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blues essay I WOKE UP THIS MORNING. (Introduction to Blues for the Newcomer) By ‘Mississippi’ Max Haymes and Alan White. The Blues have never been so popular and widespread as they are here in 2009. There are currently more blues festivals worldwide, both electric and acoustic, than you can shake a stick at. Everybody it seems, can quote the above main title of this piece in connection with the Blues. Even if they know nothing or very little about the genre. It is the latter section of the community this brief survey is thesis, being aimed at. History Of Comedy Paper. The Blues evolved from slavery times at thesis film the tail- end of the write scholarship pdf 19 th . C. in the southern states of the thesis film USA. The earliest candidates for its place of ‘birth’ are the Mississippi Delta (in the northwestern part of the state!) and the East Texas piney woods.

It was sung and played BY working-class blacks FOR working-class blacks. The Blues, most importantly , is primarily a vocal music. More than just another genre, the Blues became a way of history of comedy paper life for thesis many of the singers – and indeed their audiences. The latter would be a live audience before the advent of recordings. Originating in the logging camps, cotton fields, railroad and levee camps; the Blues soon gravitated to critical breath, urban centres in the South. Film. This process was speeded up considerably in 1920 when the first genuine blues (i.e. black) singer entered a recording studio. After a promising debut in January backed by a white orchestra, Mamie Smith was brought back by the Okeh record company in August. This time she was accompanied by a black band which included such jazz luminaries as Willie ‘The Lion’ Smith. They cut a blues number: Crazy Blues. A surprising and immediate success, financially for the record company and Ms.

Smith, this opened the flood gates for law school admissions for sale other black singers. Initially these were all female singers who did not play on their records. These included Edith Wilson, Lucille Hegamin and Alberta Hunter. Thesis. By 1923 some of the heaviest (aka the finest) of these made their disc debut. Dissertation Uk. The ‘big four’ are Bessie Smith, Clara Smith (no relation), Ma Rainey and Ida Cox.

Often backed by some of the top jazz musicians of the day; Louis Armstrong, King Oliver, James P. Johnson and thesis Buster Bailey among them. Other singers of only slightly less talent also made records around this time: Rosa Henderson, Sippie Wallace and Viola McCoy, for example. Essays By Ralph Waldo. Therein lies the irony. This was an early urban form of blues in various grades of thesis film authenticity. Many singers included traditional/rural blues verses in their recordings. The rural singers themselves only came into their own when the record companies were seeing a decline in sales and started looking further afield- often literally! By the end of 1925 and the start of 1926 the rural/country/downhome blues entered centre stage. Some of the giants were captured on disc from this period on to the early 1930s. Names like Blind Lemon Jefferson, Charley Patton, Blind Willie McTell, Son House, Bukka White and Barbecue Bob hit the black record-buying public; with titles such as Lemon’s Matchbox Blues in 1927. Nearly 30 years later rock-a-billy star Carl Perkins would re-record it as Matchbox for Sun Records in structure uk Memphis, Tennessee. A decade or so further on the Beatles would also cut a version.

These earlier blues artists, and many more, usually played solo featuring vocals and a myriad of film guitar sounds and styles. With few exceptions they did not read music and drew on a strictly oral tradition. Dissertation. There were also some pioneering harmonica (‘harp’) players who recorded solo: Jaybird Coleman, Noah Lewis, DeFord Bailey and thesis Alfred Lewis. First Series Waldo Emerson. The first two played in jug bands such as the Birmingham Jug Band and Cannon’s Jug Stompers. Thesis Film. Another essential strand of the Blues. These groups were part of critical eyes memory a strong black string band tradition in the South. Mississippi’s Big Joe Williams although a solo performer with a 9-string guitar would sometimes play with a small group (the Washboard Blues Singers). At his debut on record in film 1935 he was accompanied by a one-string fiddle and a washboard: Dad Tracy and Chasey Collins respectively. Series Waldo. Their first track was the first version of Baby Please Don’t Go on thesis film, record. Many years later British blues and r ‘n b groups would perform this and sometimes record it.

The Animals from northeastern England and even later still Van Morrison's band Them cut a very creditable performance – the term paper fastest I’ve ever heard. Thesis Film. Other bands to research, cut versions were AC/DC, Aerosmith and even Bob Dylan. A myriad of other examples of the Blues’ awesome influence on thesis, music today, including jazz, could be cited. But limitation of space rules, OK. The Blues has always been a genre of music with a FEELING. History Of Comedy Research. Lacking this essential ingredient cannot be compensated for by technical prowess alone.

The earlier singers would relate subjects and situations well-known to their original audiences and an unassailable rapport and feeling of solidarity was forged; one that had beginnings back in slavery days in the early 19 th . C. and beyond. Film. One verse I recall from memory was put down by term, Buddy Moss from Georgia in 1933: Some people talk about money, but I haven’t got none. (x 2) But I’m so glad that I ain’t the only one. One of thesis many universal themes in law school admissions essay for sale the Blues. In the 1930s Blues was becoming more urbanized, yet again. In Chicago artists, who had migrated from the South, such as Big Bill Broonzy, Washboard Sam, Memphis Minnie, Tampa Red, and Sonny Boy Williamson (No.1.) were increasingly using more instrumentalisation. As well as piano, upright and imitation bass, 2 nd . and 3 rd . guitars, harmonicas, drums and some jazzhorns like trumpet and saxes featured on film, pre-war Chicago blues. Most of these of course had featured in earlier rural blues. The piano in particular by 1929/1930 was often the only accompaniment to such legends of boogie woogie/barrelhouse recordings by the like of Roosevelt Sykes, Little Brother Montgomery, Will Ezell, et al. But the rural blues were still ‘speaking’. In 1936-37 Robert Johnson made a phenomenal set of 29 titles. The most famous being Crossroad Blues with urgent slide guitar.

Eric Clapton and Cream would re-make (in virtually every sense of the word!) this in the UK some thirty years later. Dissertation Proposal Uk. Blues had been labeled ‘race music’ in thesis the early 20 th . C. History Research Paper. but was re-named Rhythm and Blues (R n’ B) by the1940s. With the introduction of the electric guitar into the Blues in early 1938 and added saxes, rocking bands led by Roy Milton, Tiny Bradshaw, Amos Milburn, Louis Jordan, and film Joe Liggins were just a few that carried the admissions essay Blues onwards. Professor Longhair, Smiley Lewis and Fats Domino carried it on thesis, into the 1950s. Along with doowop groups inspired by early black quartets/quintettes featuring mostly gospel music. Of Comedy Research Paper. Many whites would sneak around the outside of places they were playing at (segregation was still in force) and heard sounds they really dug. Rock-a-Billy artists such as Charlie Feathers, Ray Smith, and Carl Perkins put their own stamp on the Blues mixed in with old-timey/country roots. Around 1952 a man called Bill Haley changed his band’s name and they became Bill Haley’s Comets.

Soon Elvis Presley, Gene Vincent, ;Little Richard, et al. would follow. Rock ‘n Roll, ‘a child of the Blues’, as Muddy Waters famously once said – had been born. Long may the film Blues wake up this morning and breath eyes every morning. ‘Mississippi’ Max Haymes and film Alan White. 31 st . July, 2009. How To Write Essay. A reader emailed a query regarding reference made to thesis, Mamie Smith as the first blues recording …. First Series By Ralph Emerson. “ by the time Mamie Smith recorded Crazy Blues in 1920, at thesis least half-a-dozen other blues recordings had been made starting in essay breath memory 1914 with the Victor Military Band's recording of Memphis Blues”. This was the response from the essay’s author, Max Haymes, which we thought would be of interest as an addendum to the essay: Mamie Smith is thesis film, still the critical memory first African American to record a vocal blues. Earlier recordings such as the example quoted were instrumentals of a very jazzy-type brass band nature and a version of the W.C. Handy composition in thesis film 1914, 'Memphis Blues'. Although I have not heard this it will bear as little to the Blues per se as a Victor Sylvester recording!

US author, Tim Brooks, noted that this number was given a similarly intense treatment [as Handy's previous 'Hesitation Blues'] dominated by cornets and trombones, with interjected flutes, clarinet squeals, and even a little military bugle flourish. (p.282. 'Lost Sounds-Blacks And The Birth of The Recording Industry 1890-1919'. Tim Brooks. [University of Illinois Press. Urbana Chicago.] 2004.) There were attempts to law school admissions, cover blues songs before 1920 but all were white vaudeville singers such as May Irvin, Annette Hanshaw and of course Sophie Tucker. Good as some of these singers were, they pale (no pun intended) in thesis film comparison to Mamie's historic 'Crazy Blues'.

So said David Evans at essays waldo emerson one point (cannot remember source). Having heard snippets of the fore mentioned white singers I have to agree. If you listen to a song made in 1919 by thesis, black baritone singer Edward H. Boatner on 'Sometimes I Feel Like A Motherless Child' which contains no sacred lyric he will hear the influence of Euro-centric classical/operatic music. Hardly surprising as this was issued on the Broome label and pre-dates the short-lived Black Swan co. by 2 years, as the dissertation structure first black-owned independent record co. Film. Produced by George Wellington Broome who dedicated the label to how to scholarship book pdf, black concert music. (Ibid. p.464.). Thesis Film. Despite this, the song is much closer to the Blues, with repeated phrase 'a long ways from home', delivered in first waldo a somewhat lesser Paul Robeson style, than the instrumental Handy pieces such as 'Memphis Blues'. The Brooks tome is a weighty one but well-worth the consideration of the thesis serious blues historian. And the law school essay for sale white vaudeville singers referred to above have CDs on thesis, the Archeophone label, a record company based in Illinois, that also produced reissues of earliest black music. 22nd January 2016. Essay (this page) © Copyright 2009 Max Haymes and Alan White . All rights reserved.

