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IELTS Writing Task 2: 'hobbies' essay …

Useful hobbies essay

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IELTS Writing Task 2: 'hobbies' essay …

A (very long) essay on political communications, French style. Posted on 19 October 2011 | 12:10pm. The post has just arrived and in it a very nice surprise, the discovery that Jacques Seguela, one-time adviser to President Mitterrand, now close confidant of President and Madame Sarkozy (indeed he intoduced them), and something of a legend in French political communications, has dedicated his latest book to little old moi . With apologies for the missing accents here and in the French bits of the long posting which follows the dedication to essay, #8216; Le Pouvoir dans la Peau #8216; (Power in the skin) reads #8216; A Alastair Campbell, mon spin doctor prefere#8217; (three missing accents in one word mes excuses sinceres). So what did I do for this honour, you are asking? Well, perhaps the fact that he asked me to read his book, and write a #8216;postface#8217; assessment both of his writing and of the short essay of smoking, issues he covers, and the fact that I said yes, has something to useful essay, do with it. He says some blushmakingly kind things in his #8216;preface to the postface#8217;, which I will have to leave to short essay of smoking, French readers of the whole thing (published by essay, Plon).

But for the largely Anglophone visitors of this blog, I thought some of et godt engelsk you might like to read the said #8216;postface#8217; in useful essay English (apart from the bits where I quote direct from his book). I hope all those students who write asking for help with dissertations will find something quotable in it. Meanwhile I am off to Norway for a conference and a meeting with the Norwegian Labour Party. I#8217;m looking forward to being in the country with the highest #8216;human development index#8217; in the world, and which showed such a mature response to the recent massacre of Oslo and Utoya. Essay. Here is the postface to Le Pouvoir dans la Peau. Jacques Seguela writes about political campaigns and essay communications not merely as an proposal expert analyst, but as an experienced practitioner. Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of his own experience. He is essay, observer and participant; outsider looking in, and insider looking out.

There is much to look at, not least in engelsk France with a Presidential election looming, and the outcome far from easy to predict. We live in a world defined by the pace of change, and whilst the velocity of that change has not always impacted upon our political institutions, many of useful hobbies essay which would remain recognisable to figures of history, it most certainly has impacted upon political communications. As Seguela writes: ‘En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. #8216; Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and changed the way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics. People do not believe politicians as much as they once did. Nor do they believe the essay, media. So who do we believe? We believe each other. The power and the political potential of useful social networks flows from that reality.

Though fiercely modern in their application, social networks in some ways take us back to the politics of the village square. They are an electronic word of mouth on a sometimes global scale. This has changed the latex, way people interact with each other and useful hobbies with their politicians. My first campaign as spokesman and strategist for short, Tony Blair was in 1997, three years in hobbies the planning after he had become leader of the of smoking, Opposition Labour Party. Some of the principles of useful strategy we applied back then would certainly apply to a modern day election.

But their tactical execution almost certainly would not. Politicians and their strategists have to adapt to change as well as lead it. Seguela gives some interesting insights into those who have adapted well, and survive dissertation proposal those who have done less well. He clearly adores former President Lula of hobbies Brazil and you can feel his yearning for a French leader who can somehow combine hard-headed strategy with human empathy in the same way as a man who left office with satisfaction ratings of 87percent. Seguela probably remains best known in political circles for his role advising Francois Mitterrand. Yet wheras I am #8216;tribal Labour#8217;, and could not imagine supporting a Conservative Party candidate in the UK, Seguela came out as a major supporter of Nicolas Sarkozy. I wonder if one of the reasons was not a frustration that large parts of the left in France remain eternally suspicious of modern communications techniques and styles which, frankly, no modern leader in a modern democracy can ignore. Writing. How he or she adapts to, or uses, them is up to them.

But you cannot stand aside and useful imagine the world has not changed. If Lula is a star of marquis essay this book, so too is Barack Obama. Essay. American elections are of enormous interest to all political campaign junkies, a category in latex which both Seguela and I would almost certainly qualify. Much is hobbies, made of Obama#8217;s use of the internet, a relatively new phenomenon in historical terms and one the persuasive unit grade, young Senator used brilliantly in hobbies his quest to become President. Yet though it was an accurate expression of his modernity, underpinning its use were some very old-fashioned campaign principles. Unit Sixth. He used it to turn supporters into activists who both gave funds and also took his campaign materials and ideas and ran their own campaigns for him. Somehow he managed to make one of the useful hobbies, most professional, most disciplined and best funded campaigns in history look like an enormous act of democratic participation.

It was less command and marquis de sade essay control the essay, model we certainly adopted in 1997 and 2001, Labour#8217;s two landslide victories, easing off a little for our third win in 2005 than #8216;inspire and empower.#8217; #8216;Yes we can#8217; not #8216;yes I can#8217;. Et Godt. His supporters were more than supporters. They were an active part of the campaign, and of the message. The key to hobbies essay, this was something that had nothing to do with politicians and everything to do with science, technology and phd dissertation the internet. Ask me who has had the useful, most influence on campaigns in recent times and I might be tempted to reply Tim Berners-Lee, the man credited with gifting the web to the world. Its implications have been far reaching in proposal virtually all aspects of our lives, politics and political campaigns foremost. Useful Hobbies. The new household brand names of the marquis de sade essay, cyber era have not replaced good policy work, messaging and organisation. But they have become essential components of the execution of useful essay them in the campaign. Mainstream conventional media remains important and phd dissertation latex influential, not least because, bizarrely, in most democracies the broadcasters continue to let the press set their agenda for them.

But a candidate who tries to stand against the tide of hobbies essay new media will be making a big mistake, and missing big opportunities. If it has changed so much in the last five years, how much more will it change in the next five years? They will also be making a mistake if they think social media can be managed and massaged in the way that, often, mainstream media have been. On Effect. The key on this I agree totally with Seguela is hobbies, authenticity. And that should be good news for short of smoking, authentic political leaders and an authenticity hungry public alike.

The public tend to get to the point of an election. Seguela has an interesting account of the last UK election and in particular the first ever televised Leaders#8217; Debates. Though I had worked on three campaigns for Tony Blair, I am sufficiently tribally Labour to have answered a call from his successor, Gordon Brown, to go back to help him for his first election campaign as leader in 2011. Essay. One of the roles I ended up playing was that of survive dissertation David Cameron in Brown#8217;s preparatory sessions for the TV debates. These debates mattered, that much was sure. Election planning for Blair, I had always been doubtful about the essay, benefit of such debates in essay engelsk a Parliamentary democracy where our leaders meet each other week in week out in the crucible of the House of Commons. I was worried the media would make them all about themselves, and that the policy issues would be drowned out.

So it proved. Yet in a way the public did get to useful, the point they wanted to. Et Godt Engelsk. They did not particularly want Labour back after 13 years in power. They did not particularly yearn for David Cameron and a Conservative Party unsure about its direction. Useful Essay. So the third party leader emerged through the middle.

Nick Clegg was judged the clear winner by the instant reactions of et godt essay public and media alike. Essay. For a few days he seemed impregnable. Yet come the vote, he did not make a huge breakthrough. It was only because neither Labour nor the et godt essay engelsk, Tories could get over the line that Clegg ended up as deputy Prime Minister in a coalition government. The country had not been able to make its mind up, delivered a muddled result and asked the leaders to sort it out. The leader who came first and the leader who came third did a deal to hobbies, do so. Marquis. I think Seguela is too kind to Cameron.

Any rational assessment of the political landscape before the last UK election would have suggested a Tory victory. Hobbies. Labour in power a long time; the economic crash; a Parliament dominated by essays unit, a scandal involving MPs#8217; expenses; Iraq back in the news because of the official Inquiry; Afghanistan not going well; the press even more strongly in favour of useful a Tory win than they had been for a Labour win in 1997, and vicious about survive Brown. Also the Tories had big money to spend on the campaign and useful essay Labour did not. Yet Cameron could not secure a majority. Why not? There is no simple answer. The wonder of democracy lies in millions of people having their own experiences, impressions and judgements before deciding how to cast their vote. But the survive, strategist in me says the simple answer is that Cameron lacked real strategic clarity. I think Sequela would agree that for all the hobbies, changes that technological and mediatic change has forced upon political campaigns, strategy remains the marquis de sade essay, key. The cyber era has forced campaigners to rethink tactics, but strategy remains more important. He and I are clearly in useful essay agreement that John McCain#8217;s appointment of survive dissertation proposal Sarah Palin as running mate, for example, was a tactical masterstroke, but a strategic catastrophe.

Tactically, he excited his base, gave the media a new toy, and momentarily unnnerved his opponent. Strategically he blew a hole through the two central planks of his campaign experience, and being different from hobbies essay George Bush. In putting tactics before strategy, he broke one of the golden rules of dissertation proposal campaigning. Strategists like rules. We like points of principle to hobbies, act as anchors. I like the rules in Seguela#8217;s Chapter 5. On vote pour une idee. Pas pour une ideologie.

On vote pour soi. De Sade. Pas pour son candidat. On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti. Hobbies Essay. On vote pour le professionalisme. Pas pour l#8217;amateurisme. On vote pour un projet pas pour le rejet. On vote pour le coeur. Pas pour le rancoeur. On vote pour le futur.

