings that emerge from a critical analysis of terms such as ‘reflexivity’ and ‘reflection’ is indicative that such concepts are relatively new to social work and abortion pro life their meanings for the profession are still being debated. Further, that the diversity of meanings increases the possibilities for expanding practice repertoires and debate should be encouraged rather than some form of closure sought. In this article we discuss how practitioners working in child and family welfare/protection organisations understood and interpreted the essay my family, concept of reflexivity for world war 1 their practice, as one of the about my family in english, outcomes of mla format, a larger, collaborative research project. The overall research aimed to expand practitioners’ practice repertoires from narrowly-defined risk assessment, to an approach that could account for essay my family the uncertainties of practice through a range of concepts (D’Cruz, et al., 2004; D’Cruz and Gillingham, 2005; D’Cruz et al., in press).
Reflexivity was one of these concepts, that we introduced to participants as an alternative or a complement to instrumental accountability that is increasingly a feature in child welfare/protection organisations (Howe, 1992; Parton et al., 1997). As discussed further below (see also D’Cruz et al., in press) a theoretical aim of the research was to explore how a concept, such as reflexivity, drawn from a social constructionist paradigm could be combined with practice approaches dominated by instrumental accountability. The question of how practitioners might combine the two was central as, in theory, the approaches are considered to be incommensurable. We conclude that while concepts like reflexivity are central to formal theories for professional practice, it must also be recognised that individual practitioners interpret concepts, thus creating practical meanings appropriate to their practice contexts. Professional practice in contemporary child and family welfare/protection organisations. From the mid-1980s to the end of the 1990s, child and education family policy and my family in english practice in many western countries such as the UK, the US and Australia became increasingly proceduralised and bureaucratised (Howe, 1992) following coronial and public inquiries into the deaths and serious injuries to children in the care of their parents/caregivers.
Risk management through risk assessment checklists was the preferred approach that aimed to minimise “practice mistakes” (Walton, 1993) seen as consequences of case studies, professional discretion and autonomy, and “subjective” decision making (Reder, Duncan Gray, 1993). About? Risk assessment criteria as prescriptive checklists represented rationality that could manage the research paper, uncertainty and unpredictability associated with ensuring the care and protection of children living with their parents (Parton, 1998), and thus minimise or eradicate “practice mistakes” (Walton, 1993). Professionals including social workers were expected to about my family in english adhere to procedures, with “substantive accountability” to clients (children and families) replaced by “instrumental accountability” to the organisation (Bauman, 1987). The proliferation of research and literature critiquing these developments in persuasive speech pro life, child and family welfare/protection organisations has generated alternatives that recognise the necessity for essay professional discretion and papers participatory ethical practice with children and parents. These alternatives include the recognition of both the “dangers” and “opportunities” presented by protective practice (Ferguson, 1997), the importance of critically-reflective practice and “dialogue” (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a) between parents, children and practitioners, and reflexive practice that foregrounds the connections between professional knowledge and professional power in situated practice (Taylor White, 2000). The theoretical perspective informing many of these critiques and practice alternatives is about my family, social constructionism, that offers justification for re-introducing professional discretion and autonomy, on the grounds that all social practices including professional practice, involve people making meaning through social processes (Parton et al., 1997; D’Cruz, 2004). This perspective challenges the implicit assumption of paper, instrumentalist risk assessment approaches that there is an objective truth about the care and about protection of children that can be established if prescribed assessment procedures are followed. Writing Mla Format? In some contexts, such as in about, Britain, these critiques have influenced changes in colorful essay, child and family policy and practice so that instrumentalist forms of essay in english, risk assessment have been replaced by broader family-focused approaches (Ferguson, 1997; Parton, 1997).
However, in the Australian context where the research discussed in this article was conducted, instrumentalist risk assessment approaches continue to dominate, as evidenced by the continued use and implementation of the Victorian Risk Framework (DHS, 1999) and ‘Structured Decision Making’ in South Australia (Hetherington, 1999) and Queensland (Leeks, 2006). Colorful Essay? A full discussion about why risk assessment approaches continue to dominate in Australia is, however, beyond the scope of essay in english, this article. Exploring an expanded practice repertoire: a summary of the persuasive abortion pro life, research. The research that is discussed in this article incorporates these approaches within a conceptual framework that explicitly recognises both risk assessment and social constructionism as important to professional practice. We have not dismissed the necessity for risk assessment in some form, nor do we believe it is productive to dismiss the organisational contexts in which practitioners work. Instead we have explored the possibilities of an essay about my family, approach that accepts the practical, ethical, professional and legal bases for risk assessment, and the opportunities for the space of practice that is silenced organisationally and for individuals namely, the introduction, discretionary aspects of practice. This research emerged from the first author’s PhD research, which explored how meanings and my family identities were constructed in child protection practice (D’Cruz, 1999; 2004), rather than being predictable outcomes as absolute ‘realities’ achieved by heavily proceduralised and instrumental practice informed by the risk paradigm (Howe, 1992; Parton et al., 1997). A Research Mla Format? The approach taken that accommodates both perspectives ( D’Cruz, 1999; 2004, p. 255-261), described as “juxtaposing seeming incommensurables” (Marcus, 1994, p. 566) in post-modern thought, explored the possibilities of putting together concepts or phenomena that might be considered as mutually exclusive or polarities (Hassard, 1993). For example, ideas of “realism” (as absolute, objective reality) and “relativism” (reality is relative, being constructed by participants) (Edwards, Ashmore Potter, 1995) are usually seen as mutually exclusive and oppositional concepts.
This approach is known as “dualism” (Heap, 1995), that accepts a physical reality that may generate a variety of plausible, and relative explanations and meanings depending on the situated positioning of participants (Reason and Bradbury, 2001, p. 6). For child welfare/protection, a dualist position allows for an acceptance of children’s lived experiences that include material disadvantage, oppression and trauma, and the necessity for ‘risk assessment’, while also acknowledging that these experiences may be explained and understood from many, competing perspectives (D’Cruz, 2004; D’Cruz et al., 2004). Child protection practitioners usually have to negotiate these multiple explanations in each case and decide which version is ‘truth’. The research that explored the possibilities of in english, expanding the practice repertoire available to child protection practitioners incorporated three dimensions: theories of knowledge and power, related professional roles, and practice skills. Persuasive Abortion Pro Life? The second and third dimension are beyond the scope of this article and here we focus on essay my family one part of the first dimension, the concept of reflexivity. We briefly discuss below the studies cardiac, five features of the first dimension, to contextualise how reflexivity was part of the about my family, overall research and especially of the first dimension.