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Olaudah Equiano Analysis Essays and Research Papers. Olaudah Equiano If Olaudah Equiano was born in South Carolina rather than Africa, then it . would put his entire book into thesis, question whether the history of comedy paper, majority of his story is a lie or not. Thesis. There is some evidence in his book that would make one question why Olaudah Equiano did some of his actions, but there are also reasons for what he did. Government Paper. If it is true that he was born in South Carolina, then, to a historian, this book is unreliable, and one can only trust parts of the book that coincide with more. Africa , African people , Arab slave trade 902 Words | 3 Pages. Olaudah Equiano’s Influence on film the Civil Rights Movement The United States of uk America was not always as peaceful as it is today.

Even . though there is still social unrest, nothing compares to how it was back in the seventeen and eighteen hundreds. In this time period, African American slaves were being brought to thesis film the New America in dissertation proposal large masses. They were treated like animals just because they were born into a skin color that was considered inferior and trash like. These rough times created a. African American , American Civil War , Atlantic slave trade 1101 Words | 3 Pages. generation to generation or the documentations in thesis film historical books, the history of the twelve million African slaves that traveled the “Middle Passage” in law school . miserable conditions would not exist. Olaudah Equiano contributes to this horrid history with The Interesting Narrative of the Life of thesis film Olaudah Equiano . Through this narrative, the first by ralph emerson, appalling personal experience of thesis film each slave is depicted. He accomplishes his rhetorical purpose of informing the world of the government, slave experience in this narrative. His. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Middle Passage 1219 Words | 4 Pages.

“ Olaudah Equiano’s Silent Study on the English and Persuasions on thesis his Road to essays emerson Abolish Slavery and Finding the Hidden Comparative Details . between the New York Artisans and Gustavus Vassa” When Equiano’s autobiographical text was first published in England, 1789, it was a big hit, as I would say. It was mostly considered as “to end the thesis, slave trade and law school essay, played a crucial role in the nationwide abolitionist movement of the film, late eighteenth-century England” (Ito 83). For me it was not a surprise that. Abolitionism , Atlantic slave trade , British Empire 1970 Words | 5 Pages. The Life of Olaudah Equiano: Narrative.

# 1?Narrative of the Life of proposal uk Olaudah Equiano History shows that both Africans and African Americans alike faced unique . problems prior to and during the 1800's, particularly prior to 1865. One such problem is the issue of Diaspora and how culture and slavery has affected the choice of religion. It is the purpose of this paper to expose comparatively the film, extent to which individuals have been influenced by these issues. One such individual is Olaudah Equiano . How To Scholarship Pdf. By following and thesis film, analyzing some. Atlantic slave trade , Black people , Christianity 1408 Words | 4 Pages. Olaudah Equiano: a Man of first series waldo Many Customs. 105 18 October 2012 Olaudah Equiano : A Man of Many Customs The Interesting Narrative of the Life of thesis Olaudah . Admissions Essay. Equiano describes the life of a native African who was kidnapped from his homeland in the Eboe Province (which is now the Nigerian town of Isseke) at age eleven and thrown into the horrors of the film, African slave trade. Unlike most victims of the term, slave trade, Equiano regained his freedom and experienced multiple facets of life that no one could have expected.

Equiano became a man of diverse. Africa , African slave trade , Arab slave trade 1330 Words | 4 Pages. Harriet Jacobs and Olaudah Equiano. sides to thesis every story, most slaves were treated as nothing more than animals their whole life. Harriet Jacobs and Olaudah Equiano . Essay Breath Eyes. were both African Americans that were introduced into slavery at some point in their life. Jacobs believed that she lived a leisurely life for the time being, while Equiano lived through the thesis film, pain and hardship of being kidnapped and made into a slave. History Of Comedy Research. Although Equiano and Jacobs were both slaves who believed that an enslaved life was not worth living, their introduction and upbringing.

Africa , African American , Black people 1052 Words | 3 Pages. Olaudah Equiano: Narration of the Dark Times. Narrative of Olaudah Equiano ” Samuel Polston Arizona State University HST 101: Global History Since 1500 July 17, 2015 . This essay explores the Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano from Sources of World Societies volume II, since 1450. Second Edition, with an thesis film intention of responding to specific questions relating to inter alia, perspectives expressed in the narrative as well as the paper, cultures during the time period when the events being narrated occurred. The narrative is thesis film about Olaudah Equiano. Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean , Native Americans in the United States 1518 Words | 7 Pages.

by Olaudah Equiano The Narrative of the Life of essay for sale Olaudah Equiano is a very descriptive narrative . about film, Olaudah Equiano’s experiences of being of a slave. The narrative is very touching and heartfelt. I admire Olaudah Equiano for his strength, courage, and for being oppressed to so much pain. The kidnapping of Equiano and his sister, Equiano’s attempt to escape to freedom and the scene on the slave ship were the scenes that I found to be the most compelling. I found the kidnapping of Equiano and.

Human , Igbo people , Olaudah Equiano 1158 Words | 3 Pages. Brillman 10 November 2011 WOH 2001 Faith and Fate: Olaudah Equiano and His Relationship with God What is worse than . forcing a man away from law school for sale, his homeland, his family and friends, and stripping him of the most natural right to all humankind, his freedom? Perhaps nobody has experienced anything as frightening and thesis film, sorrowful as those slaves who were brought to the West Indies and the Americas during the eighteenth century. Admissions For Sale. Olaudah Equiano , a native African who was kidnapped from film, his African tribe. African people , Caribbean , God 1135 Words | 4 Pages. 1 Topic #4 A Complex Argument Olaudah Equiano’s The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings takes a particularly complicated stance in its . critique of slavery. While Equiano has a (biased) tendency to focus on the good natured character of African slaves, he also tends to portray them as a commodity, a title he immensely fears. Admissions. In addition, Equiano appears throughout the narrative to thesis attempt to how to write a winning scholarship essay book pdf forsake his African identity, leading some to believe that Equiano is thesis film complicit towards his stance on.

African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , History of slavery 1221 Words | 4 Pages. Olaudah Equiano: a Narrator of Persuasion. In The Interesting Narrative of the term paper, Life of film Olaudah Equiano , Olaudah Equiano skillfully represents . the equal capabilities of nobility and intelligence from the African people forced into government term, slavery. While his writing is steeped with a high acumen and earnestness, there is also a lingering sense of withholding that comes forth to the modern reader. Between the time of Equiano's tribulations and the time he penned his narrative, it was not the belief of the majority of thesis Americans and Europeans that. Black people , Olaudah Equiano , Reader 1889 Words | 5 Pages. Frederick Douglass and critical essay memory, Olaudah Equiano. once said, The moment the slave resolves that he will no longer be a slave, his fetters fall. Thesis. freedom and slavery are mental states. This simple quote . symbolizes the lives of Frederick Douglass and breath eyes, Olaudah Equiano . Film. Both of which were slaves who tried to free themselves. Both Douglass and Equiano have wrote a narrative about critical essay eyes, their lives, however, each one is different in film its own unique way.

From the bonds of slavery on a plantation to the call of freedom from the essay breath eyes, north, his life was filled with. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , Atlantic slave trade 2584 Words | 7 Pages. by three Africans vi. Exchanged between African masters for thesis several months until he reached the coast where he was sold to Europeans in the Americas 2. . Dissertation Uk. Middle Passage i. Thesis Film. Describes the terrible conditions of the journey to research paper the Americas and how Equiano survived it while others died or committed suicide 3. Slave Experience in the Americas and Europe i. Barbados plantation ? Virginia Plantation (Mr. Thesis. Campbell) ? British Navy (Pascal Miss Guerins) ? Commercial ships in the Atlantic World (Captain. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean 673 Words | 3 Pages. Equiano Equiano , as far as slaves go, was very lucky.

Very few slaves of that time were treated as kindly as . Essay Memory. Equiano and throughout his years of enslavement he continually got passed from one kind master to another kind master. Equiano's continued good fortune can be traced to two good fortunes. The first would be being too young to get sold saving him from the likely fate of becoming a west indies plantation slave. Film. The second lucky instance was having Captain Pascal spot Equiano and like. Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean , Igbo people 1378 Words | 4 Pages. A Sum of All His Parts Olaudah Equiano has long been known as an inspiration, a creative genius, and as a daring abolitionist. . However, in recent years, he has also been known by some slightly more derogatory terms, such as liar and fraud. In 1999, certain findings by Vincent Carretta suggest that Equiano may not have been born in Africa, as he claims to in his autobiography The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano , or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by essays first by ralph waldo Himself, but actually. Africa , African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 1087 Words | 3 Pages. The Interesting Life of Oladuah Equiano. English 315 Professor Lowenstein December 2012 The Interesting Life of film Olaudah Equiano : Written by how to write scholarship book pdf Himself “The . Interesting Life of Olaudah Equiano : Written by Himself” is thesis film exactly that interesting. The Narrative is full of themes, symbolism, and realism.

Equiano’s narrative is proposal loaded with biblical and spiritual allusions. Although as a slave they were not permitted to film read and write that was not the case for Equiano because he did learn to proposal structure uk read and thesis film, write. Because he knew how to read and write. Bible , Christianity , Jesus 1674 Words | 5 Pages. A Drudge’s Despair Olaudah Equiano’s story made much more of an impact on me than any of the other stories. Equiano plays on . Write Scholarship Essay Pdf. people’s sentiments and morals by using rhetorical devices: ethos and pathos.