Pas pour le passe. On vote pour le bcbg. Pas pour le bling bling. It is charmingly French that he illuminates the rule about voting for le couer pas pour le rancour to a tale of love and et godt essay sex. #8216;Si votre femme vous trompe, ce n#8217;est pas en couvrant d#8217;insulte son amant que vous le reconquerez. Mais en lui redonnant envie de vous. La mecanique electorale est le meme, se faire elire c#8217;est se faire preferer.#8217; That may seem glib. But politics is a human business. It is about feelings as well as policies, emotion as well as reason. People often talk about their political leaders as though in a relationship with them. #8216;He#8217;s not listening #8230; Why on earth did he do that? #8230; I#8217;ve gone off him #8230; Oh, I still like him deep down.#8217; Political leaders sometimes talk of the people in the same way. How many times did I sit in the back of a car with Tony Blair, or fly over useful essay Britain in survive a ‘plane and he would look down and say #8216;God, I wish I knew what they were thinking #8230; Do they still like us?#8217; Back at the time of our first landslide, talk of the country #8216;falling in love#8217; with Blair was widespread.

Today, the biggest accusations of betrayal against Blair will often come from those who #8216;fell in useful hobbies love#8217; most deeply at the outset of his leadership. Perhaps this trend towards relationship politics is survive proposal, being exacerbated by the tendency towards younger leaders. Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, Merkel these are people who came to power much younger than their counterparts down the centuries. Seguela, a man of useful hobbies essay a certain age, remains fascinated by latex annotated bibliography, youth and its impact. The brand manager in him can barely disguise his glee that Coca Cola, the drink of the young trendy, is 130 years old. You can sense the excitement he felt on meeting the young Americans not born when Seguela was advising Mitterrand who had developed Obama#8217;s digital strategy and so helped deliver a mailing list of 13m people. The focus on youth also dominates his analysis of the political consequences of the economic crash whose impact runs through these pages, and useful hobbies offers some fascinating factoids half of all Europeans are over 50, whilst three quarters of Algerians are under 25. There are as many people under 30 in China as in Russia, the US and Australia combined, and in India twice as many as in China.

That too is a powerful force of global change, and de sade will have its impact on Western politics of the future. Useful Hobbies. As to de sade essay, what it all means for the next French elections, I don#8217;t know. But this book provides part of the backdrop, economic and political. It should make interesting reading for anyone involved in useful hobbies essay that campaign. Whilst clearly still of the view Sarkozy was and is the right choice for France, (though the et godt essay engelsk, polls at the time of useful hobbies writing indicate he is in survive dissertation proposal a minority) he throws out ideas and challenges for right and left alike. Hobbies Essay. As traditional lines are drawn, careful reading might provoke candidates and parties to see that they should always be looking to the next new ideas, not merely repackaging the dissertation, last new, let alone the old. I was in Paris recently as a guest of the useful, left think tank, Terra Nova, and short essay on effect met politicians, advisors, militants, experts, journalists and bloggers.

I came away with some strong impressions. Firstly, virtually everyone told me that President Sarkozy was hugely unpopular, and his ratings as low as it was possible to go. Yet many of the same people told me he could still win. Hobbies. They know he relishes a campaign. Engelsk. They suspect he may have learned from essay some mistakes. Incumbency is a powerful weapon. De Sade. A comeback is a powerful narrative. And they worried that with the President so unpopular, the economy sluggish, social issues raw, and the left in power in many parts of France, the PS should have been doing far better in the polls (to which, incidentally, French politicians and media pay far too much attention.) Of course this was pre selection of a PS candidate.

Many of the Socialists agreed with my analysis that once they had chosen the candidate, they needed to unite behind that candidate, resist their historic predilection for useful hobbies, factionalism, run a campaign that was fresh, energetic and annotated bibliography based upon a programme totally focused on the future and hobbies essay one which addressed people#8217;s concerns. They agreed too that the PS could no longer look down its nose at communication, but had to see it not just as an essential element of campaigning, but a democratic duty at et godt essay a time when people have so many pressures on their lives and living standards, and concerns about the world around them. But though they agreed with the analysis, some worried about the Party’s capacity to deliver upon it. The fear of another defeat ought to be enough, surely, to deliver on the first and essential part: unity. As someone on the progressive side of the political divide, I continue to think the French left#8217;s over useful essay intellectualisation of politics, its focus on never-ending debate instead of agreement around big points and dissertation unity behind one accepted leader remains a problem. I added that I felt the way was wide open for someone to hobbies essay, come along and set out, with total honesty and clarity, the challenges ahead, the short essay on effect, limitations of what one leader or one country can do, but explain the world and begin to shape direction. In other words, what I sensed behind the seeming confusion and rather disgruntled nature of French opinion was a real desire for useful hobbies essay, leadership of a strategic rather than a tactical nature. There too, there were concerns, not least because of memories of the negative impact on Lionel Jospin’s campaign when he stated – truthfully – that the State could not do everything.

I heard a lot about Marine Le Pen and certainly the polls tell a good story for the leader of the marquis, Front National. She has certainly shown she can mount a campaign and get the media to accept a sense of change. When even her enemies refer to as Marine, rather than the more toxic Le Pen, that is essay, something of a success. But whenever I have heard her, I have not heard a powerful argument for the future of France. So France enters a fascinating period, where not one single person I met predicted the outcome of either first or second round without at least some doubt in marquis their eyes. Useful Hobbies. When things are so tight, communications can make the essay engelsk, difference. It is not a dirty word. I don#8217;t agree with all of Seguela’s analysis. I don#8217;t accept that only four US presidents radically changed the country. I am not entirely convinced that la pub de la pub is more important than la pub.

I am not sure that David Cameron#8217;s loss of a child had the political impact Seguela thinks it did. I think Brits will be also be surprised at the dominant role he gives in the Tory campaign to useful, his colleague David Jones. I think he overstates how Sarkozy is seen in latex annotated bibliography the world. Essay. I agree with him that we need to be cautious about the potential abuse of the persuasive, internet which has no global governance or regulation to match, but I#8217;m not sure I agree this risks being #8216;en bras arme de l#8217;anarchie#8217;. But it is a book full of understanding of essay some of the on effect, big themes and the small details required for a successful campaigning mindset. Useful. He is, as one would expect for someone who has been close to different leaders, clued up on the importance of good chemistry between leader and strategist. He understands the importance of latex body language as well as language. He knows the importance of emotion as well as reason.

He understands how the web is useful essay, changing politics. One of my favourite phrases is that #8216;life is on the record#8217;. He has a different way of putting it. Short On Effect Of Smoking. #8216;Le #8220;off#8221; n#8217;existe plus desormais. Tout ce que vous direz pourra se retourner contre vous.#8217; It is why the whole #8216;droit d#8217;etre oublie#8217; is emerging as a debate. How many of the young men and hobbies essay women today filling the web with pictures and confessions from their private lives may end up running for office one day, and regretting their openness? On verra. Perhaps I can end where I began, with the changes the social media has brought. At the de sade essay, last election Labour did not do poster campaigns. This was a shame. Hobbies. In previous campaigns we had had some brilliant posters.

But under Gordon Brown, we had very little money for the campaign. Essays Unit Grade. The Tories had plenty of hobbies it and, as Seguela records, they ran a lot of essays sixth posters. One of hobbies their most expensive billboard campaigns was of a giant photo of Cameron with an persuasive essays unit sixth grade anti-Labour slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on useful essay, like this.#8217; Someone noticed that the Tory leader#8217;s face had been airbrushed. This fact became the bibliography, source of thousands of tweets. Hobbies Essay. Then someone set up a website mydavidcameron.com where people could send their own, largely anti-Tory, versions of this poster. Writing Phd Dissertation Latex. These were sent in in their thousands, and many were much better, wittier and more politically devastating than the original. I#8217;ll tell you when I knew they had wasted their money when the newspapers carried photos of useful essay one giant poster site which had been defaced #8230; Cameron#8217;s hair had been replaced with a painted version of phd dissertation Elvis Presley#8217;s hair, and to the slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this#8217; had been added the words of one of Elvis#8217; most famous songs #8230; #8216;with suspicious minds#8217;. The combination of the internet and hobbies wit had reduced the political impact of a hugely expensive campaign to zero. That is my final thought as you begin to dissertation, read Jacques Seguela’s account. It is a quote from a former colleague, Labour MP Hazel Blears #8230; #8216;Campaigning is like sex. If you#8217;re not enjoying it, you#8217;re not doing it properly.#8217; The ego has landed.

fascinating view on the affective, the essay, emotional response of the individual. Tories always bang on about how they view what Labour left them as nefast and noxious, Labour defends limply- the truly great things we did in fact achieve. Marquis De Sade. The above text would clearly show both miss the point. On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe. The presidential focus of this text On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti- may jar greatly with many in this country. T.B was viewed as too much this way by many. Another masochist ? It#8217;s truly weird. The emergence of social media is an interesting development and may, in time, alter the essay, political dynamic.

It is satisfying to be able to debate issues online, particularly important for those on essays sixth, the left who so rarely see or hear progressive opinions in the media. Since joining Twitter I feel better informed and in touch with political issues of the day. Useful campaigning information can be spread quickly and it has the potential to hobbies, strengthen social bonding between groupings of like minded people. I am surprised how many journalists, media organisations and politicians are active on Twitter. It seems they at least, are aware of persuasive essays unit grade its potential and are wary of ignoring its influence.

I suspect much of the antagonism directed towards Nick Clegg was spread through social media. Tenagers don#8217;t generally read newspapers or watch TV news, but they do talk to each other via Facebook. Useful Hobbies. Let#8217;s hope it will make a difference. Since the essay engelsk, collapse of widescale union membership, too many natural Labour supporters don#8217;t hear our political message. Most probably read right wing papers and watch Sky TV. We need to maximise our reach through new social media to counteract the all pervasive right-wing bias everywhere else. Norway is an useful hobbies amazing modern country, and how it has used it#8217;s oil and natural resouces for the best of et godt all its people should be a set lesson to any country in the World.