The first dimension, theories of knowledge and power, draws on assumptions about knowledge and the practitioner’s relationship to colorful essay knowledge represented as practice decisions informed by the risk paradigm and social constructionism. This dimension begins from the about my family, position that the risk paradigm and social constructionism are represented in theory as mutually exclusive, each with particular defining features. The proposed alternative conceptual approach moves from this position of mutually exclusive perspectives to paper explore whether features of each perspective may be combined in different ways in practice as a way of essay, expanding professional knowledge and practice repertoires for practitioners (D’Cruz et al., in press). Overall, the five features of the first dimension of the conceptual framework related to war 1 how theories of knowledge and essay my family power may be represented in regard to views about speech abortion pro life ‘reality’, ‘truth’ and essay about in english ‘knowledge’ and expertise and see a authority. For example, whether knowledge is objective and about absolute (real) or an war 1 essay, outcome of alternative, contestable meanings (relative); and essay in english the relationship of knowledge to the speaker/author/knower (privilege/positioning). Instrumental rationality and reflexivity were the first feature of this dimension and, as explained below, reflexivity seemed to writing in the have the essay my family, greatest resonance for the practitioners in terms of how they could relate it to their practice. To explore how practitioners might be able to expand their practice repertoires through the possibility of juxtaposing concepts like reflexivity and instrumental rationality that are regarded as polarised and mutually exclusive, a research project, ‘Developing a practice-generated approach to policy implementation’, was developed (D’Cruz et al., in world war 1 essay introduction, press). The aim was to my family in english develop an alternative approach for child protection practice that would account for ethical, legal and bureaucratic demands while providing “child centred, family focused” services (e.g.
Ferguson, 1997) beyond surveillance and monitoring that Donzelot (1980) refers to problems bilingual papers as “policing families”. Hence the research was designed to explore the assumptions about knowledge and power underlying the main contemporary theoretical approaches to child protection, namely, risk assessment and social constructionism, that as abstract theories are considered as “incommensurable” or mutually exclusive, yet might be combined in practice through the exercise of discretion. About My Family? In this article, we focus specifically on how practitioners who were research participants were engaged in regard to in the mla format the concept of reflexivity as either an alternative to or complement for instrumental rationality that was/is the norm in their organisational contexts. Generally, “incommensurability” is taken to mean that different paradigms cannot be compared as each has self-contained criteria that include what is relevant to the paradigm and simultaneously demarcates what is my family, not (Feyerabend, 1975; Lee, 1994; Jacobs, 2002a; 2002b). Within this definition, the risk paradigm and social constructionism cannot be compared as they are considered to be incommensurable, as each is a self-contained perspective. We believe they can be compared on the grounds that they offer different perspectives of see a research, social reality and professional practice.
From a post-modernist perspective that claims that one can “juxtapose seeming incommensurables” (Marcus, 1994, p. 566) we have taken an about in english, approach that does not claim to combine entire self-contained paradigms. Instead, we have identified a few key features of each paradigm as being important for professional discretion and ethical practice and have incorporated these into our overall conceptual framework. Colorful Essay? This approach also draws from Feyerabend’s (1975) conceptualisation of the need for “pluralism” of apparently conflicting theoretical perspectives so that theories can better explain/understand “realities” that may not be adequately addressed through single approaches . Reflexivity (and its conceptual opposite, instrumental rationality) are two such concepts that are identified here as representing how professionals are expected to work from different paradigms or perspectives (in our research, social constructionism and the risk paradigm, respectively). We have aimed to explore whether reflexivity and instrumental rationality could be considered as two ‘ends’ of a continuum of possibilities that may generate countless variations to improve practice options. The idea of a conceptual continuum from a professional practice perspective, is similar to about my family the “grey areas” of practice that are well known to practitioners, as the vast majority of cases do not fit neatly within prescribed official categories and related theories (Parton, 1991). How do practitioners understand the concept of reflexivity and its relationship to instrumental rationality in their practice? Research Participants and Procedures. The research was conducted in 2002 and 2003. There were ten participants in the first cohort, and seven in the second. The first group of participants involved senior practitioners and the second group involved relatively more recent graduates (primarily social workers).
The participants were employed at child welfare/child protection organisations in Victoria, Australia, namely, the Department of Human Services (Barwon South-Western Region), Glastonbury Child and abortion pro life Family Services, and MacKillop Family Services. Participants from in english, each organisation were recruited by invitation using a plain language statement and participation required written consent. The research was facilitated by research, the first author who was also an active participant in the research process. In 2002, the essay about in english, second author was a senior child protection practitioner who participated in the research as a key informant and as research assistant. In 2003, the second author continued to participate as a key informant and the third author, who was a Bachelor of Social Work (Honours) student, was employed as a research assistant.
The particular challenges and opportunities of conducting collaborative research across a range of agencies are discussed more fully in D’Cruz Gillingham (2005), as are the ethical and practical dilemmas of (and the particular insights gained from) the multiple roles occupied by the researchers. Key concerns in this process were how participants perceived the multiple roles of the researchers and how they themselves could step aside from their normal (and potentially oppositional purchaser/provider) roles. In order to writing a research paper in the mla format address these concerns, rules about the confidentiality of about, comments made and written were clarified at the beginning and persuasive speech during the workshops. The participants were also drawn from an area where practitioners move from one employer to another and so have to accommodate the changing roles of about my family, colleagues. Comments from the participants indicated that they welcomed the opportunity to debate issues with each other in the workshop that they would not be able to discuss in their normal occupational roles. Participants in both cohorts attended five focus groups that covered the three dimensions of the case studies, alternative approach. These were referred to as “workshops” in order to reflect the essay about, collaborative and dialogic nature of the research and the participation, rather than just facilitation, by the researchers in the sessions. The first workshop (half-day) introduced the world introduction, research and explored participants’ perceptions of the about in english, context in which they worked, and the extent of discretion and professional power they believed they had (and sought to exercise) in their organisations and in relation to problems bilingual education clients. These perceptions were important as they suggested how each practitioner/participant might engage with abstract concepts to be addressed in the research, as opposed to prescribed procedures, in their work environment. Furthermore, perceptions about the essay about my family in english, extent of their discretion in their employing organisations might also influence how participants perceived the value of the see a paper, research itself for its contributions to their practice.
At the second workshop (full day), reflexivity (and instrumental rationality) were explored as part of the first dimension of the conceptual framework, theories of knowledge and essay about in english power. The third and fourth workshops (full days) the remaining dimensions of the alternative approach, namely, theories, professional roles and practice skills. At the end of the fourth workshop, participants were asked to writing a research in the mla format apply any aspects of the about in english, approach to their practice and document it along with critical comments (Stringer, 1996; Reason Bradbury, 2001). Participants were alerted to the likelihood that they would not be able to writing a research mla format apply the entire conceptual approach in every case; nor were they expected to. This advice was given because the my family, facilitator recognised from her own practice experience that specific cases do not fit tidily within the generalities of formal theory hence the tensions between ‘theory’ and ‘practice’ (Fook, 1996; 1999; Camilleri, 1996; 1999). At the fifth and final workshop (half-day) participants discussed their examples of how they applied the colorful essay, approach to their practice and my family in english offered critical feedback.
Each workshop discussion relied on plain language definitions and semi-structured questions that had been mailed to a research participants prior to the workshop to facilitate their engagement with particular dimensions of the alternative approach. The conceptual features of each dimension and essay about my family in english their plain language definitions were refined in discussion between the Principal Researcher (also first author) and the second author who, at the initiation of the nursing case studies, research, was employed as a senior child protection practitioner in a large statutory organisation. The definitions, questions and related readings were mailed to participants before each workshop to allow them time to consider and my family in english critically engage with the materials. Figure 1 sets out the plain language definitions and explanations of “instrumental rationality” and “reflexivity” that were mailed to participants prior to paper their attendance at workshop two. Reflexivity (Hassard, 1993; Taylor White, 2000): An important practice skill and central to working ethically in uncertain contexts and unpredictable situations as opposed to instrumental accountability (following rules and procedures). Critical self-awareness by the practitioner, in how he or she understands and engages with social problems. Realisation that our assumptions about social problems and the people who experience these problems have ethical and practical consequences. Questioning of personal practice, knowledge and assumptions. The following questions were provided to facilitate practitioners’ engagement with questioning their practice assumptions and their interpretation of the concept of reflexivity: How do I know what I think I know about this person and their problem?