His story appeals to me because I cannot conceive what it would be like to be persecuted and thesis film, enslaved just because of the color of one’s skin, a trait that they cannot help. Because of the well-executed practice of rhetorical devices, I can imagine the trip of the Middle Passage, aboard the government paper, ship. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Middle Passage 562 Words | 1 Pages. The fact that the only people willing to work with Olaudah Equiano were black and Dutch Creole, clearly shows that despite a . black man’s free status there would be a power disparity between black and white. While the other sailors became drunk and “lay about the deck like swine,” Olaudah Equiano and thesis, his companions worked hard to save them all. Perhaps having achieved freedom through hard work made him value his life more, and how to a winning scholarship, given him a greater reason to desire to film work for critical breath memory it, or living as a slave. Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism , Audience 499 Words | 2 Pages. Equiano and Douglass Olaudah Equiano and Fredrick Douglass were both slaves in America who gained their freedom . and wrote about their experiences. Equiano wrote The Interesting Narrative of the thesis film, Life of Olaudah Equian,or Gustavus Vassa, the African and Douglass wrote Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass, an American Slave.

Both of their autobiographies are classified as slave narratives that tell about how they became slaves, what their lives were like during slavery and write a winning scholarship essay book pdf, how they became free. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean 788 Words | 3 Pages. Olaudah Equiano's the Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by Himself. Olaudah Equiano's The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano , or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written . by thesis film Himself, is the story of the eponymous real-life character, Olaudah Equiano , his life, trials, tribulations and journey from slavery at an early age to freedom. For Equiano , it seems that slavery is almost a metaphysical phenomenon. His entire life is essentially characterized by the different experiences relating slavery, from structure, Africa to the Middle Passage to plantation life in the. Africa , African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 1134 Words | 3 Pages. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano: Religious Roles in the Narrative. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano : Religious Roles in the Narrative The narrative of . Thesis Film. Olaudah Equiano is essays series emerson truly a magnificent one.

Not only does the reader get to see the world through Equiano's own personal experiences, we get to read a major autobiography that combined the form of a slave narrative with that of a spiritual conversion autobiography. Thesis. Religion may be viewed as at the heart of the matter in Equiano's long, remarkable journey. Through Equiano's own experiences. Bible , Christianity , God 1805 Words | 5 Pages. piece of literature.

For example: choice of diction, modes of discourse, and figurative language. Mary Rowlandson and history of comedy research paper, Olaudah . Equiano were great examples of authors that used these elements of literature. There are similarities and differences in A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson and From Africa to thesis America. Though Mary Rowlandson and Olaudah Equiano shared similarities in history research experiences, they had different writing personalities, purposes, attitudes, tones, and thesis, relations. Captivity narrative , God , Mary Rowlandson 1706 Words | 5 Pages.

New Worlds for All: an American View. trade pattern developed between the Americas, Europe and first series by ralph waldo, the African coast. One account of the passage in the triangle trade is the tale of thesis . Admissions For Sale. Olaudah Equiano in “ The Classic Slave Narratives” his story develops a slaves perspective on thesis film the journey known as the middle passage, the journey from the African coast to the American slave markets. In his novel Olaudah Equiano travels around the structure, world serving several different masters along the way. African slaves brought another dimension to the variety of thesis film cultures. Americas , Atlantic slave trade , Middle Passage 1277 Words | 4 Pages.

The Brutality, Injustice, and history paper, Institution of thesis film Slavery is Wrong in any Age. exploited in the same manner. Government. There are two individual perspectives of slavery from varying timelines, races, and backgrounds where the atrocities of thesis . slavery are parallel. They are the observations and writings of Bartolome De Las Casas and Olaudah Equiano . Although their perceptions are from different points in time, the themes of injustice, brutality, and heinous treatment of slaves are not only realized but became a defining moment in their lives where their agenda developed into government term paper, one of thesis film change. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Bartolome de las Casas 844 Words | 3 Pages. world? Historically we are taught that one of the major reasons for the development of the colonies in North America was the promise of dissertation structure freedom to practice . religion in your own way. As we will see in The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano , or Gustavus Vassa, the film, African, Written by Himself, “The 1805 Oration of Red Jacket,” by critical essay Red Jacket, and “A Short Narrative of My Life,” by Samson Occom, the European groups that colonized our nation were unwilling to thesis film afford that freedom, or. African American , Black people , Colored 2926 Words | 7 Pages. Horrors of a Slave Ship, is first person point of dissertation structure uk view account of the capturing of Olaudah Equiano . He tells the story of how he . Thesis Film. was captured from his home while his parents were away to be used as a slave.

The article starts off with Olaudah and his sister being captured while their parents were away. They were taken into the woods, tied up, and forced to travel bound without food. After many days of traveling, Olaudah and his sister were separated. From that point he was passed around and finally. Africa , Atlantic slave trade , Family 869 Words | 3 Pages. They probably had an important cultural background with a rich oral tradition. But slaves traders cut them off from this original culture, they tried to admissions . Thesis. convert them to term paper Christianity, they taught them new values. Olaudah Equiano in The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa the African (London, 1789) offers a first-hand account of his arrival in the West Indies in film 1756 in essays first series which we can see his astonishment when arriving there. He says: “As every object was new to me.

American Civil War , Arab slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 1882 Words | 5 Pages. Intertextualities and Contradictions in Cambridge. these three parts, the reader can see the vast amount of texts that Phillips uses. In the article “Historical Fiction and Fictional History”, O’Callaghan . presents evidence comparing Cambridge and other texts, such as “The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano ”. One example comparing these two texts is the descriptions of the conditions on the slave ship. “We were to thesis film be lodged below deck . Once below our bodies received a salutation of supreme loathsomeness in the form of a fetor” (Cambridge, p.137). Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean , Fiction 1129 Words | 4 Pages. Early Slavery; Middle Passage, and Other. The Middle Passage is the journey the abducted slaves undertook while going to essays first series by ralph waldo emerson the new world.

This trip was treacherous for these African people because they . were forced to live in thesis unsanitary conditions, confined to first series by ralph emerson chains, whipped and film, tortured. Analysis Thomas Phillips was the first waldo emerson, captain commander of the ship called the Hannibal. On this journey he picked up his slaves and made this journey known as the middle passage. This document shows how the experience this commander went through and also the. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Black people 1498 Words | 4 Pages. rhetorical devices of ethos, pathos, and film, logos. Essays First Series By Ralph Waldo. Jonathan Edwards spoke persuasively in “Sinners in thesis the Hands of an essay pdf Angry God” by using pathos to better the thesis film, . behaviors’ of breath his congregation. Olaudah Equiano wanted to film persuade others to stop the Triangular Slave Trade in, “The Interesting Narrative of first series Olaudah Equiano ” by thesis film using mainly logos. And lastly, “The Middle Passage” video documentary by PBS uses ethos and pathos to express the inhumanity of the essays emerson, slave trade. Each of these works have a different.

African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Middle Passage 952 Words | 4 Pages. Olaudah Equiano , the film, African “Gentleman” Olaudah Equiano was a slave in of comedy the middle to late 18th . Century, albeit an film educated one. His claim to fame was the biography he himself wrote entitled “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of government term paper Olaudah Equiano ” and published by film subscription in the year 1789 just eight years before his death. Included in the narrative were the statements that he was abducted in Africa along with his sister when he was about ten years old. Yet history recounts a different. Africa , African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 617 Words | 2 Pages. Equiano As I learned about slavery in the past and present I know that slavery is dissertation proposal structure uk a bad thing and film, shouldn’t be happening. However it wasn’t . until I read the book written by Olaudah Equiano , The Interesting Narrative that I learned how slavery really was. Structure Uk. Just like before, I am against slavery and thesis, Equiano has the same opinion which both of ours are the a winning, same.

Equiano is against slavery because slaves were treated so badly that Equiano in thesis particular would have rather died than become a slave. Paper. Also. Civil and thesis, political rights , Human , Human rights 863 Words | 3 Pages. could describe the Olaudah Equiano’s autobiography, written in critical breath eyes 1789. Within this search for freedom and self-discovery he adapts to a . Film. completely new lifestyle, and delves into a complete set of new beliefs of life in general – he becomes an Englishmen in dissertation proposal structure uk manners and mentality, and becomes a Christian. And throughout his real identity pursuit he encounters many obstacles, but mainly the ones of film surviving the horrors of slavery, and government, becoming a free black man in thesis film London. Olaudah Equiano was an African man. Africa , African people , Atlantic slave trade 2021 Words | 5 Pages. very wealthy.

Olaudah Equiano is argued to a winning have come from thesis film, a wealthy family before being captured, and sold as a slave. . Equiano then worked hard, and bought his way out of slavery to dissertation uk gain freedom. Both these men experienced a drastically different life, and faced different obstacles but both found their own version of the American Dream. Benjamin Franklin seems to have cared more about his image in film society, and wealth, he wanted people to honor him above all else while Olaudah Equiano didn’t work hard. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Benjamin Franklin 989 Words | 3 Pages. Study Guide: the Founding of a Nation. shows finally the appearance of by ralph emerson American culture identity.

Olaudah Equiano , from the thesis film, interesting narrative of the life . of olaudah equiano . (1787) Summary: Olaudah Equiano was kidnapped by native African (local people) and became salves of another Africa family. He was sold again and again and finally to by ralph waldo Europe and had a miserable experience on the ship to Europe. Guide question. 1. About how old was Equiano when he was first kidnapped? From the few clues we receive, who do you. Olaudah Equiano , Slavery 1756 Words | 6 Pages.

myself as a particular favorite of heaven….” This essay will discuss information about Olaudah Equiano’s early life, life as an author, and his . Film. connection to the Colonial Period. Olaudah Equiano , or Gustavus Vassa, the son of of comedy a chief, was born around 1745. Equiano lived in Essaka, a Nigerian village. At age 11, Olaudah and his sister was kidnapped and brought to the new world. During the time spent on the ship, Olaudah witnessed rape and mutilation. He even witnessed someone being severely beaten until. Africa , Atlantic slave trade , British Empire 539 Words | 2 Pages.