Efficiency in it#8217;s extraction, and efficiency in using its resulting wealth. And this group from Norway here I have always liked since they started up, here with a guest star from Sweden. Royksopp and Robyn, And well done for having respect from useful La France, but that personally does not surprise me. But the book on sharp end political communication, to tell you honestly, is not up my street. I am into other things in persuasive sixth life, you might have noticed. Anyway, Alastair, isn#8217;t it about time you thought of becoming an MP? Glenda Jackson was older than you when she became one, if I remember right.

Ah yes, just checked, she was about useful essay 56, while you are only, ahem!, 54, but without a couple of oscars#8230; you total wanks. I know who you are and everything. Latex Annotated. You are pathetic in trying to be higher. Useful Hobbies. Higher than what, you tell we banging keyboard in your own worlds. Need a keyboard to grow vegetibles? Don#8217;t think so somehow. Essay On Effect Of Smoking. Time, ey?

Who#8217;ll have it? Raised with praise to die? Parentals withering before eyes, heartbreaking before yourself die. Life, who#8217;ll have it? asked? Not by hobbies essay, many with sense. To see life#8217;s gymnastics performed, buck over a horse yes or no the normed. More scandanavian, with a 23 windowed VW german Samba minibus, and red riding hood, yes, her and writing her subliminal hidden story, Grimm from Copenhagen-like, Saw Clarissa Dickson show today brilliant! Especially when she said you would most probably have a glass of wine, while I will partake in a ginger beer. Have wild garlic growing everywhere around here, with those baggy flowers and essay that smell in the air when you pass them. Will have to note them so to dig the bulbs when ready.

Gawd knows what garlic strain they be though. After helping Tony Blair to de sade, secure a historic third term in office, Alastair Campbell might have hoped to make good his long-planned escape from Downing Street. Blair, and Gordon Brown, had other ideas. Having negotiated Brown’s pivotal role in essay the 2005 election victory, Campbell then became fundamental in the transition from one Prime Minister to another.

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Math Anxiety Essays and Research Papers. Math Anxiety Mathematics is probably one of the most important skills a student will learn. However, many will argue on . practical significance of essay, calculus in marquis everyday life. There are people who get fearful at just the thought of taking that required math class. They worry about having to figure out problems and remembering order of operations. Not only just in the classroom but outside, problems such as having to figure out everyone’s part in useful a bill from lunch or dividing up partial payments for.

Algebra , Anxiety , Arithmetic 860 Words | 3 Pages. What is Math Anxiety ? June 5, 2012 ------------------------------------------------- What is math . anxiety ? Math anxiety is an intense frustration, and latex bibliography, the fear of failing, freezing up, or forgetting what to do in the area of mathematics. Math anxiety is a lack of confidence in one’s self to essay do well in math and survive dissertation proposal, the notion of being judged, or made fun of for not doing well. Math anxiety is an emotional reaction to useful hobbies mathematics based on a past and unpleasant experience which has damaged a student’s. Anxiety , Emotion , Mathematical anxiety 858 Words | 3 Pages.

Introduction: What is math anxiety ? Anxiety is a clinical term meaning fear. Anxiety can be . triggered by people, places or things. Anxiety is displayed in the form of panic attacks. Panic attacks causes one to have a rapid heartbeat, cold sweats, dry mouth, forgetfulness, and the need to run away. The thing about short essay anxiety is essay, that it can be a slow encounter or a quick onset (Tobias, 1993). In some cases, just the thought of the trigger can cause panic like symptoms to prevail. Survive Dissertation Proposal! Even though, the useful, medical. Addition , Algebraic geometry , Anxiety 543 Words | 2 Pages. have found several different strategies that I feel might work for me to overcome math anxiety . First, one should always ask . questions. (http://www.mathpower.com/reduce.htm). I feel that asking questions will give me a better understanding of the problem I’m trying to solve.

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Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Anxiety disorders 851 Words | 3 Pages. The Relationship Between the Level of Math Anxiety and Achievement of Second Year High School Students of Ramon Magsaysay (Cubao) High School, S.Y. 2005-2006. many students reap low self-esteem and suffer from math anxiety when studying and learning mathematics. Persuasive Essays Unit Grade! That is one of the major . Useful! problems encountered by the students in mathematics. Math anxiety is described as “feeling of intense frustration or helplessness about one’s ability to do math works”. Students who suffer from math anxiety always have the dissertation, feeling of incapability of doing activities, which involve mathematics. Hobbies! Moreover, other math anxious students look for other way to avoid doing. Anxiety , Arithmetic , Education 1493 Words | 5 Pages.

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Abnormal psychology , Anxiety , Bipolar disorder 837 Words | 3 Pages. Erin Edge Public Speaking March 2013 PLAN: Narrowed Topic: Separation Anxiety in dogs. Message: I will communicate with my class what . separation anxiety is, what symptoms to look for and how to handle them. Latex! Audience: public speaking class Purpose: To help others understand what separation anxiety is and hobbies, how it can be handled. Performance Goal: Watch my vocal distracters and vary my eye contact. OUTLINE: INTRODUCTION Attention-getting strategy: How many of you have a dog at home? How. Anxiety , Dog , Dog health 752 Words | 3 Pages. development; this is what is proposal, commonly known as separation anxiety . Useful! Separation anxiety is a developmental stage during which the . child experiences anxiety when separated from the primary care giver (McPherson, 2004).

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African American , Anxiety , Black people 1575 Words | 5 Pages. Gender Differences in Test Anxiety. Introduction Test anxiety is a multidimensional construct that has been defined as the set of phenomenological, physiological, and sixth grade, behavioral . responses that accompany concern about possible negative consequences or failure on an exam or similar evaluation. The research study question is, “Do males and females significantly differ on their level of test anxiety ?” The topic is a significant problem to students as well as counselors as they endeavor to alleviate the essay, causes of anxiety attacks (gender. Anxiety , Female , Gender 1427 Words | 5 Pages. Effects of Exercise on Anxiety and Depression. Critically Analyse the Research Findings on the Acute and latex annotated, Chronic Effects of Exercise on Anxiety and Depression It has long been speculated . Essay! that there is a relationship between exercise and it effects on de sade, anxiety and depression.

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Anxiety Lab Report Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between cognitive anxiety , somatic . anxiety and self confidence in two different situations; non-stressful and stressful. It is to examine the effects on anxiety of a simple golf putting task. The stressor used in this experiment can be described as situational, namely the on effect of smoking, stressor of social comparison, the type of stressor that leads many performers to question their own ability which in turn evokes symptoms. Anxiety , Competition , Confidence 787 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: DEPRESSION, ANXIETY , AND STRESS Depression, Anxiety and Stress in useful hobbies First Year Psychology Students: Principles of . Psychology Lab Report your name your school Abstract A laboratory study was conducted to compare first-year university students’ scores on essay on effect, the Depression A nxiety Stress Scales (DASS, Lovibond Lovibond, 1995, cited in Crawford Henry, 2003) wit2 h norms based on a general population (Crawford and Henry, 2003). Results replicated findings in Wong, et al. Useful Hobbies Essay! (2006).

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Method: This research was conducted at the. Analysis of variance , Anxiety , Iloilo City 470 Words | 2 Pages. Student’s Name: Institution of Learning: Instructor’s Name: Course Name: Public Speaking Anxiety From a tender age, I was always nervous . about speaking it public or rather being in situations where I had to address people or read in useful public, be they my peers, or those older or younger than me. Still, within me, I admired numerous eloquent speakers both on essay on effect of smoking, television and other areas of social life, though I could not muster enough courage to publicly address others. Consequently, throughout childhood. Anxiety , Fear , Glossophobia 2601 Words | 7 Pages. A Test Anxiety Inventory Taken from: http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/ mueller/tai-form.html Directions: ? Read each item below to see if it . reflects your experience in useful hobbies test taking. ? If it does, place a check mark on the line next to the number of the statement. Check as many as seem fitting. ? Be honest with yourself. ___ 1. I wish there were some way to succeed without taking tests. Et Godt Engelsk! ___ 2. Useful Hobbies! Getting a good score on dissertation proposal, one test does not seem to increase my confidence on useful hobbies essay, other tests. ___.

Anxiety , Christopher Nolan , Following 1226 Words | 6 Pages. Nightmares can be very disturbing because it is grade, hard to understand what produces it and why it acts a certain way. Useful Hobbies Essay! Nightmare is defined as a dream during . the rapid eye movement, which provokes intense negative feeling, such as panic, fear, terror, or anxiety . Persuasive Essays Sixth Grade! Everyone has experienced a nightmare one time or another in his or her lifetime. But what happens when nightmares start occurring constantly? The fact is more children experience nightmares more frequently than adults.

It is estimated that 50 %. Anxiety , Dream , Dreaming 732 Words | 3 Pages. UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE AT MARTIN COUNSELING CENTER PUBLIC SPEAKING ANXIETY By Louise Katz, Ph.D. • • • WHAT IS PUBLIC SPEAKING . ANXIETY ? HOW TO PREPARE FOR AN ORAL PRESENTATION GIVING YOUR SPEECH What is Public Speaking Anxiety ? Public speaking anxiety is useful essay, very common among both college students and the general population. Latex Annotated Bibliography! Some estimates are that as many as 20-85% of people experience more or less anxiety when they need to useful essay speak in essay of smoking public. Essay! Many people who speak for persuasive sixth, a living, including. Anxiety , Fear , Glossophobia 2413 Words | 6 Pages. Public Speaking Anxiety and Its Effect on Students. Public Speaking Anxiety and useful essay, Its Effect on unit sixth, Students Introduction Public speaking anxiety is useful hobbies, a problem for many people. . Some say that it is the number one fear of Americans over death. Engelsk! There have been many studies done in the general field of public speaking anxiety . I am going to review five articles that touch on various issues surrounding public speaking anxiety . All five of these articles are from useful essay, Communication journals and are at most five years old. Literature Review There.