What has my experience of this immediate situation and the person(s) involved in it contributed to my conclusions for my practice? Is there at least one other way of understanding this situation and in english the people involved? Is there any possibility that this situation or aspects of it can be seen as the normal consequences of everyday life and/or broader structural disadvantage? How can I use my professional knowledge and associated power as productively as possible? Figure 1: Plain language definitions and critical questions about “reflexivity” and “instrumental accountability” During the workshops, data were generated by engaging the participants in problems bilingual education research papers, discussion about the questions (in Figure 1). They were also given time to provide written responses to material provided in the workshops, which asked them to consider how they might incorporate the proposed concepts into their practice. In 2002, the workshop discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed but this proved to be less than satisfactory. Essay My Family In English? A particular problem was that participants, in the heat of the debate, tended to speak over each other (and at research paper, the same time), making the my family in english, transcription fragmented and difficult to follow. Consequently this was not repeated in 2003, but extensive notes of the discussion were taken by the research assistant and research facilitator (first author). During the workshops in both 2002 and 2003, an electronic whiteboard was used to capture salient points during the discussions with the colorful essay, participants at the workshops and these were printed off.
The use of the whiteboard also allowed participants and researchers the opportunity to clarify the points being made. Participants were encouraged to comment on whether the researcher using the my family, whiteboard had adequately captured their meaning, This approach to data recording, known as “member checking” (Rubin Babbie, 2005) was concerned with the point that “(t)he central meanings attached to objects or relations should reflect the beliefs that the insiders hold about these” (Kellehear, 1993, p. 38) and that “(v)alidity here begins with the convergence of the researcher and the subject’s ideas about the subject’s view of the world” (Kellehear, 1993, p. 38). The participants’ responses were analysed in accordance with principles drawn from qualitative research, whereby the researcher aims to identify patterns and contradictions in the data and interpret subjective meanings generated by the participants (Everitt, Hardiker, Littlewood Mullender, 1992). Problems Bilingual Research? “Open coding” (Strauss Corbin, 1990) was used to start analyzing the about in english, data and involved reading through the range of documents generated by participants through their written responses and the discussions. Themes in relation to how participants defined reflexivity in relation to their practice were then identified, as they emerged from the data (Strauss Corbin, 1990), and categorised according to the interpretations of the researchers. Throughout this process, themes were expanded, developed and changed through the identification of direct quotes from participants and repeated reading of the data. This process continued until no new themes emerged. The particular challenges of conducting collaborative research are discussed more fully elsewhere (see D’Cruz and Gillingham, 2005), as are the essay introduction, limitations of the research design, both practically and theoretically (see D’Cruz et al., in press). Particular limitations can be summarised as follows. The number of participants was small and in english we acknowledge that a larger number of participants would have strengthened any claims made. We also relied on the accounts of the participants of how they tried to integrate the alternative concepts in their practice rather than observe them directly. We also acknowledge that the findings of the research are closely linked to the context in which it was conducted, a context which changes (and has changed since the research was conducted) continually and sometimes swiftly.
The concept of reflexivity as interpreted by practitioners/participants. Of all the concepts explored in this part of the research, reflexivity seemed to have greatest resonance for participants, as it seemed to fundamentally relate to knowledge, theory and practice and the connections between these ideas. Colorful Essay? In particular, it also resonated with their recognition of the discretion that they have in their practice, however limited this may be by organisational settings. (The other concepts that had greatest resonance for the participants seemed to relate more specifically to the other two dimensions that have not been addressed in this article, namely, professional roles and practice skills.) In fact, the richness of the data related to about reflexivity enabled us to develop a detailed analysis (D’Cruz et al., 2004), which we now present below. Firstly we present the different meanings of reflexivity that participants generated and secondly their engagement with the notion of power/knowledge as it relates to the definition of reflexivity that they were given. We were able to identify six themes that represented the participants’ conceptualisations of reflexivity in relation to their practice: as self-reflection, distinct from reflection.
as a way to combine objectivity and problems bilingual education research papers subjectivity. as a critical appraisal of action and knowledge creation, in the moment. reflexivity as a tool for practice/an introspective process. reflexivity as a learning tool/critical practice approach. as a process of about my family in english, critical reflection on policy (D’Cruz et al., 2004) These six themes are considered in papers, more detail below. While we acknowledge that there are considerable overlaps between some of the themes, we have separated them out in order to convey the subtleties and range of meaning in essay, the responses. Due to the way that the responses were recorded during group discussions, we were not able to identify participants individually, but have been able to identify and include which of the two cohorts they belonged to (2002 or 2003).
This identifying information is case studies, significant in that the two cohorts (as explained above in the section “Research Participants and Procedures”) differed in terms of professional roles and experience. The 2002 cohort were mainly team leaders and supervisors, while those involved in 2003 were all relatively recently qualified practitioners. Practitioners’ Meanings of essay my family in english, Reflexivity. as self-reflection, distinct from reflection. Some of the participants defined reflexivity as the nursing case, use of essay about my family in english, intuition or tacit knowledge (Polyani 1967) to make sense of a situation and also as a way of cardiac, combining the use of the essay about my family, intellect and the emotions to do so. The inclusion of self (including emotional responses) in the critical approach to knowledge creation are conveyed by the following quotes: reflection is kinda looking out and looking at writing a research paper, everything whereas reflexivity is doing that but including yourself in essay in english, that . (emphasis added) (2002) Need to be aware of internal (emotional responses and “gut feelings”) and external (things go on around us) factors. . . (2003) (2) as a way to combine objectivity and subjectivity.
The participants engaged with the writing a research mla format, idea of a continuum between instrumental rationality and reflexivity as a way of combining objectivity and subjectivity, of moving between the about in english, two and legitimating both approaches to knowledge creation in practice, as demonstrated by the following quotes: I sort of saw it as combining objectivity and subjectivity. Writing Paper Mla Format? . . . So you can be both, objective and subjective in the same context. . About In English? . Problems Education Research Papers? (2002) [At the essay my family in english, instrumental accountability end of the continuum] the assumption can only be. . . [that] if you’re objective then you can’t be subjective. See A Research Paper? . . whereas it’s actually contextually okay to be both. And it’s realistic to essay about in english be both. World War 1 Essay? (2002) reflection is kinda looking out and looking at in english, everything whereas reflexivity is colorful essay, doing that but including yourself in that (2002) These interpretations of the concept of reflexivity, in relation to instrumental accountability resonate with one of the original aims of this research, which was to investigate whether and how two seemingly polarized approaches to social work practice in child protection can be combined. Though we do not have these participants’ definitions of objectivity and subjectivity, it appears from the essay, context of the discussion that they identifying the ‘instrumental rationality’ end of the continuum with ‘objectivity’ and the ‘reflexivity’ end with ‘subjectivity’. It appears that, for them, the concept of colorful essay, reflexivity offered the opportunity to my family practice in two ways at the same time. Another participant, however, saw reflexivity as a way of acknowledging his/her personal emotional response and then distancing him/herself from this response in order to increase his/her objectivity: This helps me make sense of my responses to what I am being told. It helps me distance myself from my emotional responses to the person who is speaking to me. . . In The? . If I figure out that my emotional response is mirroring theirs, or that I am being convinced by their presentation rather than anything else, then I change my emotional response, or put it aside, to become more objective. (2003) (3) as a critical appraisal of action and knowledge creation, in the moment.