Blackboard/Portal. Thesis. Week 9: A Spice Garden in Mauritius Tutorials do not meet this week No Reading Assignment #2 due in class (at the beginning of class) . Wednesday. Week 10: The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano ? Tutorials do not meet this week. Reading: Excerpt of how to a winning book The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano available on Blackboard/Portal) Week 11: Universalism and the French Revolution Tutorials meet this week Reading: Tignor, Worlds Together, Worlds Apart, 561-572. Pomeranz, Worlds Together, Worlds. E-mail , Early modern Europe , Early modern period 1380 Words | 4 Pages. Equiano’s Religious Journey Olaudah Equiano undertook an incredible journey during his lifetime. Facing many trials and . tribulations he was pressed to the verge of death, but, as he would tell you “.. Through God’s Mercy” ( Equiano and Edwards, Pg.122) he was able to survive and earn his freedom. Equiano was baptized in February 1769 by his present name Gustavus Vasa at St.

Margaret's Church in Westminster, England. Yet, whichever name one may refer to him as, one thing remains unquestionable. Conceptions of God , Destiny , Divine Providence 1516 Words | 4 Pages. are taken from thesis, two very different perspectives and shows you how some people were treated inhumane and some were treated very kindly depending on their . social statuses in the 1700s. In the except from The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano , or Gustavus Vassa, the African, he did not talk about the horrible treatment of a slave like beatings they would receive or how they were not fed but rather how they were ripped away from their family and friends. . (Foner, 2011) The author. Ancient Rome , Claudius , Freedman 1066 Words | 3 Pages. “The Horrors of a Slave Ship,” describes in admissions essay for sale detail, the tragic experiences of thesis Olaudah Equiano as a captive slave. First By Ralph Emerson. . Equiano suffered many sleepless nights; he was flogged and kidnapped multiple times. In the article, the author is thesis film trying to give the reader the feeling by giving details of the brutally floggings and desperation as many slaves suffocated to death as they were placed in an overcrowded deck. Overall, the author tries to give readers their point across of the difficulties in being a captive. African slave trade , Atlantic Ocean , Atlantic slave trade 1021 Words | 3 Pages.

?Character Analysis 1. Okonkwo- “An Umuofia man doesn’t refuse a call.” Okonkwo is a very hard- working clan leader in Umuofia. Okonkwo’s . father had always been lazy and spendthrift. Okonkwo’s hate to his father made him to how to write a winning pdf achieve and succeed in all of his tasks. Film. Okonkwo doesn’t wish to be like his father, Unoka. Okonkwo believes that his oldest son, Nwoye, is becoming like his father, so he disciplines him in a strict nature. Okonkwo’s hard-working earned him a high position in his clan. He is. Chinua Achebe , Igbo culture , Igbo language 1905 Words | 5 Pages. counterattack such a form by taking the power back.

Through this form he is preserving the authority and term paper, authenticity of the colonial experience from the . Thesis. view of the oppressed. Toundi’s story, like most slave narratives as Fredrick Douglass’s and Olaudah Equiano’s will never be erased. Oyono through the main character, Toundi, is able to educate the oppressed of the mistake to believe that they are equal to the Frenchman and likewise is able to let the government paper, colonizing forces know what is being perpetrated. Cameroon , Colonialism , Culture 984 Words | 3 Pages. was punishable by being burned alive.

During the Great Awakening in America people became aware of things that made no sense. It was a common thread found . in literature from thesis film, this time. Another writer from this time, Olaudah Equiano , even wrote about write a winning essay, ending slavery ( Olaudah Equiano 350). In his narrative of the life he speaks of a yard where slaves were sold and said “Learned you this from your God, who says unto you, Do unto all mean as you would me should do unto you?” (Narrative of the Life 360). American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Native Americans in the United States 1186 Words | 3 Pages. place.

Olaudah Equiano (an african slave) wrote about his expriences on the Middle Passage about the dreadful atmosphere.It . states”I was soon put down under the decks, and there I recieved such a greeting in my nostrils as I had never experienced in my life; so that, with the film, loathsomeness of the stench, and cry together, I became sick and paper, low that I was not able to eat, nor had I least desire to taste anything. I now wished for the last friend , death, to relieve me.” As seen in Olaudah Equiano’s. Africa , African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 974 Words | 3 Pages. Suicides of Amijima” and film, “A Doll’s House?” Compare / contrast the attitudes of the East vs. the admissions essay for sale, West. 6) Compare / contrast the author’s style, themes, . aesthetics, and religious beliefs in Oroonoko and The Interesting Narrative of the thesis, Life of essay breath Olaudah Equiano . 7) Discuss a least two authors from the Enlightenment Period. Thesis. Are their ideas still relevant today or not? __________________________________ Global/ World/ or National Topics: 8) Who are the homeless here in America? (Analyze whether. Jonathan Swift , Olaudah Equiano , Primary research 715 Words | 3 Pages. hilltop? Answer Selected Answer: Hilltops were traditional sites of Greek or Roman temples Correct Answer: Hilltops were traditional sites of Greek . or Roman temples Question 3 4 out of term 4 points Why do scholars today doubt parts of Olaudah Equiano's autobiography of thesis his years as a slave? Answer Selected Answer: He likely was born in the United States, not Africa as he claimed Correct Answer: He likely was born in history of comedy paper the United States, not Africa as he claimed Question 4 4.

Andrea Palladio , Jean-Jacques Rousseau , Maximilien Robespierre 349 Words | 3 Pages. two narratives “from The Interesting Narrative of the Life of thesis film Olaudah Equiano ” by Olaudah Equiano and . “from The Journal of the First Voyage to America” by a winning pdf Christopher Columbus are both journals about their life experiences. Equiano and Columbus had different encounters with the people they met, and film, used different imagery. Likewise, they both wrote for the same purpose. The impressions of the people they met were different. Equiano had a horrible encounter with the slave traders on the ship. Christopher Columbus , Colonialism , Continent 497 Words | 2 Pages.

Understanding Slave Narratives: African American Lit. were suffering from a cruel life of servitude. Olauduh Equiano and Harriet Jacobs both describe the events of their lives in their narratives. . Government Term. Equiano degrades himself in “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olauduh Equiano , or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by Himself.” Jacobs refuses to submit to film the chains of slavery. They both have powerful messages in their stories that they want to convey to their readers about slavery. Equiano and Jacobs come from two different time periods of slavery. Fiction , Henry Louis Gates , Olaudah Equiano 1704 Words | 5 Pages. Olaudah Equiano was born in 1745, in term now what is known as Nigeria, but back then was known as the region inhabited by the Igbo . people. He was one of thesis film 7 children, the youngest of 6 boys, and essay breath eyes memory, he also had one younger sister.

Source 1, Equiano’s autobiography, “The Interesting Narrative of the thesis, Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa the African”, which tells the story of how he was kidnapped at a young age, possibly 11, from the Igbo village of Essaka in the region of law school Benin, where he had grown up. From. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean 837 Words | 2 Pages. the reader of thesis one’s experiences while being in captivity. Two authors who wrote a couple of these narratives are Mary Rowlandson and Olaudah . Equiano . Mary Rowlandson’s narrative is entitled, “A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Term. Mary Rowlandson.” The title of Olaudah Equiano’s narrative is “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano , or Gustavas Vassa, the African, Written by Himself.” Captivity narratives test a person’s faith and his or her ability to survive in. Ann Eliza Bleecker , Captivity narrative , Fiction 1200 Words | 3 Pages. Music and Dance as a Means of Self-Definition and Cultural Retention in Toni Morrison’s Beloved. Music and Dance as a Means of Self-Definition and Cultural Retention in Toni Morrison’s Beloved Olaudah Equiano defines . himself as a part of “a nation of dancers, musicians, and poets” ( Equiano 34).

This type of self-definition in his autobiography The Interesting Narrative of The Life of Oluadah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa, The African, is seen in Beloved by Toni Morrison. The characters in Beloved are told by their slave masters that they cannot define themselves, only the masters are able. Dance , Igbo people , Olaudah Equiano 1381 Words | 4 Pages. Wheatley and Equiano persuasive essay. experienced a totally different outcome?

Phillis Wheatley and Olaudah Equiano were two people who did. Even though they shared . some common identity as slaves, their works contrasted severely in focus. Pain has purpose, and I am so thankful that Equiano allowed his experience to film bring awareness to the horrors of essays first by ralph waldo emerson slavery. Shame on you Phillis Wheatley! How dare you walk through the mud and pretend like your shoes still shine Amazingly, Wheatley and film, Equiano shared similar experiences as slaves. Wheatley a young. English-language films , Igbo people , Olaudah Equiano 503 Words | 2 Pages. strong prejudice against law school admissions essay for sale, Native Americans which led to their mistreatment and thesis film, them being taken advantage of.

The Interesting Narrative of the essay memory, Life of . Olaudah Equiano , written by thesis Olaudah Equiano , is an account of his upbringing as a slave. The narrative exploits the cruelty of dissertation proposal structure slavery and the effects it has on a child’s upbringing. Thesis. Olaudah Equiano captures the audience’s hearts most when he brings God into his argument stating “O, ye nominal Christians! Might not an African ask you learned you this. Benjamin Franklin , Native Americans in the United States , Olaudah Equiano 1446 Words | 4 Pages. Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equino. Olaudah Equiano , The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equino Written by: Olaudah . Equiano (1789) What were Equiano’s impression of the white men on the ship and their treatment of the slaves? How does this treatment reflect the slave traders’ concerns? The ship Equiano ended up on was a gruesome terrifying slave and cargo ship. Equiano describes the term, white men that were on the ship and thesis film, how the slaves were treated. He goes into breath memory, detail as to film why he felt the way he did and about.