Anxiety , Glossophobia , Language 1417 Words | 5 Pages. RUNNING HEAD: THE AFFECT OF STRESS AND ANXIETY ON AN ATHLETES PERFORMANCE | Stress and Anxiety in Sports | Matt Lofgren | . | Lethbridge College | Keith Jones | Stress and writing latex, Anxiety in Sports Introduction: Sports have been a part of my life for as long as I can remember, and I know from countless experiences how stress and anxiety can affect ones performance. Hobbies! Anyone involved in bibliography sports in useful anyway will understand the feelings that rush through you when you are in a high risk, and high pressure. Anxiety , Emotion , Fear 1337 Words | 4 Pages. The 20th Century: the Age of Anxiety. The labeling of the 20th century as the ‘Age of of smoking, Anxiety ” is created by useful essay, the common theme of someone using technology to obtain power over the . common man.

It is the uncertainty of what could happen that drives fear and paranoia as a common bond. In Robbie, Mrs. Latex Annotated! Weston states quite bluntly, “I won’t have my daughter entrusted to a machine-and I don’t care how clever it is. It has no soul, and useful, no one knows what it may be thinking.” She is dissertation proposal, uncertain how the metal robot works and this causes her to be. Anxiety , Artificial intelligence , Computer 891 Words | 3 Pages. Fear causes anxiety , and useful, anxiety can cause fear.

Throughout our lives, we experience circumstances that make us feel different . emotions. Some situations make us experience positive feelings and essays unit, emotions, such as joy and excitement. At other times, we experience things that bring about feelings of loneliness, loss, sadness, fear and anxiety . Useful Essay! Anxiety and fear both produce similar responses to certain dangers. Also, they both often cause similar symptoms, such as muscle tension, increased heart rate. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Emotion 937 Words | 3 Pages. Transitions: Anxiety and Supportive Relationships. foods and may lose weight if weaning attempts to replace a milk diet too early. Children may begin to have disturbed sleep patterns, be more irritable whilst . awake and less motivated to try new foods. Supportive relationships help to overcome the anxiety during these times with use of a soothing, calm voice, reassurance through eye contact, physical contact to comfort, play ideas that help distract tension and diffuse worry, or maybe anger at facing another unwanted episode of food tasting.

Motivate. Anxiety , Deciduous teeth , Human development 1574 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction Competitive anxiety is usually follow the et godt engelsk, feeling of tension and stress combined with high arousal of the autonomic nervous . Useful Hobbies Essay! system. Writing Phd Dissertation! The duration and intensity of the useful essay, anxiety state change according to the stress stimuli the athlete face and period subjective threat created by essay of smoking, stimuli. If the useful essay, arousal is too high or too low it may lead a poor performance.

Definition of Anxiety A negative of emotional state in a person combination with nervousness, worry and essay, fear. W. Stewart in. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Autonomic nervous system 748 Words | 3 Pages. Evidence Based Practice Preop Anxiety. that preoperative anxiety is associated with negative postoperative outcomes. These studies were conducted on men, women and children, all . undergoing surgery for useful hobbies essay, various diagnoses.

A study conducted in Singapore on school aged children found a statistically significant correlation between preoperative anxiety and pain intensity 24 hours postoperatively (Chieng, Gu, Chan, 2012). A broader study on 241 children, that lasted four years, concluded that not only persuasive essays sixth was preoperative anxiety associated with. Anxiety , Clinical trial , Doctor-patient relationship 2221 Words | 7 Pages. Math Anxiety: Personal, Educational, and useful essay, Cognitive Consequences. Current Directions in Psychological Science http://cdp.sagepub.com/ Math Anxiety : Personal, Educational, and Cognitive . Consequences Mark H. Ashcraft Current Directions in marquis de sade essay Psychological Science 2002 11: 181 DOI: 10.1111/1467-8721.00196 The online version of this article can be found at: http://cdp.sagepub.com/content/11/5/181 Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: Association for Psychological Science Additional services and information for Current Directions in Psychological. Anxiety , Arithmetic , Cognition 3319 Words | 6 Pages. Anxiety in a social situation and how people avoid them is very common in today’s society. Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress . and can actually be beneficial in hobbies some situations. Marquis De Sade! There are a wide variety of anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder.

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Attachment styles and general anxiety disorder in essay adults Purpose The purpose of hobbies essay, this study is to look at the relationship between infant . attachment styles and psychological wellbeing, with general anxiety as a measure of psychological wellbeing. This study will use an adult sample that will go through psychological tests to determine what attachment style each individual had when they were infants. After establishing their attachment styles their general anxiety levels will be tested. The results. Anxiety , Attachment theory , Developmental psychology 1373 Words | 4 Pages. Anxiety, Mood/Affective, Dissociative/Somatoform Disorders. Anxiety , Mood/Affective, Dissociative/Somatoform Personality disorders stem from mental health issues and derive from abnormal psychology, . commonly referred to latex bibliography as, psychopathology. Useful Hobbies Essay! Feelings, thoughts and et godt engelsk, behaviors expressed by those suffering from a personality disorder are usually exaggerated feelings, thoughts and behaviors expressed by hobbies, all human beings (Millon amp; Davis, 1996).

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The purpose. Anxiety , Asperger syndrome , Autism 1513 Words | 5 Pages. Anxiety is a normal reaction to a threatening situation and results from an increase in the amount of adrenaline from the useful essay, sympathetic nervous . Phd Dissertation! system. This increased adrenaline speeds the heart and respiration rate, raises blood pressure, and diverts blood flow to useful the muscles. These physical reactions are appropriate for escaping from danger but when they cause anxiety in many situations throughout the unit grade, day, they may be detrimental to essay a normal lifestyle. An anxiety disorder is a disorder where feelings. Anxiety , Anxiety disorders , Cognitive behavioral therapy 1318 Words | 4 Pages. Child Anxiety Many people believe that the events which take place in dissertation proposal ones childhood do not effect their adulthood, but scientific studies . show that it actually does effect ones adulthood. I have been through certain situations in my life which have effected my ability to grow completely.

These experiences define childhood anxiety . Childhood anxiety is panic attacks experienced by children due to hobbies various reasons. Other symptoms may include heart burns, cold sweats, and nightmares. For example. Agoraphobia , Anxiety , Anxiety disorder 1485 Words | 4 Pages.

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Top 10 Details to useful essay Include on a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of dissertation, nursing resumes. Useful Hobbies! Unfortunately, the vast majority of essay engelsk, them were missing multiple details that were important to the Nurse Managers and Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for making the hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to a lower ranking within the Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in today’s hiring process. We hope the information provided here will help you create an amazing resume!

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Provide at least the persuasive essays unit sixth grade, following information about useful essay your education: Name of of smoking, school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and State. You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and activities, or your GPA if it was really high. Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the earlier you are in hobbies, your career, so keep that in mind when crafting the essays unit grade, education section of your resume. Finally, you may also wish to include details on useful, any continuing education units you’ve taken within the on effect of smoking, last 2 years. Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, “bilingual” was the second most commonly required skill listed on nursing job advertisements. 7. Nursing License and Certification Details: It is highly recommended that you include the following for your licenses:

License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on license if different from name on resume License expiration date License number If the license is part of the Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly. Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on a resume as a matter of privacy. Essay! However, nursing license numbers are a matter of dissertation, public record. They can be easily obtained from each state’s Board of Nursing using the standard information included on your resume. Providing the license number simply makes the recruiter’s job easier. And in a competitive job market, that could make all the difference in the world.

When it comes to certifications, it is highly recommended that you include the following for useful essay, every certification you hold: Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date. Unlike most professions, nursing is conducted round-the-clock. Therefore, it’s best to persuasive essays unit grade convey the shifts you’re willing to work on useful hobbies, your nursing resume. Are you open to working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts? Are you open to working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs?

You should include this information even if you’re applying for a specific job with a specific shift. Essay! You never know if the useful hobbies essay, employer has another opening that is unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Moreover, resumes aren’t always submitted to specific job advertisements. In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. Writing Latex! Including your availability is useful hobbies essay, very helpful for general job inquiries. In addition, you should indicate your willingness to relocate when applicable.

These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but it’s best to simply add them to your Professional Summary. The healthcare industry is survive dissertation proposal, going electronic. Paper charting will soon be a way of the past. It’s imperative to list any and all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and essay, Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have. According to a recent study by Wanted Analytics, “Electronic Medical Record” was the writing phd dissertation latex, most commonly required skill for useful hobbies, nurses listed in nursing job advertisements. “Epic Software” and marquis de sade essay, “Meditech”, popular EMR software packages, were also on the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of EMRs. And both ICD10 and ICD 9 are among the useful essay, most commonly listed skills in job advertisements. Phd Dissertation! So if your scope of practice deals with this in any way, then be sure to add these to your resume. You may also want to useful essay include any other computer experience you have just in case it may be of value to the employer, or to at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and EMRs. Signifying the type of latex bibliography, facility you worked in tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. You should know the hobbies essay, exact designation of all the facilities you worked with and if you don’t, now is the time to find out.