For some participants reflexivity allowed questioning of what is a ‘fact’ and essay about my family in english a broadening of what might be considered pertinent to an assessment: Reflexivity for me means being able to a research more broadly consider the client’s experience of the world rather than through the narrow confines of accountability through procedures (sic) facts and bottom lines. (2003) One participant gave the example of my family, when the application of reflexivity allowed for alternative explanations for a mother’s behaviour in problems research, a domestic violence situation. Although (I was) very much aware of theory re DV and cycle of violence, the information, context and presentation of about my family, mother were quite confronting. Writing A Research Paper In The Mla Format? Rationalizing in my own head drawing on the context of her life/environment, my knowledge of theory and past experience of DV situations to assist with making sense and understand the mother’s thought processes. . . (2003) This application of the concept led to a reassessment of the situation rather than the mother’s behaviour being considered as just a breach of procedures. Essay About In English? This questioning also extended to how formal theories and knowledge are applied in practice. The example given here concerned theories about the cause and effects of domestic violence.
The questioning of a research paper in the, ‘fact’, knowledge and theory is exemplified by the following: valuing and holding fairly highly, the practice of conducting reflexivity. Essay About In English? . . bring that sort of ‘third eye’ stuff. . . you keep making explicit the fact that that’s what you’re doing. War 1? The stopping and thinking about why you did, and where you did and what you did. And that navel gazing I guess is the notion. (2002) The reference to ‘navel gazing’ in the above quote could have quite negative connotations in that it could be read that applying the essay about my family, concept of reflexivity could lead to endless, or at least time-consuming, introspection and a lack of bilingual research papers, action. (4) reflexivity as a tool for practice/an introspective process. Reflexivity was conceptualized as a practice tool that could be used to change and enhance practice. Essay? As in version three, reflexivity was conceptualized as an colorful essay, introspective process, something that a practitioner can engage with on essay about my family in english their own:
It’s about change, it’s about changing your own practice in some subtle way or changing something outside the practice which is speech abortion, why we are actually talking to someone. . that the internal conversation goes on about . . (emphasis added) (2002) valuing and holding fairly highly, the practice of conducting reflexivity. . . bring that sort of ‘third eye’ stuff. . . Problems Bilingual Education? you keep making explicit the fact that that’s what you’re doing. The stopping and thinking about why you did, and where you did and what you did. And that navel gazing I guess is the notion . . . (emphasis added) (2002) Reflexivity is an about my family in english, ongoing ‘live’ process going on internally as the outside world impacts on me. (2003) (5) reflexivity as a learning tool/critical practice approach. Reflexivity was conceptualized as a learning tool, as a process for creating rules to guide practice and enhance ‘practice wisdom’. Participants alluded to the idea that reflexivity can be used to sort out ‘what works’ in a particular situation, without having to ‘reinvent the wheel’. This is encapsulated in the following quote: . . . reflexivity creates a helpful rule in the context, then you might have a . . . point here and the next time you confront a similar situation, you might think, I can try and use that knowledge or rule that I created in that last case, let’s try it and if it works you do it and your reflexivity says if it isn’t working what can you do next. . . (2002) This quote also refers to the use of reflexivity as a continual and critical process of a research in the, questioning how knowledge to guide practice is created. However, reflexivity as a critical approach and as a learning tool was not considered to be easy and generated a level of essay about my family, discomfort: But even if you don’t say anything about see a research it, you’re just doing the reflecting on yourself, it kind of, it’s not a comfortable feeling for people. (2002)
The process of practising reflexivity and about moving to that end of the continuum was considered as also being ‘scary’, while the instrumentalist end of the continuum was associated with safety: I mean it is a research in the, that balance between it being scary and discomfort and I mean, I think there is probably a lot of staff that would sort of ‘just tell me what to do, how to do, what is the rule here, what is about my family in english, (sic) the rules to follow, how do I interpret this, whatever else’ and abortion pro life if you go back to them and take them through a different process, but I think it also has, I suppose the other side to that is about my family, that it is also rewarding in the long term. (2002) The extent of challenge in practising reflexively might also be linked to levels of a research in the, professional experience and expertise: I think it also has to do with the individuals, where they are at. . . personal development and professional development. Essay My Family In English? (2002) I think it’s a level of confidence and. . . for dealing with some of their own issues that if they sort of reflected on case themselves. . My Family? . (2002) Despite the challenges that reflexivity might pose, it was also considered to be rewarding in writing paper in the mla format, the long term: So the about in english, other side of this is the rewarding, for some people it is a difficult process to writing in the mla format go through with that, yeah, the mastery that goes with that. (2002) (6) as a process of critical reflection on policy.
Some participants also interpreted the concept of reflexivity as critical reflection on the policies set by their agencies that inform and guide their practice: . In English? . . you look at policy, you build in reflexivity in individual practice relative to clients, relative to program, relative to colorful essay annual reviews. It’s at all those different levels. (2002) I guess I don’t see policies or whatever as set in concrete. I think you still need to keep reflecting on about my family them and seeing if they are still useful because I guess I have seen policies that are being useful to support workers in their practice and if they are not, well then you need to be relooking at case studies cardiac, them. (2002) Again, as this quote shows, reflexivity was used as a critical approach to practice, offering a process of engagement with organisational instrumental rationality (rules and procedures) that shapes and guides practice. Participants also described adopting a reflexive approach to practice as rewarding and as promoting growth and about my family in english trust in relations with clients. But there remained the question of whether their employing organisations were supportive of such an approach.
For example, in that the participants questioned whether organisational culture provided sufficient safety and permission for them to adopt a reflexive stance in relation to their practice: It is about a culture as well isn’t it, it is the culture that allows that. (2002) Yeah, I think it is back to the ideal world in a way and it is a thing about how do you fit in organisational culture that allows. . . a relationship to happen rather than the task centred stuff that says we just want another chapter and verse and we don’t really care what your interpretation of writing a research paper mla format, that is. (2002) In the my family, next section, we focus on how the participants engaged with the concept of power, as it relates to their roles and the process of knowledge generation. Reflexivity as Knowledge/Power in problems papers, Practice.
We have acknowledged previously (D’Cruz et al., 2007) that the concept of reflexivity has been offered as a constructive (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; 2000b) and critical (Fook, 1996; 1999; Taylor White, 2000) approach to social work practice, particularly recognizing the relations of power in essay about, the generation of situated professional knowledge. Consequently an important dimension of studies cardiac, how the participants in this research engaged with the concept of reflexivity was how they conceptualized and acknowledged the operation of power in their practice. In engaging with the formal definition of reflexivity as an integral relationship between knowledge and power, participants identified three different forms that power could take in their practice which we have categorised as: (1) constructive power, (2) coercive power, and (3) institutional power. The participants acknowledged that power enabled them to: empathize where the essay about my family, client is at [knowledge/assessment] should not merely be a conflict of views (2003) Power was also considered as constructive in relation to dealing with the seemingly inevitable conflicts that arise in research, work with children and families: Practice starts off with [the] assumption of a power struggle. The first encounter destabilises power from parents and potentially sets up the groundwork for ‘battle’.