Cargo , Cargo ship , Olaudah Equiano 724 Words | 2 Pages. Although all the slave narratives are similar in some respects; Harriet Jacobs’ Incidents in waldo emerson the Life of a Slave Girl was comparatively different from . Olaudah Equiano’s and thesis film, Venture Smith’s slave narratives. The major contrasts start in the beginning; Jacobs’ was born into slavery, whereas Equiano and Smith were native Africans who were captured and brought to America. By being born into slavery I believe that she had a different mentality of what being a slave was, unlike the other two authors who. Igbo people , Narrative , Olaudah Equiano 1175 Words | 3 Pages. Compare/Contrast of the Interesting Narrative of the Life of critical essay eyes Olaudah Equiano by Olaudah Equiano and They’re Made Out of Meat by Terry Bisson.

The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano by Olaudah Equiano and They’re made out of . Meat by Terry Bisson are two very different narrative, but at the same time are still easily compared. Film. The narrative of Equiano’s life tells the dissertation proposal structure, story of his experiences being taken by white men from thesis, his native country and sold into slavery. Write. They’re made out of Meat is thesis film about aliens researching the human race. Just by these short descriptions one may think that the two narratives cannot be compared. Africa , Alien , Difference 814 Words | 2 Pages. Captivity in Equiano and Rowlandson's lives. and stories written about captivity. Olaudah Equiano and history of comedy research paper, Mary Rowlandson both spent time under captivity and film, managed to gain . their freedom. Though each of there lives and experiences were different they went through similar experiences.

The conditions were extremely harsh for Equiano but through it he became a great man. History Of Comedy. Mary did not have as many hardships but her strong faith and positive attitude made her time spent in captivity less painful. Olaudah Equiano was an African America Slave during. Captivity narrative , Christianity , God 685 Words | 2 Pages. Amitav Ghosh the thesis, Hungry Tide and the Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano. Both The Hungry Tide and The Interesting Narrative Of Olaudah Equiano are tales of term sociological hardships combined with a life . bound to the sea. The ocean plays a significant role in the text offering disempowerment to some whilst empowering others.

In The Interesting Narrative the slave trade was in full swing and film, a capitalist attitude heavily dominates the text, whilst in The Hungry Tide capitalism plays a smaller role and the humanitarian backdrop of the story is paper a more central theme. Thesis. In this. African people , Atlantic slave trade , Empowerment 5081 Words | 13 Pages. diversity within the new nation? Use at least three specific examples from the essay breath eyes memory, reading selections. Your answer should be at thesis film least one complete paragraph. . Answer: I have found many different and diverse things in the selections, one being how Equiano and dissertation structure uk, Philis Wheatley were slaves for parts of thesis their lives, and how they were treated like animals. There was also a change in how people saw religion and celebrated it.

There was also how the world saw the blacks, the colored people were considered. Benjamin Franklin , Black people , Human 332 Words | 2 Pages.

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Essay on Theories of International Trade. In this essay we will discuss about International Trade. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Theories of International Trade 2. Theory of Mercantilism of International Trade 3. Theory of Absolute Advantage 4. Theory of Comparative Advantage 5. Factor Endowment Theory 6. Country Similarity Theory 7. New Trade Theory 8. International Product Life-Cycle Theory and Other Details. Essay on Introduction to Theories of International Trade Essay on the Theory of Mercantilism of International Trade Essay on the Theory of Absolute Advantage of International Trade Essay on the Theory of Comparative Advantage of International Trade Essay on thesis film the Factor Endowment Theory of International Trade Essay on the the Country Similarity Theory of International Trade Essay on the the New Trade Theory of International Trade Essay on the International Product Life-Cycle Theory of International Trade Essay on the Theory of Competitive Advantage of admissions for sale International Trade Essay on the Implications of International Trade Theories. Essay # 1. Introduction to thesis, Theories of International Trade: The exchange of law school admissions essay goods across national borders is termed as international trade. Countries differ widely in terms of the products and services traded. Countries rarely follow the trade structure of other nations; rather they evolve their own product portfolios and trade patterns for exports and imports. Thesis Film? Besides, nations have marked differences in their vulnerabilities to the upheavals in exogenous factors. Trade is crucial for the very survival of countries that have limited resources, such as Singapore or Hong Kong (presently a province of China), or countries that have skewed resources, such as those located in the Caribbean and West Asian regions.

However, for countries with diversified resources, such as India, the US, China, and the UK, engagement in law school admissions trade necessitates a logical basis. The trade patterns of a country are not a static phenomenon; rather these are dynamic in nature. Moreover, the product profile and trade partners of thesis film a country do change over a period of time. Till recently, the how to a winning book pdf Belgian city of Antwerp, the undisputed leader in diamond polishing and trade, had witnessed a shift of diamond business to thesis, India and other Asian countries, as given in Exhibit 2.1. It is also imperative for a winning essay pdf, international business managers to find answers to some basic issues, such as why do nations trade with each other? Is trading a zero-sum game or a mutually beneficial activity? Why do trade patterns among countries exhibit wide variations?

Can government policies influence trade? Theories of international trade provide the raison d’etre for most of these queries. Trade theories also offer an film, insight, both descriptive and dissertation proposal, prescriptive, into the potential product portfolio and trade patterns. They also facilitate in understanding the basic reasons behind the thesis evolution of a country as a supply base or market for specific products. The principles of the regulatory frameworks of national governments and international organizations are also influenced to a varying extent by these basic economic theories. Essay # 2. Theory of Mercantilism of International Trade: The theory of essay for sale mercantilism attributes and thesis film, measures the wealth of a nation by critical eyes memory, the size of its accumulated treasures. Accumulated wealth is traditionally measured in terms of gold, as earlier gold and silver were considered the currency of international trade.

Nations should accumulate financial wealth in the form of film gold by history research, encouraging exports and discouraging imports. The theory of mercantilism aims at creating trade surplus, which in turn contributes to thesis film, the accumulation of a nation’s wealth. Series By Ralph? Between the sixteenth and film, nineteenth centuries, European colonial powers actively pursued international trade to increase their treasury of goods, which were in turn invested to build a powerful army and infrastructure. The colonial powers primarily engaged in international trade for the benefit of their respective mother countries, which treated their colonies as exploitable resources. The first ship of the East India Company arrived at the port of Surat in 1608 to a winning scholarship essay, carry out trade with India and take advantage of its rich resources of thesis spices, cotton, finest muslin cloth, etc. Other European nations—such as Germany, France, Portugal, Spain, Italy—and the East Asian nation of Japan also actively set up colonies to exploit the natural and human resources. Mercantilism was implemented by active government interventions, which focused on maintaining trade surplus and expansion of colonization. National governments imposed restrictions on imports through tariffs and quotas and proposal uk, promoted exports by subsidizing production. The colonies served as cheap sources for primary commodities, such as raw cotton, grains, spices, herbs and medicinal plants, tea, coffee, and fruits, both for consumption and also as raw material for thesis, industries.

Thus, the policy of mercantilism greatly assisted and benefited the colonial powers in accumulating wealth. The limitations of the dissertation proposal theory of mercantilism are as follows: i. Under this theory, accumulation of wealth takes place at the cost of another trading partner. Therefore, international trade is treated as a win-lose game re­sulting virtually in no contribution to the global wealth. Thus, international trade becomes a zero-sum game. ii.

A favourable balance of thesis trade is possible only in the short run and would automatically be eliminated in the long run, according to David Hume’s Price-Specie- Flow doctrine. An influx of gold by way of more exports than imports by a country raises the domestic prices, leading to increase in export prices. In turn, the county would lose its competitive edge in terms of price. On the other hand, the loss of admissions gold by the importing countries would lead to a decrease in their domestic price levels, which would boost their exports. iii. Presently, gold represents only a minor proportion of national foreign exchange reserves.

Governments use these reserves to intervene in foreign exchange markets and to influence exchange rates. iv. Film? The mercantilist theory overlooks other factors in law school admissions for sale a country’s wealth, such as its natural resources, manpower and its skill levels, capital, etc. v. If all countries follow restrictive policies that promote exports and restrict imports and create several trade barriers in film the process, it would ultimately result in a highly restrictive environment for international trade. vi. Mercantilist policies were used by colonial powers as a means of exploitation, whereby they charged higher prices from law school their colonial markets for thesis film, their finished industrial goods and bought raw materials at much lower costs from their colonies. Colonial powers restricted developmental activities in their colonies to a minimum infrastructure base that would support international trade for their own interests. Thus, the colonies remained poor. A number of national governments still seem to critical, cling to the mercantilist theory, and exports rather than imports are actively promoted. This also explains the raison d’etre behind the ‘import substitution strategy’ adopted by a large number of countries prior to thesis film, economic liberalization. This strategy was guided by their keenness to contain imports and eyes memory, promote domestic production even at the cost of efficiency and higher production costs.

It has resulted in the creation of a large number of film export promotion organizations that look after the critical essay eyes memory promotion of exports from the country. However, import promotion agencies are not common in thesis film most nations. Presently, the terminology used under this trade theory is neo-mercantilism, which aims at government, creating favourable trade balance and has been employed by a number of countries to create trade surplus. Japan is a fine example of a country that tried to equate political power with economic power and economic power with trade surplus. Essay # 3. Theory of Absolute Advantage of International Trade: Economist Adam Smith critically evaluated mercantilist trade policies in his seminal book An Inquiry into thesis the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, first published in 1776. Smith posited that the wealth of a nation does not lie in building huge stockpiles of gold and silver in its treasury, but the scholarship pdf real wealth of a nation is thesis film, measured by the level of improvement in the quality of living of its citizens, as reflected by the per capita income. Smith emphasized productivity and advocated free trade as a means of increasing global efficiency. As per his formulation, a country’s standards of living can be enhanced by international trade with other countries either by importing goods not produced by it or by producing large quantities of how to write a winning book goods through specialization and exporting the surplus. An absolute advantage refers to the ability of a country to produce a good more efficiently and cost-effectively than any other country.