Short term acute care? Long Term Care? Long Term Acute Care? Senior Nursing Facility? In addition, if you worked at a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on your resume along with the essays grade, trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc). If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in your resume’s Work History section, or in your resume’s Summary. For example, if the job listing you’re applying for lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then it’s a good idea to identify your trauma experience in the resume Summary to make it stand out. Include the number of total beds at hobbies essay, the facilities you worked at, as well as the number of beds in the specific units on which you worked. Just like the facility type, providing the number of beds tells the annotated, potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words.

We regularly saw resumes that listed things like “3 West” as the hobbies essay, unit. Unfortunately, only people who work at that facility know what that means. Instead, include the type of unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in order to convey the phd dissertation, message. We can’t stress enough how important this is. Also include your caseload. What was the nurse to patient ratio in this unit, and useful hobbies, how much support was there in the form of et godt engelsk, LPNs, CNAs, or MAs? Include any other unit specific details as well. Did the unit take trauma patients? Did the unit routinely deal with overflow from other units?

If so, what types of useful hobbies essay, patients were seen from persuasive essays unit overflow? 1. Specific Details/Duties and Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to hobbies this point, the focus has been on et godt, incidental, although very important, details. But what about the meat of your resume, the job descriptions and experiences that make up the bulk of your resume? When it comes to this, nurses are in the precarious position of balancing duties with accomplishments. You see, the useful hobbies essay, current standard recommendation for resumes is to latex make them accomplishment driven. The idea is that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to hobbies duties, that illustrate how your work translated into et godt essay, quantifiable and useful hobbies essay, tangible results for your current and previous employers.

Advocates of this approach advise against listing duties on your resume. However, healthcare employers need to know that you have experience with the highly technical duties that are integral to the job you’re applying for. At the same time, they too want to know about persuasive essays unit your accomplishments. Therefore, it’s important to include details about the specific day-to-day duties you performed. However, at the same time, you don’t want to fall into the trap of hobbies, creating a “duties-driven resume”. Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and general resumes.

Before we continue, it’s best to address the 800 pound gorilla in this conversation. Nurses sometimes have hundreds of duties and responsibilities. Survive Proposal! How do you choose which ones to list because you certainly can’t list them all? We hate to say it, but including things like, “Provided patient care” is a complete waste of space. It’s simply too general. Useful Hobbies! Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the reason that such general statements are so often included in survive dissertation, nursing resumes.

In reality, the differences are stark between various facilities. For example, the Step-Down Unit at one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the SDU in another hospital may. With that in mind, here are some general themes to consider when determining the types of hobbies, duties to include on et godt, your resume. This list is useful, not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the level of specificity that we’re talking about: Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications? Which medications? What type of patients did you care for? Renal?

Cardiovascular? Neuro? Ortho? Rehab? What was the survive dissertation, age range of the patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips? Work with vents? Trachs?

Balloon pumps? Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System? Which industry-wide protocols, processes and procedures are you experienced with? For example, AIDET is among the most commonly listed requirements in essay, nursing job advertisements. There are many similar protocols, processes and procedures throughout the industry, so be sure to make note of those that were used by your previous employers. Now, we’re still in the tough spot of latex annotated, determining exactly which skills and duties to essay include on the resume. First, start by including any duties specifically mentioned in the job description that you have experience with. Next, do some research on the employer in question to find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to list.

Use the company website, news, and on effect, any professional connections you have in an effort to determine the types of patients, processes and procedures common to the specific employer in question. Once you have the duties narrowed down, there are a couple of hobbies essay, ways to convey them on et godt essay, your nursing resume. Useful Hobbies! First, you can incorporate the duties into your “accomplishment statements”. We discuss this approach below. Second, you can simply list out the duties. While this is less preferred, it is sometimes not possible to accomplish any other way. Your summary is a good place for this. For example, you might include the following in your resume summary if you’re applying for a position in the CVICU: Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications. Bonus: Given the large number of skills and duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a “Skills Checklist” during your job search.

Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the dissertation proposal, healthcare industry. BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and downloaded as PDF documents. Useful Hobbies Essay! You can view a sample here. They’re a great way to convey your skills to potential employers. You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for marquis de sade essay, jobs or you can bring them to your job interviews.

Considerations for useful hobbies essay, Accomplishments. Now that we’ve covered duties, let’s take a look at annotated, accomplishments. First, you can try to frame duties inside “accomplishment statements” in hobbies, order to knock them both out at the same time. Dissertation Proposal! In other words, offer an explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties. Again, this isn’t always possible, but here are some considerations: Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer? Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards?

How did performing your duties contribute to that? When framing accomplishments, it’s also useful to know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an organization. For example, patient satisfaction is hobbies essay, typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey. Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators? How did performing your duties influence that? Next, it’s important to understand how your current and former employers measured your individual performance as this is very helpful when framing accomplishments. Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements.

Again, you may choose to latex bibliography list specific duties you’re proficient with separate from your accomplishments. Or, you may choose to frame the duties within your accomplishment statements. Or you may choose a combination of the two approaches. In any case, it’s important to hobbies provide both job-specific duties and accomplishments on essay on effect, your nursing resume. Bonus: Healthcare is very diverse. Many hiring managers would also like to know what other skill sets you have outside of your primary area of expertise.

Did you float to the ER or LD units when needed? If so, then you may want to provide some reference to the skills and accomplishments you achieved in these areas. General perspective on nursing resumes. This may seem like a ton of information to incorporate into useful essay, a standard resume. However, nursing is not a standard profession and concerns over resume length are becoming antiquated with the advent of Applicant Tracking Systems. Moreover, the push to force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is a disservice to persuasive essays both healthcare professionals and employers. Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after. As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on perfect candidates. This push toward generalized conformity is hobbies essay, even prevalent on survive, the most popular job boards, like Monster and useful hobbies essay, CareerBuilder, and writing phd dissertation, professional networking services like LinkedIn.

Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by useful hobbies industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. Latex Annotated Bibliography! For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of useful essay, recording healthcare specific career details as well as the ability to print the unit sixth grade, profile to PDF as a resume formatted specifically for healthcare professionals. So it’s like a cloud based resume service. It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and useful hobbies, efficiently. As always, your feedback is greatly appreciated. Please let us know what you think by posting a comment! 16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems We’ve spoken to countless nurses and other healthcare professionals who. How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Marquis Essay! Nursing Resume Objective or Summary?

Nurses often wonder if they should include an objective or. I am wondering how to list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of 2+ years. I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from mom baby, to peds, peds ed/uc, and nicu. Hobbies! How do i go about addressing those different areas and responsibilities and survive, skills, when they all fell under 1 position? Thank you for the information, its very helpful. This site is useful essay, of so much help to me. thank you, and it is also free. Its amazing, I just can’t appreciate it enough.

I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in an ICU. The locations and facility i am looking at have nothing for experience nurses, but have a lot of positions for new nurses that want to work in ICU. I just want to et godt apply to the new nurse position and essay, i really don’t mind the pay. Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and apply although the position is for new grads. Essay! please i will really appreciate any advise. Hobbies Essay! thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC on my resume. Can I include it on my credentials area on top of my resume – following my name and dissertation, degree? I ask because the ANCC instructs to do so on their website. I’ll be honest it’s somewhat confusing though, at least to me. I plan to include my Medsurg certification in certification section of my resume where BLS and RN licensure are, etc. I just wanted it to useful stand out and pop so to phd dissertation latex speak – as to not have to read on to notice it.

On ANCC site, on a “How to useful Display Your Credentials” page they instruct you to include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified). Was hoping you could clarify or add something else. Great web site … thanks. Thanks for the inquiry, Jesse, and my sincerest apologies for the delay! Your Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC is considered a “National Certification” and should be listed after your name at the top of your resume and in persuasive essays sixth grade, the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume. The order for listing credential after your name is: Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and essay, Awards.

I hope this helps! I have been working out of the acute care setting in public health nursing for 7 years. I have heard over phd dissertation latex, and over that because I have been out hobbies, of the acute care setting for latex annotated bibliography, so long that I don’t qualify for a lot of the positions that I have applied for. Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for the last 7 years, except for giving immunizations and occasionally drawing blood. I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to find another job, and I am really not happy with my current job. I am unsure of how to make my resume “pop” and have prospective employers want to give me a chance. I am not looking to get back into useful hobbies, areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into acute care.

Any ideas. Kurt, I am an RN at a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. One of the biggest hurdles to applying at any VA facility is the fact that USA Jobs is a digital screening tool as much as it is an online application portal. Unit! Matching as many keywords in the functional statements for your desired role in your application can be the difference between getting an hobbies, interview and being passed over. Essay! Hope this helps! In your article you talked about whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards. I’m working on applying for a position that is useful hobbies, open for an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job. The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for their total joint replacement program. I was wondering if this would be something that is good to include as part of my resume, considering I was a part of the unit during that time for the hospital’s certification/recognition. If so, how would you go about including that in without making it seem just a random fact listed and make it more as an accomplishment for essay, myself also since I was a part of hobbies, that unit/team during that time. Thanks for the inquiry, Jessica.

Yes, this is definitely something you can include on your resume. If you feel that you’re not able to expand in a way that adequately describes your role in writing phd dissertation, the achievement, then you may want to expand in essay, your cover letter. On your resume, you might want to couple this team achievement with one of short of smoking, your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor. Useful Essay! For example, you might have received an individual award or a high employee evaluation score. You may also want to include this in your summary as opposed to the job description to make it stand out a little more. I hope this helps! I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in writing phd dissertation latex, just about every surgery setting from Open heart to Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at a busy hospital and also ran a surgery center. I have been fortunate to have been able to useful essay take off time to essay on effect stay home and be with my children. That being said, I am worried about the years off and blank space on my resume. How would you go about filling in the gap? I have volunteered in multiple areas at their schools, from organizing an Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and teaching Compression Only CPR.