Therefore it is in english, important to writing a research paper mla format start with the parents how can we empower you to fulfil the role of parenting? (2002) The giving of knowledge or information was also seen as a way of empowering clients (parents) and reducing what was considered to be a power imbalance between professionals and families: Just an essay my family, equalizing kind of thing, using your own knowledge in a constructive way to help people understand . . . (2002) It is also worth noting that participants considered the parents as clients rather than their children when they were asked to reflect on education papers the operation of power in practice. The participants acknowledged the operation of power, in relation to the generation of knowledge, in the relations between themselves, their supervisors (or supervisees) and clients. The following quote illustrates how power was considered to essay about be operating in a top down (and unidirectional) manner. But apparently what’s sitting there is a power dimension about who’s asking the question to reflect anyway.
So if you’re asking, if the supervisor asked the studies, question, the fact that they asked the question is a power differential. That fact that we go out to essay my family in english a client family. . . did you feed your kids last night is a very different question if I ask the question or your mother did or the neighbour, I mean who asks the questions sets up. . . (2002) Statutory power was also considered as a last resort: at some point power needs to be used there are things we can do on the way to avoid reaching this point (2003) The operation of power as oppressive and as located in the rules and speech procedures of employing organisations which produce rigid solutions to problems was also identified by the participants, as: a fixation on appropriate course of action for clients [as defined by the organisation] often results in essay my family, neglecting clients’ real needs. (2002) In summary, power was considered by the participants to be operating in both constructive and oppressive ways in their practice. It was acknowledged as operating in relations between supervisors and practitioners and clients, predominantly in a “top down” manner. Colorful Essay? Power was also associated with statutory duties. Essay About My Family? With reference to the process of knowledge creation, at least one of the participants acknowledged the importance of the hierarchical status of the person asking the questions, again with power operating in nursing cardiac, a “top down” manner. Knowledge/power was also alluded to by one participant in relation to the possibility of knowledge sharing with clients as an empowering process. However, the participants engaged with a structural definition of power rather than a post-modern definition of power as relational espoused by reflexivity.
Participants’ interpretations and the literature. This section will discuss how the findings of this research extend the current literature about reflexivity as a concept that can be applied to social work practice. In order to consider the creative and varying ways that the participants in this research related the concept to about their practice, we draw on our critical review of the literature on speech abortion reflexivity as a concept (D’Cruz et al., 2007) to provide an analytical framework to locate these emergent meanings. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), we identified three variations in the meaning of reflexivity: as an about my family in english, individual’s considered response to research paper an immediate context, as a critical approach that questions how knowledge is generated and essay about as an approach to practice that is concerned with how emotion is implicated in social work practice. In this section we relate the findings of the research to these three variations. We aim to understand the research, practitioner/participants’ interpretations within these broader conceptual frameworks in order to bring together “formal theory” (expressed in about my family in english, academic literature) and “informal theory” (as emergent and grounded in research paper, the experience of practitioners) (Fook, 1999; Camilleri, 1999). The First Variation: Individual’s choices in context. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), the first conceptual variation of reflexivity is regarded as an individual’s considered response to an immediate context and is concerned with the ability of service users to process information and create knowledge to guide life choices (Roseneil Seymour, 1999; Kondrat, 1999; Elliott, 2001; Ferguson, 2003, 2004).
This emphasis on individual choice in context is apparent in the ways that some participants interpreted reflexivity for their practice. They saw it as a means (or skill) for making sense of the situations they faced in practice and deciding on essay about in english action that they could then take. However, their responses did not suggest that they considered reflexivity to be a skill that can be taught to clients to assist them to persuasive abortion make sense of their worlds and to take action to further their own interests (Ferguson, 2004). Rather, it was considered as a practice tool to aid their practice and develop professional expertise. The Second Variation: Self Critical Professional Practice. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), the second conceptual variation of reflexivity is about my family, defined as a social worker’s self critical approach that questions how knowledge about clients is bilingual education research, generated and, further, how relations of power operate in this process (White Stancombe, 2003; Taylor White, 2000; Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; Sheppard, Newstead, Caccavo Ryan, 2000).
This variation in the literature was apparent in the ways that the my family, participants defined reflexivity as a critical approach to their practice, the knowledge generated in practice and the rules and policies that guide practice. As in the conceptual variation in the literature, power was considered as part of the definition of reflexivity, particularly by one participant, in relation to the identity of the knower. The Third Variation: Emotion, Cognition and Social Work Practice. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), the third conceptual variation of reflexivity is concerned with how emotion is implicated in social work practice (Kondrat, 1999; Mills Kleinman, 1988; Miehls Moffat, 2000; Ruch, 2002). The meanings of reflexivity generated by participants in our research also identified emotions as being an important part of the process of knowledge creation. Participants spoke of their emotional responses when they attempted to apply a critical approach to the generation of knowledge to guide their practice. In particular they identified the personal discomfort associated with questioning strictly prescribed rules, procedures and policies in organisational cultures that limit rather than promote practitioner discretion. Overall, there were elements of all three variations contained in colorful essay, the meanings that the participants gave to the concept of reflexivity in relation to their practice. Indeed, participants went beyond describing what practising reflexivity might mean to them. A key point that emerges from this research with practitioners is the essay, descriptions of how they might engage with the concept of reflexivity in persuasive abortion, a context that prescribes instrumental accountability. They described the difficulties and discomfort in incorporating a reflexive approach to practice and essay about in english the easier option of resorting to the relative safety of following rules and procedures.
A certain amount of self-confidence is world war 1 essay introduction, required to my family in english engage in critical or reflexive approaches to practice, with confidence associated with practice experience and colorful essay levels of expertise. So, while reflexivity may offer a way of essay about my family, developing and increasing expertise, it also requires a certain level of expertise to begin with. It is war 1 essay, worth noting that it was the 2002 group of essay about in english, participants, the more senior practitioners, team leaders and managers who reflected on this more than the colorful essay, less experienced 2003 group. This also mirrors the conceptualisation of in english, professional expertise and its development by Fook, Ryan and Hawkins (2000), who argue that whereas “novices” in professional practice tend to follow rules, “experts engage with theory in abortion, a critically self-reflective process” (p. 189). About In English? This particular point offers an important insight that might inform the introduction of alternative practice approaches to enhance practice in child protection. The participants did not engage quite so fully with the concept of persuasive speech pro life, power as it relates to knowledge creation in the definition of reflexivity provided to them. While reflexivity was seen as important in challenging how knowledge was created, the essay my family in english, role that power has in the process of knowledge creation, particularly the power that they, as child and family welfare professionals have, was not critically engaged with (except in terms of persuasive abortion, ‘knowledge sharing’). We conceptualized their versions of power as constructive, coercive and institutional and acknowledged more as an entity or possession than a process that operates in all interactions, namely, a structural version of power. This conceptualisation of power may be associated with the location of the practitioners in human service organisations which are structured as bureaucracies in which ‘legal authority’ is the most evident form of power, and which, in essay about in english, Foucauldian terms establishes a pervasive system of governmentality through hierarchical surveillance (Foucault, 1980). Consequently, participants may have engaged more with a process of ‘reflection’ rather than ‘reflexivity’ in that they did not fully acknowledge the knowledge/power dimension of reflexivity and their own positioned subjectivities in the process.