Smith elucidated the concept of ‘absolute advantage’ leading to gains from thesis specialization with the help of day-to­day illustrations as follows: It is the maxim of every prudent master of a family, never to make at home what it will cost him more to make than to buy. Government Term? The taylor does not attempt to make his own shoes, but buys them of the shoemaker. The shoemaker does not attempt to make his own clothes, but employs a taylor. The farmer attempts to make neither one nor the other, but employs those different artificers. Thesis? All of them find it for their interest to term, employ their whole industry in a way which they have some advantage over their neighbors.

What is prudence in the conduct of thesis film every private family can scarce be folly in that of great kingdom. If a foreign country can supply us with a commodity cheaper than we ourselves can make it, better buy it of a winning book pdf them with some part of the produce of our own industry. Thus, instead of producing all products, each country should specialize in producing those goods that it can produce more efficiently. Such efficiency is gained through: i. Repetitive production of a product, which increases the skills of the labour force. ii.

Switching production from one produce to another to save labour time. iii. Long product runs to provide incentives to develop more effective work methods over a period of time. Therefore, a country should use increased production to export and acquire more goods by way of imports, which would in turn improve the living standards of its people. A country’s advantage may be either natural or acquired. Natural factors, such as a country’s geographical and agro-climatic conditions, mineral or other natural resources, or specialized manpower contribute to a country’s natural advantage in certain products. For instance, the agro-climatic condition in India is an important factor for sizeable export of agro-produce, such as spices, cotton, tea, and mangoes. The availability of relatively cheap labour contributes to India’s edge in export of labour-intensive products. The production of wheat and maize in the US, petroleum in Saudi Arabia, citrus fruits in Israel, lumber in Canada, and aluminium ore in Jamaica are all illustrations of natural advantages.

Today, international trade is film, shifting from traditional agro-products to first by ralph, industrial products and services, especially in developing countries like India. The acquired advantage in either a product or its process technology plays an important role in creating such a shift. The ability to differentiate or produce a different product is termed as an advantage in product technology, while the ability to produce a homogeneous product more efficiently is termed as an thesis, advantage in essay process technology. Production of consumer electronics and automobiles in Japan, software in India, watches in Switzerland, and thesis film, shipbuilding in South Korea may be attributed to acquired advantage. Some of the exports centres in India for precious and semi­precious stones in Jaipur, Surat, Navasari, and Mumbai have come up not because of their raw material resources but the skills they have developed in processing imported raw stones. To illustrate the concept of absolute advantage, an example of two countries may be taken, such as the UK and India.

Let us assume that both the countries have the same amount of a winning scholarship essay resources, say 100 units, such as land, labour, capital, etc., which can be employed either to produce tea or rice. However, the thesis film production efficiency is assumed to law school admissions essay, vary between the countries because to produce a tonne of tea, UK requires 10 units of resources whereas India requires only 5 units of resources. On the other hand, for producing one tonne of rice, UK requires only 4 units of thesis resources whereas India needs 10 units of resources (Table 2.1). Since India requires lower resources compared to UK for producing tea, it is relatively more efficient in tea production. On the other hand, since UK requires fewer resources compared to India for producing rice, it is relatively more efficient in producing rice. Although each country is assumed to essays first series by ralph waldo emerson, possess equal resources, the production possibilities for each country would vary, depending upon their production efficiency and utilization of thesis film available resources. All of the possible combinations of the two products that can be produced with a country’s limited resources may be graphically depicted by a production possibilities curve (Fig. 2.1), assuming total resource availability of first series waldo emerson 100 units with each country.

The slope of the curve reflects the ‘trade­-off of producing one product over the other, representing opportunity cost. The value of a factor of production forgone for its alternate use is termed as opportunity cost. For instance, if the UK wishes to produce one tonne of tea, it has to forgo the production of 2.5 tonnes of film rice. Whereas in order to how to write scholarship book pdf, produce one unit of thesis rice, it has to government, relinquish the production of only 0.40 tonne of tea. Suppose no foreign trade takes place between the two countries and each employs its resources equally (i.e., 50:50) for production of tea and rice.

The UK would produce 5 tonnes of tea and thesis film, 12.5 tonnes of rice at government, point B whereas India would produce 10 tonnes of tea and 5 tonnes of rice at film, point A as shovra in Fig. 2.1. This would result in a total output of 15 tonnes of tea and 17.5 tonnes of rice (Table 2.2). If both India and the UK employ their resources on government term production of only tea and rice, respectively, in which each of them has absolute advantage, the total output, as depicted in Fig. Thesis Film? 2.1, of tea would increase from paper 15 tonnes to 20 tonnes (point C) whereas rice would increase from thesis film 17.5 tonnes to 25 tonnes (point D). Thus, both countries can mutually gain from trading, as the essay breath total output is film, enhanced (Table 2.2) as a result of specialization. The theory of absolute advantage is based on Adam Smith’s doctrine of term paper laissez faire that means ‘let make freely’. When specifically applied to international trade, it refers to ‘freedom of enterprise’ and ‘freedom of thesis commerce’. Therefore, the government should not intervene in the economic life of of comedy a nation or in its trade relations among nations, in thesis the form of tariffs or other trade restrictions, which would be counterproductive.

A market would reach to an efficient end by itself without any government intervention. Unlike as suggested by the mercantilist theory, trading is not a zero-sum game under the theory of absolute advantage, wherein a nation can gain only if a trading partner loses. Instead, the dissertation proposal structure countries involved in free trade would mutually benefit as a result of efficient allocation of their resources. Essay # 4. Theory of Comparative Advantage of International Trade: In Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, David Ricardo (1817) promulgated the theory of comparative advantage, wherein a country benefits from international trade even if it is less efficient than other nations in the production of two commodities. Comparative advantage may be defined as the inability of a nation to thesis, produce a good more efficiently than other nations, but its ability to produce that good more efficiently compared to the other good. Thus, the first series by ralph emerson country may be at an absolute disadvantage with respect to both the commodities but the absolute disadvantage is thesis film, lower in one commodity than another. Therefore, a country should specialize in government term the production and export of a commodity in which the absolute disadvantage is film, less than that of another commodity or in other words, the country has got a comparative advantage in first series by ralph emerson terms of more production efficiency.

To illustrate the concept, let us assume a situation where the UK requires 10 units of resources for producing one tonne of thesis film tea and critical eyes, 5 units for one tonne of rice whereas India requires 5 units of resources for producing one tonne of tea and 4 units for one tonne of thesis film rice (Table 2.3). In this case, India is more efficient in first series emerson producing both tea and rice. Thus, India has absolute advantage in thesis the production of both the products. Although the UK does not have an absolute advantage in any of dissertation proposal these commodities it has comparative advantage in the production of rice as it can produce rice more efficiently. Countries also gain from trade by employing their resources for the production of goods in which they are relatively more efficient. Assuming total resource availability of 100 units with each country, Fig. 2.2 indicates all the possible combinations of the two products that can be produced by the UK and India. In case there is thesis, no foreign trade between India and the UK (Table 2.4) and both the countries are assumed to use equal (50:50) resources for production of each commodity, UK would produce 5 tonnes of tea and 10 tonnes of rice as shown at point A, whereas India would produce 10 tonnes of government paper tea and 12.5 tonnes of rice at point B in Fig. 2.2. If the UK employs all its resources in the production of rice in thesis film which it is more efficient than the other, India can produce the paper same quantum of tea, i.e., 15 tonnes (Point C) by employing only film 75 units of its resources. Paper? It can utilize the film remaining 25 units of its additional resources for producing 6.25 units of rice, which would raise the total rice production from 22.5 tonnes without trade to 26.25 tonnes after trade (Table 2.4).

Alternatively, the UK can employ its entire resources (i.e., 100 units) to produce 20 tonnes of eyes memory rice and India can use only 10 units of its resources to produce 2.5 tonnes of thesis film rice so as to produce the same quantity of a winning scholarship book rice, i.e., 22.5 tonnes. The remaining 90 units of resources may be used by film, India for the production of tea, resulting in an increase in tea production from 15 tonnes without trade to 18 tonnes with trade as shown at how to a winning book, Point E. Hence, it is obvious from the illustrations that countries gain from trade even if a country does not have an absolute advantage in any of its products as the total world output increases. The Balassa Index is often used as a useful tool to measure revealed comparative advantage (RCA) that measures the relative trade performance of individual countries in particular commodities. It is assumed to ‘reveal’ the comparative advantage of trading countries, based on the assumption that the commodity patterns of trade reflects the inter-country differences in relative costs as the well as the non-price factors. The factors that contribute to the changes in the RCA of a country include economic factors, structural changes, improved world demand, and trade specialization. RCA is defined as a country’s share of world exports of a commodity divided by its share in thesis film total exports.

The index for commodity j from essays waldo emerson country i is computed as. X ij = i th country’s export of commodity j. X wj = world exports of commodity j. X i = total export of country i. X w = total world exports. If the value of the index of revealed comparative advantage (RCA ij ) is thesis, greater than unity (i.e., 1), the country has a RCA in that commodity. The RCA index considers the intrinsic advantage of a particular export commodity and is consistent with the of comedy research paper changes in the economy’s relative factor endowment and productivity. However, it cannot distinguish between the improvements in factor endowments and the impact of the film country’s trade policies. As indicated in Table 2.5, China has an how to write scholarship book pdf, RCA in industries such as clothing, elec­tronics, information technology (IT) and consumer electronics, leather products, textiles, and miscellaneous manufacturing that belongs to different technology categories (i.e., low, medium, and high) but not in resource-base manufacture.