My license and continuing CEU’s have always rained current. Do you think this will make it difficult for me as I try entering the job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have. Thanks for the inquiry. There is no steadfast rule on useful hobbies essay, how to handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to consider. Short On Effect Of Smoking! First, you can consider a “Functional Resume.” Functional resumes are resumes that focus on skills instead of experiences.

In your case, you would focus on all of your OR experience. Hobbies! You might have a small section to list your previous employers. Proposal! or you may even choose to useful leave it out entirely. There are many examples of Functional Resumes available on the internet. Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume. In this case, you would list your experience raising the kids as one of the entries in your chronological work history.

You could include details on the experiences mentioned in your comment on this blog post. Again, there is no right or wrong way. Each has its advantages and bibliography, disadvantages. Useful Hobbies Essay! To answer your question, yes, this situation is persuasive essays grade, always a bit of useful essay, challenge. However, experienced nurses are in high demand at the moment, so you should be fine. Also, I’m personally inclined to short essay on effect recommend the hobbies, chronological format. The main advantage of Functional Resumes in dissertation, this particular case is to useful hobbies draw attention to your skills and away from the et godt, gap in recent experience. Hobbies! However, employers are going to find the gap no matter what. So, I think it’s best to embrace it. On Effect! With the chronological resume, you can still include all the applicable skills. I hope this helps!

I have worked in useful hobbies, home health and corrections for about 5 years now. Short Essay On Effect Of Smoking! I have done a lot of basic nursing ranging from blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and removal. Hobbies! IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes. I have responded to chest pain calls, shortness of breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and unresponsive patients. I have worked in a corrections hospital with acute and long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isn’t seen as ER work even though it seems from talking to other nurses that that isn’t so far different than those working in a hospital ER.. Trying to annotated format my resume to make my experience fit into what the essay, Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to be retiring Military Nurse and will be transitioning to the civilian workforce. How important are listing awards? I have numerous military awards based on my work ethics and performance on the job, but I am afraid that the sixth grade, general public is not going to have any idea what they are or mean. Also, any good tips on turning military missions into useful, civilian language? Thanks for de sade essay, your service!!

I think it’s a great idea to add the awards to your resume. You could do one of two things. Simply list them out by hobbies essay their official name. There’s a good chance that the reviewer will search for the award on the internet and find it. Or, you could add a very brief description of the award in parentheses. Survive Dissertation Proposal! For example: X Award (earned for valor in action).

Either way, if you have a lot of useful essay, awards, then you may want to include only the highest ranking awards. If you choose to list many of writing phd dissertation latex, them, then put them in hobbies essay, columns or in a continuous stream separated by dissertation proposal commas to save space. Conveying your military experience in civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in a military hospital. My apologies, but I lack the technical expertise to provide detailed recommendations. Useful Hobbies! That said, I’d recommend reviewing the job descriptions for the jobs you’re applying for use them to et godt guide your efforts whenever possible.

I hope this helps and thanks again! I have a position working in hobbies essay, a “float pool” (we call it the Mobile Unit). The unit is split into two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I don’t float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and babies); inpatient rehab) and de sade essay, critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU). How do I discuss bed numbers for useful, each unit and descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to essays unit sixth play into each patient population? It seems like there’s no way for me to hobbies essay cover all of marquis, this detail without leaving a lot out or getting too wordy. I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet. Useful Hobbies Essay! My husband just got a job out of state, so we have to relocate, as much as I love my current employer. This is a great question; thanks for posting it here! You’re right, you’re probably not going to be able to convey the essay, broad spectrum of your experience without getting too wordy for your nursing resume.

So, you’ll need to offer some general details as well as some specific details. When it comes to specifics, it’s best to tailor your resume to hobbies essay the specific job you’re applying for. Persuasive Unit Sixth! Find out what they’re looking for useful hobbies, and be sure to survive dissertation proposal convey that you have the skill set, or convey relevant details about your experience. I believe this is the most important consideration for your resume. When it comes to generalizations, you could offer a description similar to the one you’ve provided here.

For example: I worked on a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for Med/Surg patients 50% of the time and ICU patients 50% of the useful hobbies essay, time. Survive Dissertation! The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and Neuro/ENT. The ICU patients included ER, NICU and general ICU. Essay! Unit sizes varied from 5 beds up to grade 25 beds. You might also try utilizing skills checklists to convey your experience, especially if you make it to useful hobbies the interview stage. Essays Unit Grade! Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to upload documents, so you might be able to upload skills checklists there.

You can complete and save skills checklists on BluePipes and utilize them at essay, your convenience. I hope this information helps! My husband was an persuasive essays unit, ICU nurse for 5 years (18 months of that he was an useful hobbies essay, ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to work in another field. He’s now applying for nursing positions as we prepare to move. Should he address the clinical gap in his resume? With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in writing phd dissertation latex, 2013 though he’s been employed as a youth minister since then. How should he handle this? Yes, you should address the gap in the resume.

It’s fairly common for useful, hospitals to require the essays unit sixth, last 7 years of work history to be included on their job applications. A large percentage of the hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for resumes. Unfortunately, the default assumptions when it comes to employment gaps are all negative. Do your best to tie the experience into nursing. I believe most career advisers would recommend the same. I hope this information helps! I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to hobbies essay take my boards (will take them within the next 1-2 months). Writing! How should I address this on useful hobbies, my resume? You may want to add an excerpt under Licenses and Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date you’re scheduled to take the marquis de sade, exam. Useful Hobbies Essay! For example: RN: Scheduled for NCLEX on July 9, 2015.

I hope this helps! Thank you! I think that’s what i’ll do. For a new graduate of a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on a resume? Thanks for the question, Emily! Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to survive dissertation your nursing resume. Hobbies! We discuss this in our blog post on persuasive essays unit, new grad resumes and in our blog blog post on job search tips nurses should avoid. Many people argue that your GPA doesn’t matter. Essay! They say that all that matters is that you’re licensed. If that were the survive dissertation proposal, case, then no details about useful you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either.

And we know that’s not true. It is HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is dissertation proposal, passed over because you included your high GPA. Hobbies! Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to see it, and assign value to it. So yes, by all means, add it. I hope this helps! Great work, by the way! I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use – the general number, the unit, or HR?

Also, some of my employment history goes back many years and the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. I do not have the unit, correct information from when I worked there. How should I list this information? Is there a good way to find current identifying information for useful hobbies, a hospital? Thanks in proposal, advance for your response. Thanks for posting these great questions! First, there are no set rules for nursing resumes, so you’ll find some disagreement on almost every resume recommendation.

That said, the useful, general rule is that you should not include the contact telephone numbers for your previous employers on your resume. In fact, you don’t need to de sade essay include the complete address either. The city and state will suffice for your resume. On a side not, chances are that you’ll be applying for hobbies, most jobs on the company’s website through an applicant tracking system. These online applications may allow you to enter the telephone numbers and addresses for your former employers. Annotated! In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of information you can to your online applications. Again though, that’s separate from your resume. On a another side note: If you are applying for useful essay, travel nursing jobs, then you should include the telephone numbers and the supervisor names for your previous jobs. In order to find current information for your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. They have a free hospital profile lookup tool.

I recommend using the “advanced search” for best results. Please note that the annotated, links to useful these pages are underlined in blue. Here you will find the current contact information, number of beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc. If you are unable to locate the de sade essay, information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for essay, them or try the Medicare.gov site. If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in the database with current information…assuming they want to phd dissertation latex get paid :-). Now, about your older work history. Essay! Many resume experts recommend including only the last 10 years of de sade essay, work history on your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to your current job search. Others argue that you shouldn’t include more than 10 years of useful hobbies essay, work history because you don’t want to marquis date yourself. They’re concerned about “ageism” in the hiring process. These same people recommend not to include the dates you attended college.

Ultimately, it’s up to you to include this information, I just wanted to provide some considerations. I hope this information helps. Please let me know if there are further questions! Help! I have over 22 years of clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and outpatient surgery ctr (pre and pacu), and for the last 6 years (in addition to the 22 years) I’ve been reading electronic charts to extract data and support level of care (I’m told this is utilization review by a friend but we never called it that in work). Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff). I’m trying to useful hobbies get into short on effect, QA, UR, pre cert or case managment.

I was told I have a solid resume but I’ve gotten 3 calls in 3 months, I blew the first interview and useful, the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience. What do I need to do to get into these fields? Any suggestions? We’re sorry to hear about your current situation! It’s always difficult to break into an entirely new field. However, it sounds as though you have some experience to build on. Survive Proposal! Typically, Case Management and Utilization Review require InterQual experience. Essay! If you have experience with that system, then be sure to include it on marquis essay, your resume.

Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in useful hobbies essay, it. Survive Dissertation Proposal! Check with local and state agencies to see if there are any offerings for hobbies, people in writing phd dissertation latex, your situation. Also, review the useful essay, specific details of each job opening and tailor your resume to annotated include the key requirements where applicable. Check to see if there is a local association that you can network with like the essay, Case Management Society of America for example. Latex Annotated! Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the people you’ve interviewed with previously to see what they say. Hobbies Essay! If so, look into certification.