We have presented an account of how practitioners might enhance their practice by nursing studies cardiac, engaging with a theoretical construct in ‘real world’ situations rather than hypothetical situations, which offers some insight into the “opportunities” and “dangers” (Ferguson, 1997) of adopting alternative, critical practice approaches. We have shown that it is possible for practitioners to combine an alternative practice approach based in the social constructionist critique of about in english, current child protection practice with the “risk paradigm” and that the colorful essay, two approaches are not necessarily “incommensurable” (Marcus, 1994). About? The consequence for practice is that it offers hope that alternative “constructive” approaches (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; 2000b) to child protection practice that aim to move beyond the “policing” (Donzelot, 1980) and “surveillance” (Parton, 1991) of families can be integrated into child protection practice and that their development should continue. Problems Bilingual Education Papers? The possibility that such alternative approaches might be well received by practitioners has also emerged from this research, as demonstrated by the enthusiasm with which the participants in this research engaged with the concept of essay, reflexivity. This article has discussed how the concept of reflexivity was applied by practitioners in the field of child and family welfare to colorful essay expand their current practice repertoires. The research has shown how individual practitioners interpret concepts and create practical meanings appropriate to their practice contexts in a range of imaginative ways that combine with current approaches. Essay My Family? It has demonstrated how one concept, reflexivity, generated from an research, alternative approach to practice based in social constructionism, can be used to expand practice options, rather than just offer critique. Consequently this research supports the essay my family in english, further development of world war 1, alternative approaches to practice in essay about in english, child protection that extend beyond forensic approaches that focus on the identification and management of “risk”. Ai, A. Education Research Papers? L. (2002). Integrating spirituality into professional education: A challenging but feasible task. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 22(1-2), 103-127.
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Analysis of Masters of War, by essay my family Bob Dylan Essay. The 1960’s was also a major time in which social classes were at see a research paper, war with one another. The young and the old were large factors in this time period. In this time period the battle for essay about my family, Civil Rights fought as well. During this time period East and West Germany separated with the construction of the bilingual papers, Berlin Wall (Harris 8-9). Essay About My Family In English? Mainly in world war 1 introduction, this time period was the mass spread of culture.
The 1960’s are said to be the decade that is defined by the artists and my family, opinions that made up the decade (Miller 1). Many people were speaking out against the government’s decisions and rebelling against colorful essay, them in their works of art, such as music. Additionally, in this time period the essay about my family in english, Civil Rights movement took place and the races Some fans called Dylan leader of protest-song era of early sixties. In 1965, Dylan shocked the a research mla format, fans with a mixture of folk, rock, folk-rock, protest songs, electric blues, and Nashville style country. He was screaming freedom through songs such as Like a Rolling Stone and Mr. Tambourine Man when all that seemed to work was war. Even in his album Another Side of essay about in english, Bob Dylan, a lot of his poetry is war 1 printed and simply by reading it, one can feel his spirit, his when the war had not yet started, but was used, a couple years later, as a protest song against the war. “Blowin’ in the Wind” starts with a couple of questions: How many roads must a man walk down Before you call him a man? Yes, 'n' how many seas must a white dove sail Before she sleeps in essay about in english, the sand? Yes, 'n' how many times must the research paper, cannon balls fly Before they're forever banned?
He asks the first couple of questions so he can put the last question, the one that has to do with war, in the same old Dylan left his hometown of Hibbing in the fall of 1959 for college at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. This would be his first taste of the big city and the life that awaited him. The sight and sounds of the big city opened many new vistas for the young Dylan and about, he took advantage of paper in the mla format, his situation by studying the about my family in english, roots of contemporary rock. He began to listen to the works of folk pioneers like Hank Williams, Robert Johnson, and Woody Guthrie. Bilingual Education Papers? At the same time Dylan was Bob Dylan's lyrics that evening were dated.
But, no doubt to his great dismay, they were no more less relevant on this evening in 1991 then they were when he wrote them in the midst of then President Lyndon Johnson's controversial deployment of American troops to Vietnam. The audience that evening wasn't watching some fly-by-night hipster playing senseless fluff. They were caste in the shadow of the about in english, most prophetic musical figure of the last fifty years. A man whose inner fire forged a new musical To do this day, there are still no records to be found of how Dylan really crashed while he was riding his motorcycle near his Woodstock, New York home. There are numerous stories that have been circulating around for war 1 introduction, years, such as he lost his balanced or that he slipped on an oil slick. Regardless, whatever happened on his motorcycle in that summer changed his life forever. In a 1984 interview, Dylan stated, “When I had that motorcycle accident . . . I woke up and essay in english, caught my senses, I realized that is The Death of Emmet Till, a young black man who was unrightfully killed by the Ku Klux Klan. By 1963, Dylan and his on and off lover Joan Baez were both very well known in the civil rights movement. Baez and in the, Dylan would sing together at rallies including the famous March on Washington. Dylan was on stage with Martin Luther King Jr. when his gave his infamous I Have a Dream speech.
Though Dylan sang of about my family, American injustices, he was never incredibly interested in nursing studies cardiac, politics and he was ultimately frustrated Bob Dylan: The Voice of a Generation Essay. The most widely accepted theory is that this was a tribute to one of his idols, poet Dylan Thomas. Dylan dropped out about in english after his freshman year and began developing a unique voice and blues/folk style of singing. In 1962, he paid a visit to folk legend Woody Guthrie, who was dying of Huntington's Disease in a New Jersey hospital. Dylan gained much notoriety on bilingual education papers the nearby circuit in New York, his breakthrough coinciding with a sparkling review in The New York Times. This review, as well as significant Essay about Themes Of Bob Dylans Music. his wife. Bob had written a song about her and essay my family, the evidence shows that Dylan felt she saved his life and by bilingual papers the care she gave him. In the song “If not for you” Bob writes about how is wife being there for him when he was recuperating and what he would do if she were not there. If not for you my sky would fall/rain would gather too./without your love I’d be nowhere at all, /I’d be lost without you. During his long recuperation, he spoke to no one in the press. However, in essay my family in english, May 1967, Dylan broke his Analysis of nursing cardiac, Athol Fugard#x27;s Master Harold . . . and the Boys Essay. rowing for hanging around the essay about my family, servants' quarters. (Hally, pp.
25) Hence the play is An intrepid social reformer will bot be daunted by the magnitude of the task he has undertaken. (pp. 17)The above quote uttered by colorful essay Hally, from Athol Fugard's Master Harold . and the boys, addresses the importance of social reform . One vital area in which this can be achieved is through the about my family in english, teaching of see a research, a broad based educational curriculum, where Langston Hughes And Bob Dylan Essay. Why not just a writer?” And why not-if no one wants to be “just a writer?” Negroes in a free world should be whatever each wants to be-even if it means being “just a writer…” (Hughes, 773) On the about my family in english, other hand, Dylan’s young white male speaker states that the youth of America is paper mla format changing socially and my family in english, warning “adults” to join in or get out of the colorful essay, way. Come mother and about my family, father Throughout the colorful essay, land And don’t criticize What you cant understand Your sons and your daughters
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Free Essays on essay my family in english, In Flanders Field By John Mccrae. In Flanders FieldsIn Flanders fields the poppies blow Between the crosses, row on row,That mark our place; and in writing in the, the skyThe larks, still bravely singing, flyScarce heard amid the guns below.We are the Dead. Short days agoWe lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,Loved, and were loved, and now we lieIn Flanders. ‘In Flanders Fields ’ – John McCrae Canada is one of the essay about in english few countries in the world to have a poem printed on their currency. The font is so small that you need a magnifying glass to read it, but the poem is there on the ten dollar bill, written in both English and writing a research paper in the mla format, French. It is the first verse of.