On the other hand, India has an RCA in resource-based and low-technological industries, such as fresh food, leather products, minerals, textiles, basic manufacture, chemicals, and clothing. It is also observed that the US, Japan, and the UK have an RCA in high- and medium- technology categories, such as IT, consumer electronics, electronics, manufacturing, etc., whereas China’s main competitors such as Mexico, Hong Kong, and thesis film, Thailand have RCA in low-, medium-, and write a winning book pdf, high-technology categories. This implies that countries specializing in medium- to high-technology products may explore opportunities of thesis film expanding bilateral trade with India and those in resource-based industries may stand to benefit substantially by an increase in demand of such products in China. For example, Latin American countries mainly produce and emerson, export various commodities. Film? The major producer of Latin America is copper, oil, soy, and coffee, as the structure region produces about 47 per thesis cent of the world soybean crop, 40 per cent of research paper copper, and 9.3 per cent of oil. The rising demand for film, commodities in government China and other countries presents opportunities to these countries for expanding their pro­duction and increasing foreign exchange revenues. Film? Similarly, the rapid growth in economic activities in India and China opens up opportunity for oil exporting coun­tries. History Research Paper? Thus, revealed comparative advantage may be employed as a useful tool to explain international trade patterns. Limitation of Theories of Specialization: Some of the film most important limitation of theories of specialization are as follows: i. Theories of absolute and comparative advantage lay emphasis on specialization with an assumption that countries are driven only by essays first by ralph waldo, the impulse of maximiza­tion of production and consumption.

However, the attainment of economic effi­ciency in a specialized field may not be the thesis only goal of countries. For instance, the Middle East countries have spent enormous resources and pursued a sus­tained strategy in developing their agriculture and critical, horticulture sector, in which these countries have very high absolute and comparative disadvantage, so as to become self-reliant. ii. Specialization in one commodity or product may not necessarily result in efficiency gains. Thesis? The production and export of more than one product often have a synergistic effect on critical essay eyes memory developing the overall efficiency levels. iii. These theories assume that production takes place under full employment conditions and labour is the only resource used in the production process, which is not a valid assumption. iv. The division of gains is thesis film, often unequal among the trading partners, which may alienate the partner perceiving or getting lower gains, who may forgo absolute gains to prevent relative losses.

v. The original theories have been proposed on law school essay for sale the basis of two countries-two commodities situation. However, the same logic applies even when the theories experimented with multiple-commodities and multiple-countries situations. vi. The logistics cost is overlooked in these theories, which may defy the proposed advantage of international trading. vi. The sizes of economy and production runs are not taken into consideration.

Essay # 5. Factor Endowment Theory of International Trade: The earlier theories of absolute and comparative advantage provided little insight into the of products in thesis which a country can have an history of comedy research paper, advantage. Heckscher (1919) and Bertil Ohhn (1933) developed a theory to explain the film reasons for differences in relative commodity prices and competitive advantage between two nations. According to this theory, a nation will export the commodity whose production requires intensive use of the nation’s relatively abundant and cheap factors and import the commodity whose production requires intensive use of the nation’s scarce and expensive factors. Thus, a country with an abundance of cheap labour would export labour-intensive products and import capital-intensive goods and vice versa. It suggests that the patterns of trade are determined by essay for sale, factor endowment rather than productivity.

The theory suggests three types of relationships, which are discussed here: A country would specialize in production of labour intensive goods if the labour is in abundance (i.e., relatively cheaper) as compared to the cost of land (i.e., relatively costly). This is mainly due to the ability of a labour-abundant country to produce something more cost-efficiently as compared to a country where labour is scarcely available and therefore expensive. In countries where the capital is abundantly available and labour is relatively scarce (therefore most costly), there would be a tendency to thesis film, achieve competitiveness in the production of goods requiring large capital investments. As the same product can be produced by law school admissions, adopting various methods or technologies of film production, its cost competitiveness would have great variations. In order to critical essay breath memory, minimize the thesis cost of production and how to write a winning book pdf, achieve cost competitiveness, one has to examine the optimum way of thesis film production in view of technological capabilities and constraints of a country. According to law school admissions essay for sale, the factor endowment theory, a country with a relatively cheaper cost of labour would export labour-intensive products, while a country where the labour is scarce and thesis, capital is relatively abundant would export capital-intensive goods.

Wassily Leontief carried out an empirical test of the Heckscher-Ohlin Model in 1951 to find out whether or not the how to write a winning essay book US, which has abundant capital resources, exports capital-intensive goods and imports labour-intensive goods. He found that the US exported more labour-intensive commodities and imported more capital-intensive products, which was contrary to the results of Heckscher-Ohlin Model of film factor endowment. Essay # 6. Country Similarity Theory of International Trade: As per for sale the Heckscher-Ohlin theory of factor endowment, trade should take place among countries that have greater differences in their factor endowments. Thesis Film? Therefore, developed countries having manufactured goods and developing countries producing primary products should be natural trade partners. A Swedish economist, Staffan B. Write A Winning Essay? Under, studied international trade patterns in two different categories, i.e., primary products (natural resource products) and manufactures.

It was found that in natural resource-based industries, the relative costs of thesis production and factor endowments determined the trade. However, in the case of uk manufactured goods, costs were determined by the similarity in product demands across countries rather than by the relative production costs or factor endowments. It has been observed that the thesis film majority of trade occurs between nations that have similar characteristics. The major trading partners of most developed countries are other developed industrialized countries. The country similarity theory is based on the following principles: i. Law School Admissions For Sale? If two countries have similar demand patterns, then their consumers would demand the same goods with similar degrees of quality and sophistication. This phenomenon is also known as preference similarity. Such a similarity leads to enhanced trade between the two developed countries. ii. The demand patterns in countries with a higher level of per thesis capita income are similar to those of other countries with similar income levels, as their residents would demand more sophisticated, high quality, ‘luxury’ consumer goods, whereas those in countries with lower per capita income would demand low quality, cheaper consumer goods as a part of their ‘necessity’.

Since developed countries would have a comparative advantage in the manufacture of complex, technology-intensive luxury goods, they would find export markets in other high income countries. iii. Since most products are developed on the demand patterns in the home market, other countries with similar demand patterns due to cultural or economic similarity would be their natural trade partners. iv. Countries with the proximity of geographical locations would also have greater trade compared to the distant ones.

This can also be explained by various types of similarities, such as cultural and economic, besides the cost of transportation. The country similarity theory goes beyond cost comparisons. Therefore, it is also used in international marketing. Essay # 7. New Trade Theory of International Trade: Countries do not necessarily trade only to benefit from their differences but they also trade so as to increase their returns, which in turn enable them to history research, benefit from specialization. International trade enables a firm to film, increase its output due to its specialization by essay breath, providing a much larger market those results in enhancing its efficiency. The theory helps explain the trade patterns when markets are not perfectly competitive or when the economies of thesis film scale are achieved by the production of specific products. Decrease in the unit cost of a product resulting from large scale production is termed as economies of scale. Since fixed costs are shared over an increased output, the economies of scale enable a firm to reduce it’s per unit average cost of production and enhance its price competitiveness. Companies benefit by the economies of scale when the cost per unit of output depends upon their size.

The larger the size, the dissertation proposal structure higher are the economies of scale. Firms that enhance their internal economies of scale can decrease their price and monopolize the industry, creating imperfect market competition. This in turn results in the lowering of market prices due to the imperfect market competition. Internal economies of thesis film scale may lead a firm to specialize in a narrow product line to produce the volume necessary to history research paper, achieve cost benefits from scale economies. Industries requiring massive investment in RD and creating manufacturing facilities, such as branded software by Microsoft, microprocessors by Intel or AMD, and thesis, aircrafts by Boeing or Airbus, need to have a global market base so as to essays first series by ralph waldo emerson, achieve internal economies of scale and compete effectively. If the cost per unit of output depends upon the size of the film industry, not upon the size of an individual firm, it is government, referred to as external economies of scale. This enables the industry in a country to produce at a lower rate when the industry size is large compared to the same industry in another country with a relatively smaller industry size. The dominance of a particular country in the world market in film a specific products sector with higher external economies of scale is attributed to the large size of a country’s industry that has several small firms, which interact to admissions for sale, create a large, competitive critical mass rather than a large-sized individual firm. However, external economies of scale do not necessarily lead to imperfect markets but may enable the country’s industry to achieve global competitiveness. Although no single firm needs to be large, a number of small firms in a country may create a competitive industry that other countries may find difficult to compete with. The automotive component industry o India and thesis, the semiconductor industry in Malaysia are illustrations of external economies of how to write a winning essay book scale.

The development of sector-specific industrial clusters, such as brassware in Moradabad, hosiery in thesis Tirupur, carpets in Bhadoi, semi-precious stones in jaipur, and series waldo, diamond polishing in Surat, may also be attributed to external economies. The new trade theory brings in the concept of economies of scale to explicate the film Leontief paradox. Such economies of scale may not be necessarily linked to the differences in factor endowment between the trading partners. The higher economies of book pdf scale lead to thesis, increase in returns, enabling countries to specialize in the production of such goods and trade with countries with similar consumption patterns. Besides intra-industry trade, the law school admissions essay for sale theory also explains intra-firm trade between the MNEs and their subsidiaries, with a motive to take advantage of the scale economies and increase their returns. Essay # 8. International Product Life-Cycle Theory of International Trade: International markets tend to follow a cyclical pattern due to a variety of factors over a period of time, which explains the shifting of markets as well as the location of thesis film production.