We hope this information helps! I have been reading through some of this thread and was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions? I can tell you put a lot of useful/productive feedback into your responses and would value your opinion if you were to review a copy of mine! P.S. When you mention Computer Experience in the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the comp. experience applies to or under a separate section such as the annotated, one you have listed as Comp. Useful! Experience? Thank you for short essay, all your time and effort! Thanks for reaching out! My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions.

Thanks so much for your interest though. As for essay, the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described. The important thing is that it’s there. The resume builder on writing phd dissertation latex, BluePipes.com lists computer experience under a separate heading. We do this as way to ensure that members recognize and record it and perspective employers and recruiters are able to easily locate the details on the members’ profiles and resumes. Given that EMR experience is becoming such a prevalent requirement, it’s good to have it easily accessible on your resume. However, it’s also good to useful essay add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume. Bibliography! It may not be as easy to locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and still presents the information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an RN with 4 years solid experience in a 16 bed transitional care unit. Now I’m trying to move to a more challenging position.

Prior to immigrating to America I was a medical doctor for 9 years in ER. Useful Hobbies Essay! Would it be wise to bibliography mention that experience? …maybe describing my duties and medical college? I work in hobbies essay, a program that enrolls military medic and corpsman and persuasive essays unit grade, gives credit for their military experience towards an intensive BSN-RN program. My question is what should the graduates highlight on their resumes? Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience. Suggestions? Hi! I have a question / concern. I just finished my 2nd year of nursing and on a med Surg unit. I have been asked to useful apply to marquis de sade essay an ICU position and I need to update my resume. I don’t know what to include.

Prior to nursing, I was a surgical tech for 16+ years and active duty for 10 years. I really enjoyed your blog and will refer to it when updating my resume! We’re glad to hear the information was useful. Essay! Congratulations on being asked to apply for an ICU position. That’s a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of great experience to include on your resume. We recommend focusing most attention on your recent experience in MedSurg as it is the most applicable to the ICU role you’ll be applying for. Persuasive Essays Unit Grade! However, you can also include brief descriptions of your surgical tech and active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences.

Relate all your work history descriptions to the ICU position. To do so, find out as much as possible about the useful, job and writing latex, the unit. We hope this helps!! Oh MY! I’m sooOOO grateful to have found your blog page! I was about to do my sister a grave disservice –as you’ve mentioned. Indeed, the day of the one page crammer is passe’. Especially with the value of the keyword in electronic filing. Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Sis’s resume from becoming fodder for the shredder. [[shudder]]

We’re glad to hear the information is hobbies essay, useful. Annotated! To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for job fairs or any other instance where the resume will be given directly to an individual. However, in most cases, people are attaching their resume in an Applicant Tracking System. In this case, it’s still good to hobbies be brief and choose your words wisely. Don’t be overly verbose and don’t “keyword stuff.” However, you also shouldn’t be worried about proposal a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it.

Be sure to useful essay tailor the resume’s wording to the job posting where applicable based on your background. We hope this helps! Thank you for this article! I realized that my resume was not up to writing phd dissertation par by reading this. I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on what I really did on the day to day. I recently worked at a hospital for 4 months and resigned due to it not being a good fit. Hobbies! It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in my 5 years as a nurse. Should I include it on my resume? You’re welcome!

We’re glad to hear you found the information useful. This is short essay on effect of smoking, a tough question. I assume you’re asking because you’re concerned that the short employment duration might raise some questions in the minds of potential employers. That’s a valid concern. On the flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to add to your nursing resume. There is another issue to consider. Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professional’s employment history. Omitting a previous job on your employment application could be grounds for dismissal depending on how they have their clauses worded. Of course, this depends on their ability to verify the omitted employment. This may not necessarily affect you during the candidate review process when your resume is typically the useful hobbies essay, document they’re working off of. Marquis De Sade! However, if you land a job offer, then they’ll eventually require an application to completed.

If you choose to add the useful hobbies essay, omitted job at that point, then you’ll have some explaining to do. Utltimatly, the essay engelsk, decision is essay, yours. If you choose to add the employment to your resume, then you may want to offer a brief explanation of why you left in your cover letter. It’s all about the story you tell. We hope this helps. This is all great information but I do have a question. I am a recent BSN grad and licensed RN trying to land my first job.

Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience? I have seen it both ways in examples online. Thanks, Kristin. Phd Dissertation! We’re glad to hear this information on useful hobbies essay, was useful. You’re correct, you’ll find preceptorship experience displayed both ways…under clinical and work experience. To further confuse the issue, some people believe that clinical experience and work experience are one and the same while others believe they are two different things entirely. We view the preceptorship as something akin to writing latex a highly advanced internship. For all intents and purposes, it is work experience. However, it doesn’t constitute a traditional employment relationship.

Therefore, feel free to include it under either category on hobbies, your resume, but be sure to clearly indicate that it’s your preceptorship. On a side note, we cannot stress enough the importance of professional networking when landing your first job. 70%-80% of all jobs are obtained through networking. While your resume is important, networking is the et godt essay engelsk, key…especially for new grads. We hope this information helps. Best of luck!! Great info – I could have used that for my last job application! Do you have any tips / strategies to useful prepare for job interviews? I am finding these horribly stressful and hard to get my point across even when I know I’d be really good at the job I’m applying for. Thanks, Heidi!

We don’t have any blog posts regarding interviews yet. Thanks for the suggestion. Phd Dissertation! We’ll explore the topic soon. Thank you! This is very informative. Do you have any sample resume and application letter? We’re glad to hear the information is useful, Meth! Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for free as a member of BluePipes. You can view our recommendations on writing a nursing cover letter. We hope this helps!

I LOVE this information! Thank you. Here’s my question. Useful Essay! I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to the mid 1980’s. How far back should I go? None relate to my current field (new nursing graduate). It’s been a long time since I’ve actually developed a resume and things have changed…Plus, this career doesn’t match those careers…. Is it appropriate to ask a nursing instructor to be a reference? Are references included now-a-days?

Many, many thanks! We’re glad to et godt engelsk hear the information is helpful!! Congratulations on your recent graduation from useful hobbies essay nursing school! Yes, it’s a great idea to ask an instructor to be a reference. Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to include on your resume aren’t so cut and dry. Survive Dissertation Proposal! I think it’s fair to say that the vast majority of useful, career consultants would say you shouldn’t put references on essay engelsk, a resume.

However, if you could get a redeeming quote from essay a strong reference, like an instructor, to phd dissertation latex put in useful hobbies essay, your resume summary, then it could be an eye catcher. You’re right, things have changed! We recommend reviewing our article on optimizing your resume for short essay on effect, applicant tracking systems. However, one thing is as true today as it ever has been…networking is the single best approach to landing a job. Useful Hobbies! We discuss the importance in our article with recommendations for New Grad RNs. It’s tough to recommend that you leave off your past education. I’d say it would be good to latex add any College level education as well as healthcare related education.

We hope this helps!! Best of luck! Excellent information! Nursing is a second career for me and trying to put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. You are right on the money….the resume I had for my corporate career doesn’t translate well into the healthcare field. I am currently looking for essay, a new position and realized what I had on my resume wasn’t going to work. I was destined to be one of those that got lost in proposal, the system. The tips you provided have been so helpful. Essay! I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed.

Thank you again for persuasive essays unit, providing such valuable information. Congratulations on your new career path! We’re so glad you found this information useful. We wish you the best of luck in useful essay, your job search. We hope you’ll consider joining BluePipes.com where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for free, and build your healthcare professional network. Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578;

Please let us know if we can help with any questions. I have read this post with great interest. Due to a job opportunity for my husband, we moved from KS to PA in de sade essay, 2012. Even securing an interview has been daunting! I have gotten some feedback from ‘ recruiters’ in a large hospital in Pittsburgh, which was to hobbies be sure to writing phd dissertation latex apply to the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long. Hobbies Essay! How is that possible? The other problem I suspect I have is the fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse. It seems the latex, practice of the three major ‘players’ in useful essay, this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in favor of hiring new grads and those with ‘ at least a year experience’. I did secure an interview which ended favorably; just short of a job offer. Dissertation! The next step at useful essay, this particular hospital required by the nurse recruiter, was to on effect list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. Useful Hobbies! I have been in nursing since 1974!

LPN in 1977 and BSN in latex bibliography, 1989. Useful! When she responded to my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to essay complete, was ‘we want to make certain we give you recognition for all the hobbies, years you have been a nurse. AND, that was the last I heard from them. I contend she realized I would have to start at the upper end of compensation for my experience. Do you know of et godt essay engelsk, anyone who may be advocating for the ‘older nurse?’ Never thought I would use those words to describe myself… I am so much more than my age. I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in my assessments, professional role model and delightful as a team member. Hobbies! Please give me some feedback relating to these concerns.

I am ready to consult with the department of labor regarding this ‘alleged practice’ to decrease costs per fte.I think it’s a shame! really good information here! I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips – will definitely share with friends and persuasive essays unit sixth, collegues. Hobbies! Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice.

I’ve yet to figure how to be concise yet detailed with these tips in mind. De Sade Essay! I have almost 2 years experience in In-Patient Psychiatry and SNF just because those were the two jobs I landed. However, I always wanted to useful do LD or NICU. I did my preceptorship in 2011 in LD. How can I use my experience and make it appealing for LD again?

We’re glad to hear that you found the information useful! You can view the BluePipes sample resume to writing phd dissertation get an idea for formatting yours. Please bear in mind that our site generates a PDF document and useful hobbies, you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word. Also, you might be interested in reading our post on resume length. You can find creative ways to essays grade translate your Psych and SNF experience to NICU and L#038;D. However, you most likely won’t be able to address the useful essay, unique technical skills required for these units. You could look for volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and newborns in your community.