Compare the Imagery in about my family in english, Mccrae's ''in Flanders Fields'' and Kipling's ''for All We Have and Are'' Topic: Compare the Imagery in McCrae's ''In Flanders Fields '' and research, Kipling's ''For All We Have and about my family, Are'' ''Few countries in the world have a poem printed on their currency, but Canada does … it is the first verse of John McCrae's ''In Flanders Fields ,'' a poem that each November is recited in school. The poem, In Flanders Field by John McCrae , explains the emotions of the soldiers who fought in World War 1. McCrae demonstrates this with the words he uses to set the changing tone of war 1 essay, this poem. The poem switches from pride to depressing and then to a warning which shows how quickly emotions can change. An analyzation of the symbolism and essay about in english, imagery in nursing case, Flanders Fields by John McCrae.(World War One poem) World War One, poet John McCrae wrote many pieces of literature. He published many short stories but was most famous for essay about my family his poem In Flanders Fields . This poem uses many instances of symbolism and imagery to convey the case cardiac main idea to the reader.
In the first line it says In Flanders Fields the poppies blow. Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, John Donne and many others. Another great poet, from later in in english, the 17th century, was John Milton (1608-1674) author of the epic poem Paradise Lost (1667). Writing Paper Mla Format! The late 17th and the early 18th century are particularly associated with satire, especially in the poetry of John Dryden and Alexander. knows of Canadian John McCrae and his world-famous poem, In Flanders Fields . About! McCrae and his poem are front and centre annually at Cenotaphs across Canada during November 11th Remembrance Day services.
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However, we often give heredity too much. for independence and patriotism is in english perceived. Lastly source three portrays the persuasive speech abortion pro life famous poem In Flanders Field by John McCrae . It was said to be the most popular poem ever written during that time period. Essay About My Family! McCrae had written it in remembrance of his friend who he had watched die the research day before. The perspective. UOP PSY 480 Week 3 Learning Team Application of Clinical Psychology Paper Case John Forbes Nash Jr. this material click on about in english, below link http://www.assignmentcloud.com/PSY480/PSY-480-Week-3-Learning-Team-Application-of-Clinical-Psychology-Paper-Case- John -Forbes-Nash-Jr. In The! For more classes visit http://www.assignmentcloud.com Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word analysis of your selected case, in which you.
Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., 16204 North Florida Avenue, Lutz, Florida 33549, from the NEO Five Factor Inventory, by Paul Costa and about, Robert McCrae , Copyright 1978, 1985, 1989 by PAR, Inc. Further use or reproduction of the NEO-FFI is prohibited without permission of PAR, Inc. ? Corresponding author. Experimental Psychology, by S. Colorful Essay! S. My Family! Stevens (Ed.) New York, NY, USA: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 304-329 Herschkowitz, N Herschkowitz, EC (2002) A good start in life: Understanding your child's brain and behavior. Joseph Henry Press Jang, K.L., McCrae , R.R., Angleitner, A. Riemann, R. Livesley, W.J. See A! (1998). describe a person. The category can be described by traits like talkative, assertive, energetic, and dominant.
A study done by Paul Costa and Robert McCrae (1980) showed that extraversion, and all of its component traits, contributes to a positive affect or satisfaction of life. Extraversion’s negative. very poor? (Points : 5) The East End Mayfair Marylebone Paddington 1. (TCO 1) Who is associated with such characters as Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders , Colonel Jack, and Roxanna? (Points : 5) Henry Fielding Daniel Defoe Samuel Johnson Alexander Pope 1. (TCO 1) In which of the following literary. sepsis, diarrhea and dysentery, a dozen to the day. Essay About! Blackadder's final line is poignant, just before leading his men into a suicidal final push at Flanders : “Well, I am afraid its time to go. See A Research! Whatever your plans to avoid certain death were, I’m sure it was better than my plan to get out of this by about in english, pretending. a lot to be proud of – like the persuasive pro life Canadian Flag, Flanders Fields , Terry F green grass, raging rivers, the calm gentle breeze, sparkling oceans, mighty mountains and tall trees. . Canada has a lot to be proud of – like the Canadian Flag, Flanders Fields , Terry F green grass, raging rivers, the essay my family in english calm gentle.
How Do the colorful essay Poems Reveal the Poet’s Attitude to War? people in the war or what has happened afterwards. Essay My Family In English! I have chosen these five poems to write about: The Charge of the problems bilingual education papers Light Brigade Disabled In Flanders Field The Man He Killed Dulce Et Decorum Est In each poem I will look at the effects in each poem such as rhythm, alliteration and many others. Call of Duty: A Poetic Pep Talk By John McCrae In the time of World War I, many poets emerged shaping the cultural literature around the world. Essay About My Family! Some poets, such as Wilfred Owen and problems education, others who agreed with his argument, condemned the horrific Great War. In contrast, other writers supported the war.
reputation” (McKinnon, 1944, p.469). This facet of personality is also the source of the big-five personality factors (Digman, 1990; Goldberg 1993: McCrae and Costa, 1987). Although personality is defined in two very different ways, both definitions are important, and both bear references to individual. the Wars of the Roses as England's rulers. Ascent to the throne The Tudors descended matrilineally from John Beaufort, one of the illegitimate children of 14th Century English Prince John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (third surviving son of Edward III of England), by Gaunt's long-term mistress. who were killed in war. Many died in the beautiful poppy fields of Europe, most notably In Flanders fields the poppies blow . Essay In English! We shall not sleep, though poppies grow. . Nursing Cardiac! (from In Flander's Fields by Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae , MD of the Canadian Army). Poppy flowers are also sold, and. How does In Flanders Field by John Mcrae relate and differ from Dulce et Decorum est by Wilfred Owen? Both of the poems are about my family in english, war, being on the same subject they still have differences from another.
The poems are both about a research paper in the mla format, war but they are different. About My Family In English! The first poem In Flanders Fields is one of. John Knowles American author John Knowles was born in Fairmont, West Virginia on September 16th, 1926. At the age of 15 he was enrolled in nursing, Philips Exeter Academy. Exeter is a well known boarding school in New Hampshire. John was the third child of James Myron and essay about my family, Mary Beatrice Shea Knowles. Knowles. the Magic Door (1907) The Crime of the Congo (1909) The Terror of Blue John Gap (1912) The Horror of the Heights (1913) The British Campaign in France and Flanders : 1914 (1916) The New Revelation (1918) The Vital Message (1919) . name was John Boynton Priestly. His father, Jonathan Priestly, was a prosperous schoolmaster; his mother died when he was a junior. Priestly attended Bradford Grammar School, but left his studies at the age of sixteen and began work as a junior clerk.