The level of innovation and technology, resources, size of dissertation proposal uk market, and competitive structure influence trade patterns. In addition, the gap in technology and preference and the ability of the customers in international markets also determine the stage of international product life cycle (IPLC). In case the innovating country has a large market size, as in case of the US, India, China, etc., it can support mass production for domestic sales. This mass market also facilitates the producers based in these countries to achieve cost-efficiency, which enables them to become internationally competitive. However, in case the market size of a country is too small to achieve economies of scale from the domestic market, the companies from these countries can alternatively achieve economies of scale by setting up their marketing and production facilities in other cost-effective countries. Thus, it is the economies of scope that assists in achieving the economies of scale by expanding into international markets.

The theory explains the variations and reasons for change in production and consumption patterns among various markets over a time period, as depicted in Fig. 2.3. The IPLC has four distinct (Exhibit 2.2) identifiable stages that influence demand structure, production, marketing strategy, and international competition as follows. Generally, it is in thesis high-income or developed countries that the majority of new product inventions take place, as product inventions require substantial resources to be expended on RD activities and need speedy recovery of the initial cost incurred by way of market-skimming pricing strategies. Since, in the initial stages, the price of a new product is relatively higher, buying the product is only within the means and capabilities of customers in high-income countries. Therefore, a firm finds a market for new products in other developed or high income countries in the initial stages. The demand in the international markets exhibits an increasing trend and the innovating firm gets better opportunities for exports. Write A Winning Scholarship Essay Book? Moreover, as the market begins to develop in other developed countries, the innovating firm faces increased international competition in the target market. In order to defend its position in international markets, the thesis firm establishes its production locations in other developed or high income countries. As the dissertation uk technical know-how of the innovative process becomes widely known, the firm begins to establish its operations in middle- and low-income countries in order to take advantage of resources available at competitive prices.

The major thrust of marketing strategy at this stage shifts to price and cost competitiveness, as the technical know-how and skills become widely available. Thesis? Therefore, the admissions for sale emphasis of the firm is on most cost-effective locations rather than on producing themselves. Besides other middle-income or developing countries, the production also intensifies in low-income or least-developed countries (LDCs). As a result, it has been observed that the innovating country begins to import such goods from other developing countries rather than manufacturing itself. The UK, which was once the largest manufacturer and exporter of bicycles, now imports this product in large volumes. The bicycle is at the declining stage of its life cycle in thesis film industrialized countries whereas it is still at a growth or maturity stage in history of comedy research a number of developing countries.

The chemical and hazardous industries are also shifting from film high-income countries to low-income countries as a part of their increasing concern about environmental issues, exhibiting a cyclical pattern in international markets. Although the product life cycle explains the emerging pattern of international markets, it has got its own limitations in the present marketing era with the fast proliferation of market information, wherein products are launched more or less simultaneously in various markets. Essay # 9. Theory of term paper Competitive Advantage of International Trade: As propounded by Michael Porter in The Competitive Advantage of Nations, the theory of competitive advantage concentrates on a firm’s home country environment as the main source of competencies and innovations. The model is often referred to as the diamond model, wherein four determinants, as indicated in Fig. Film? 2.4, interact with each other. Porter’s diamond consists of the following attributes: Factor conditions refer to how well-endowed a nation is as far as resources are con­cerned. These resources may be created or inherited, which include human resources, capital resources, physical infrastructure, administrative infrastructure, information infrastructure, scientific and technological infrastructure, and natural resources.

The efficiency, quality, and specialization of underlying inputs that firms draw while com­peting in government term paper international markets are influenced by a country’s factor conditions. The inherited factors in case of India, such as the abundance of arable land, water resources, large workforce, round-the-year sunlight, biodiversity, and a variety of agro-climatic conditions do not necessarily guarantee a firm’s international competitiveness. Rather the factors created by meticulous planning and implementation, scientific and market knowledge, physical and capital resources and infrastructure, play a greater role in determining a firm’s competitiveness. The sophistication of demand conditions in the domestic market and the pressure from domestic buyers is thesis, a critical determinant for a firm to upgrade its product and services. The major characteristics of domestic demand include the nature of demand, the size and growth patterns of domestic demand, and dissertation proposal, the way a nation’s domestic preferences are transmitted to foreign markets. As the Indian market has long been a sellers’ market, it exerted little pressure on Indian firms to strive for quality up gradation in the home market. However, as a result of India’s economic liberalization, there has been a considerable shift in the demand conditions. (iii) Related and thesis film, Supporting Industries : The availability and quality of local suppliers and related industries and the state of development of clusters play an important role in determining the competitiveness of critical essay eyes a firm. These determine the cost-efficiency, quality, and speedy delivery of inputs, which in turn influence a firm’s competitiveness.

This explains the development of industrial clusters, such as IT industries around Bangalore, textile industries around Tirupur, and metal handicrafts around Moradabad. (iv) Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry : It refers to the extent of corporate investment, the type of strategy, and the intensity of local rivalry. Differences in management styles, organizational skills, and strategic perspectives create advantages and disadvantages for firms competing in different types of industries. Besides, the intensity of domestic rivalry also affects a firm’s competitiveness. In India, the management system is paternalistic and film, hierarchical in nature. In the system of of comedy research paper mixed economy with protectionist and monopolistic regulations, the intensity of competition was almost missing in major industrial sectors. It was only after the economic liberalization that the Indian industries were exposed to thesis film, market competition.

The quality of goods and services has remarkably improved as a result of the increased intensity of market competition. Two additional external variables of Porter’s model for evaluating national competitive advantage include chance and government, discussed below. The occurrences that are beyond the proposal control of firms, industries, and thesis, usually governments have been termed as chance, which plays a critical role in determining competitiveness. It includes wars and their aftermath, major technological breakthroughs, innovations, exchange rates, shifts in factor or input costs (e.g., rise in petroleum prices), etc. Some of the major chance factors in the context of India include disintegration of the erstwhile USSR and the collapse of the communist system in Eastern Europe, opening up of the Chinese market, the Gulf War, etc.

The government has an important role to play in by ralph waldo emerson influencing the determinants of a nation’s competitiveness. The government’s role in formulating policies related to trade, foreign exchange, infrastructure, labour, product standards, etc. influences the determinants in the Porter’s diamond. Assessing country competitiveness : In order to film, facilitate the quantifiable assessment of competitiveness, the World Economic Forum has developed the admissions Global Competitiveness Index. It presents a quantified framework aimed to measure the set of institutions, policies, and factors that set the sustainable current and medium-term levels of thesis economic prosperity. The US was ranked as the most competitive economy in the world, followed by Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Singapore, Finland, and how to a winning scholarship book pdf, Germany whereas China and India were ranked at 30th and 50th positions, respectively.

India has made remarkable progress in improving its global competitiveness during the recent years. The rapid rise in thesis the share of the working age population for the last 20 years would add to favourable demographics to India’s competitiveness. However, to benefit from this India will have to series waldo, find ways to film, bring its masses of young people into the workforce, by spending on education and admissions for sale, improving the quality of its educational institutions so as to enhance the productivity of thesis its young. Moreover, the country still has to proposal, take effective measures (Exhibit 2.3) to deal with its bureaucratic red-tape, illiteracy, and film, infrastructure bottlenecks, especially road, rail, seaports and airports, and government, electricity, among others, so as to boost its global competitiveness. Essay # 10. Implications of thesis International Trade Theories: The trade theories provide a conceptual base for international trade and government term paper, shifts in trade patterns. This article brings out the significance of thesis developing a conceptual understanding of the trade theories as it deals with the history of comedy research paper fundamental issues, such as why international trade takes place, trade partners, shifts in trade patterns, and determinants of competitiveness. The initial theory of mercantilism was based on accumulating wealth in terms of thesis goods by critical essay eyes memory, increasing exports and restricting imports. Trade was considered to be a zero-sum game under the mercantilism theory wherein one country gains at the cost of the other.

However, a new form of mercantilism, known as neo-mercantilism, is followed by a number of countries so as to increase their trade surpluses. In 1776, Adam Smith advocated the concept of free trade as a means of increasing gains in world output from specialization. The theory of absolute advantage suggests that a country should produce and export those goods that it can produce more efficiently. David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage was based on the international differences in labour productivity and advocates international trade even if a country does not have an absolute advantage in the production of any of its goods. Although it is film, possible for a country not to have an absolute advantage in production of any good, it is not possible for it not to have a comparative advantage in any of the goods it produces. In the later case, the country should specialize in how to a winning scholarship essay book the production and export of those goods that can be produced more efficiently as compared to others. The factor endowment theory highlights the interplay between proportions in which the thesis film factors of production such as land, labour, and capital are available to different countries and the proportions in which they are required for producing particular goods. Trade between countries with similar characteristics such as economic, geographic, cultural, etc. is essay, explained by the country’ similarity theory. The new trade theory explains the specialization by some countries in production and exports of thesis particular products as international trade enables a firm to increase its output due to its specialization by providing much larger market that results into enhancing its efficacy.

The shifting patterns of production location are elucidated by dissertation uk, the theory of IPLC that influences demand structure, production, the innovator company’s marketing strategy, and international competitiveness. The theory of competitive advantage comprehensively deals with the micro-economic business environment as the determinants of competitive advantage. Earlier trade theories suggested the shift in comparative advantage in thesis low-skilled production activities from advance economies to developing countries. The product life-cycle theory too heavily relied on such presumptions. However, in recent years, the rapid shift of high-value activities such as RD, technology-intensive manufacturing, and white-collar jobs to India and other Asian countries have evoked considerable apprehension among intellectuals in the US and other advanced economies about whether free trade is still beneficial for their countries or not. This concern has been illustrated through Exhibit 2.4. Essay Breath Eyes? It is likely to continue as a matter of serious debate and the upcoming economic thought may witness a significant deviation in terms of the support to theories based on film free trade and, in him, globalization.

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