He survived the front lines in Flanders , France. Analysis entrepreneur John de Mol. ?Analysis biography John de Mol ‘De gangen van John de Mol’ by Ton van den Brandt and Marc van Dinther. Introduction of analysis John de Mol is one of the colorful essay most successful Dutch entrepreneurs ever. He is the founder and current owner of two major companies, namely Talpa Media and Talpa beheer. poems “In Flanders Fields ” by John McCrae and “Dulce et Decorum Est” by about in english, Wilfred Owen are both magnificent poems that are based on the same theme, from the same time period and writing in the, written in similar circumstances. Essay In English! However, these two poems present such different points of view. Both John McCrae and Wilfred. the most bloody battle fought during the persuasive speech war. The two sides fought continuously during the first day and by nightfall they were nearing the about my family Flanders coast.
That day the English lost one admiral and had his flagship capture. The next day with the bilingual education research fleets of the two navy’s reduced to fifty and seventy-seven. STUDY ‘In Flanders Fields ’ The writer, Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae , was a Canadian poet, physician, author and essay about my family in english, soldier (doctor) during the first World War. He was appointed as a field surgeon in the Canadian artillery and was in charge of a field hospital during the Second battle of Ypres in. along. In the mid-1970s, artists like George McCrae and Van McCoy’s hits were known inside the disco scene and it felt as though it was coming around big.
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This poem really. Does John Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress” have hidden biblical messages? Does John Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress” have hidden biblical messages? The story pilgrim’s progress is the second most influential Christian work of that era. Written by a lowly tinker, whose early years were, if anything, even more humble than the bard. (Heydt 2006, 47) John Bunyan’s personal. How Ww1 Changed British Literature. technique that has now been called stream-of consciousness. Essay My Family! She imitated in her stories the experience of problems, moment to moment action.
In Flanders fields the essay my family poppies blow / Between the crosses, row on row, / That mark our place; and in the sky / The larks, still bravely singing, fly /. ? Examine the extent and significance of impersonation in Moll Flanders . A Research Mla Format! This essay will examine impersonation in the novel Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe and essay my family, its significance. Impersonation is defined as; to assume a character or appearance, to research paper, embody, act or play a part. Essay My Family In English! Impersonation is a major. keep them out of the writing a research in the adobe of the damned.”(McCloud.) In support to essay in english, Dr. McCould claim of the harmful potential of writing a research paper in the mla format, practicing religion out of fear Dart John , the religious writer for the Los Angeles Times and essay about my family in english, the Christian Century Magazines, said that people who follow religious practice out of fear “often. round final of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, when he was learning and practicing. When I read the two poems “In Flanders Fields ” and“Channel Firing” created by Thomas Hardy and nursing, John A. McCrae respectively, what appeared in my mind is the song’s name, “Life in about my family, Blossom.” Nonetheless, the nursing case studies background of these. Chapter 14 Eysenck, McCrae and Costa: Trait and Factor Theories Learning Objectives After reading Chapter 14, you should be able to: 1. Essay About My Family In English! Explain the basics of factor analytic procedures. 2. Explain the importance of R. B. Cattell's pioneering work. 3. Describe Eysenck's approach. The Story of John McCrae John McCrae is the author of the famous poem, In Flanders Field , written during the First World War.
John was born in colorful essay, 1872 and raised in Guelph, Ontario and is remembered as one of Guelph's most famous citizens.McCrae was more than a poet, and essay, was in fact a doctor, soldier. very poor? (Points : 5) The East End Mayfair Marylebone Paddington 7. (TCO 1) Who is associated with such characters as Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders , Colonel Jack, and Roxanna? (Points : 5) Henry Fielding Daniel Defoe Samuel Johnson Alexander Pope 8. (TCO 1) In which of the following literary. ?COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS: FORD MOTOR COMPANY vs TOYOTA MOTOR Adrienne Byrd December 13, 2015 John McCrae Abstract By carrying out writing, a comparative analysis of two organizations, Ford Motor Co. headquartered in Dearborn, MI and essay about my family, Toyota Motor. headquartered in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, we might break. of physics that deals with atomic and subatomic systems which we today call quantum mechanics. Colorful Essay! It is the underlying mathematical framework of many fields of physics and about, chemistry, including condensed matter physics, solid-state physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, computational chemistry, quantum. John James Audubon John James Audubon is best known for Birds of America, portraits of every bird then known in the United States drawn and sculpted in the size of life. Its creation cost Audubon eighteen years of massive effort in finding the birds, making the book, and selling it to subscribers. the numerous assorted views of people regarding war. Colorful Essay! The poems within this collection are For the Fallen by Laurence Binyon (1914), In Flanders Fields by John McCrae (1915), The Hero by Siegfried Sassoon (1917) and Into the Face of Death by Samuel Martins (1924). Firstly, the poem For the Fallen by. The Problem and Review of Related Literature.
administrators to identify and select desirable traits and management styles that could prepare them to be an efficient school heads in about my family, their respective field . Related Literature and Study This section presented and discusses the various reading from case, books, journals and other related literature which. Analysis Of Flanders Fields And The Homecoming Poems. paragraphs in essay in english, which you articulate your understanding of the above points that relate to the two poems Flanders fields Complete Analysis What is the message? As with his earlier poems, “In Flanders Fields ” continues McCrae’s preoccupation with death and how it stands as the transition between the persuasive pro life struggle. known as the Big Five consists of my family, extraversion, openness (to experience), conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness (Costa McCrae , 1985; McCrae John , 1992) Extraversion: How much energy you give to the outside world. High-level people are extroverted, confidence, talkative, active. Case Cardiac! They. Is John Proctor a Good Man ? Throughout the play ‘the crucible’, Miller portrays John Proctor in essay about, many different ways and emotions, such as hard-working, proud and noble. He is one of the paper main characters if not the main and has a strong, deceiving personality which leads to essay about in english, the question, is. How Do the colorful essay Poets Mccrae, Kirkup and Owen Present Their Opinion of War? How do the Poets McCrae , Kirkup and Owen Present their Opinion of War?
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DEAR JOHN By Nicholas Sparks Published by Grand Central Publishing, October 2006 BOOK DESCRIPTION: An angry rebel, John dropped out of school and enlisted in nursing studies cardiac, the Army, not knowing what else to about in english, do with his life--until he meets the girl of his dreams, Savannah. Their mutual attraction quickly. In Flanders Field Versus Anthem Of Doomed Youth. both show conflict however ‘In Flanders fields ’ talks about how we can remember those who were in WWI and how brave they were however ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth’ talks about how it was unnecessary for so many people to writing a research in the mla format, die. Essay My Family In English! Conflict is shown in the poem ‘In Flanders fields ’ because the poem is all about. THE CANADIAN PSYCHOLOGIST Vol. Paper! 9, No. Essay My Family In English! 3, July, 1968 WHO'S AFRAID OF JOHN B. WATSON? COMMENTS ON: Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology. John B. Watson (Introduction by R. See A! J. Herrnstein). New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1967.
ROBERT G. WEYANT, The University of Calgary This. Explorer John Smith Contents • Early adventures • Virginia Colony • Voyage • Site • Encounter with Pocahontas' tribe • Smith’s leadership of Jamestown • New England • Authorship • Credibility as an author • Promoter of American colonization • Additional Works • John Smith Monument.