While it’s always tough to find time to volunteer, you’ll be doing a great service for your community and getting some relevant experience to add to your resume. Thank you for survive dissertation, this very interesting article. I have been an RN for 9 years; 4 years at the bedside and 5 years in a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and some inpatient care. I would like to transition back to the bedside but feel that my lack of direct patient care over the last 5 years may be hamstringing me. How can I turn this perceived negative into a positive and at useful hobbies essay, least get through the persuasive essays unit, front door of the interview process? You’re welcome, we hope you found the article useful. Yours is a legitimate challenge that many nurses share.

With respect to your resume, you should focus on demonstrating how your recent experience translates to bedside nursing. While we’re not familiar with your specific scenario, we’re certain that there are aspects of your experience with outpatient, telehealth and inpatient care that translate to bedside nursing. Carefully review the job duties and qualifications of bedside nurses, and not just those found in the job descriptions of online job postings, to get ideas for framing your recent experience in a way that applies to bedside nursing. Next, focus on writing an excellent nursing cover letter in which you present yourself as a solution to hobbies the problems facing the persuasive essays, employer in useful hobbies essay, question. Of course, you’re still going to short essay on effect of smoking have some difficulties ranking highly in the applicant tracking system due to the lack of recent bedside experience. Therefore, networking is a must.

Nearly 40% of all new-hires are the result of useful hobbies essay, employee referral. With 9 years of experience, you’re bound to have some connections and writing latex, now is the time to leverage them. We realize this type of job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is too good to useful hobbies essay neglect it. Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and LinkedIn to short of smoking enhance your networking efforts. Hobbies! Finally, we’ve spoken to many nurses who tout the benefits of refresher courses for bedside nursing. While we aren’t familiar with such courses, the essay, fact that many nurses recommend them is an indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge. We hope this information helps…and Good Luck!! i have a question regarding applying to nursing positions. I am a new grad RN and have several nursing job applications that have been under review for over a month.

Last week I became certified in ACLS and was wondering how to go about informing the hospitals that I am waiting to hear back from that I am newly certified in hobbies, this skill, since it is not on my resume that they have on writing phd dissertation, file (that I originally sent in). Congratulations on your recent achievements! This is a great question. You may be able to log in to the hospitals’ applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to apply) and update your resume and/or profile. Hobbies! Either way, you may also want to give them a call, ask for the staffing office and pose this question to de sade the representative you speak with. We find that hospitals are quite responsive to candidate inquiries relative to other employers. We hope these recommendations help, and we’d love to hear back about what actions you take and how they work out. Essay! Good luck! I completely disagree that availability should be included on the resume.

When a nurse applies for a position it is usually clear what hours that he/she is applying to work. I actually think it’s a bit juvenile to put availability on short on effect, your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is useful hobbies, a well-crafted cover letter to accompany their resume. The additional touch of writing, a thoughtful and appropriate cover-letter can help give you an essay, edge over other applicants who omit this step. I found some good details on cover letters for nurses here: http://bit.ly/1dDy8If . Thanks for the feedback, Brittney.

Including availability on de sade essay, a nursing resume is important for many reasons. First, the job applied for isn’t the only job available, and most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about all of the available jobs with a particular employer. Second, job specs don’t always display every last pertinent detail. With respect to useful essay availability, this can mean that a job advertised for day shifts might in-fact be for mid shifts, or pm shifts. Marquis De Sade Essay! This happens frequently when the useful, job board technology limits the latex annotated bibliography, employer’s ability to accurately display the useful hobbies, shifts. Third, job specs often change on the back-end and essays unit sixth, are never updated on the front-end. So a job that’s advertised for days may have changed to nights without being updated on the job board. Fourth, due to useful essay the proliferation of applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to short a searchable database these days. Hobbies! So resumes are searchable for future job openings. Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the candidate with the most attributes in common with any given job description. Dissertation! So in essay, all of the dissertation, scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the hobbies, candidate with matching availability assuming all else is equal.

Finally, it’s true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for writing latex, a specific job description when a specific job is being applied for. However, a plurality of jobs are filled via networking and referrals. In such cases, it’s rare that a specific job is hobbies essay, being applied for. Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to latex annotated bibliography a contact who has connections with the employer in hobbies essay, question. The resume is reviewed for potential matches with available jobs and the candidate is contacted.

Again, availability is one detail that recruiters and hiring managers are looking for. Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and related to this topic. However, they necessitate their own discussion and persuasive unit sixth, we plan on essay, addressing this in a future blog post. This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in the healthcare field what would you recommend?

I have over 4 years in retail but I’m not sure if this would make much of a difference for recruiters. Any help is greatly appreciated, thanks! Hi there! Wow this information is great! Although I’m still an undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for et godt, tips to keep in mind when applying for a job! I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the Nursing field… For a while, I was thinking of minoring in something in addition to Nursing that I can apply to the work field. I know that computer knowledge is a great booster for useful hobbies, a resume, but I wanted to know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for in their RNs? Thank you again for marquis de sade essay, the detailed explanations!

Thanks, Michele! We’re glad you found the useful essay, information useful! Yes, computer knowledge is a great booster for the resume. You can look into Health Care Informatics as an option for a minor or additional coursework. You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish. In fact, Spanish is a huge selling point these days. As a side note: make the absolute most of your preceptorship. Be at your best and use the opportunity to network with everyone you can. Phd Dissertation Latex! We hope this information helps!! Please let us know if you have any other questions.

This is useful hobbies essay, great information! Thank you! I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of experience in the CVICU, trying to move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself? I have done all of these critical care elements, but just not a ton of essay, it. Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for 3 years and a hospital pharmacy tech of 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school. Because it is not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in hobbies, my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to add some experience.

Thanks! We’re happy to hear you found the information helpful, Dashia! You pose an et godt essay, excellent question regarding the useful hobbies, inclusion of marquis, non-RN healthcare experience on your resume. Useful Hobbies! There isn’t a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and you’re going to find that some people will say yes and some people will say no. Latex Annotated! I fall in the yes camp and useful hobbies essay, believe you should include all healthcare related experience on proposal, your resume for several reasons. First, it demonstrates progression within the general field of useful hobbies, healthcare.

Second, it conveys additional experience within the survive dissertation proposal, field that other candidates may not have. Third, in useful, many cases (and certainly in your case) the experience is persuasive unit sixth grade, related to the jobs you’re applying for. Hobbies Essay! Fourth, it may help you stand out from other candidates with otherwise similar experience. Fifth, unbeknownst to sixth many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to 10 years of work history regardless of whether or not it was healthcare related. Hobbies! While this requirement doesn’t factor into their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the information at some point during the hiring process.

Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in applicant tracking systems. I hope this information helps! This information is short essay, very helpfull. Hi. Useful Hobbies! I obtained an MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN. I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in my resume. What would you suggest?

Hey Liza, I hope all is well. I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the initial resume screening process. However, it could have influence later in short essay on effect, the process. Useful Hobbies! You may not want to make it a significant part of your resume, but I think including it is better than not. It certainly enhances your personal story. Do you have an example resume? Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay. We’ve been busy transferring our blog to this new domain. We do not have an et godt essay engelsk, example nurse resume that we’re able to publish to the blog at this time. However, we will work on getting one up soon.

Also, I recommend becoming a member on BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to record the top 10 details recommended for nursing resumes in this article. You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!! This clarifies a lot for useful hobbies, me. Persuasive Essays Sixth Grade! I am a new LPN attempting to start my career in a new state and have read a lot of advice on useful hobbies essay, Nurses.com that is wrong. I’ll take the advice of a recruiter over general opinions anytime. Most on the other sites were saying NEVER to include your license # details until you actually get a job offer. Et Godt Essay! Then I just applied to hobbies one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on my resume in order to be considered. I was hesitant since all the threads warn of protecting it at all cost due to phd dissertation identity theft?

I’m glad you clarified this and some other points. I do have one question that is not addressed in useful essay, your article. If you are continuing your education to receive your BSN or MSN for example would mentioning that on your resume make a candidate more desirable to potential employers or would you leave that off? Hey Aimee, I’m glad to marquis de sade hear that you’ve found the information useful. Great question!! I think it’s a great idea to add your education in progress to your resume.

I recommend including an estimated completion date and perhaps even the number of units completed to date. There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial. First, it could result in a higher ranking by the Applicant Tracking System. Second, it shows that you’re interested in advancing your knowledge and your career. Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation. As for the identity theft claims: Your license number is a matter of public record already. Useful Hobbies Essay! Anybody can go to your state board of nursing and search by name to verify your state license, which includes the license number. So, even letting someone know your name, that you’re a registered nurse, and engelsk, the state you’re licensed in provides the means to hobbies easily obtain your license number. Engelsk! Providing it on your resume simply allows the human resources rep to skip this step.

Which increases the chance that your resume will be passed up the chain. And remember, you’re attaching your resume in secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of which also ask for your Social Security Number and Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from asking for SSN on job applications). I recently completed my ADN, passed the NCLEX, and now I am working on my resume. I already have a BA and MSW, which I will include on my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and don’t have credits towards the useful hobbies essay, degree. Thanks for your advice. Congratulations on writing latex, your recent achievements!

You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for useful hobbies essay, which there is no steadfast answer. My belief is writing phd dissertation, that it wouldn’t be appropriate to include the information in the Education section of your resume because you haven’t yet been accepted to a BSN program. Hobbies Essay! However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to a program. Writing Phd Dissertation Latex! Until then, you could make brief mention of this information in your nursing resume summary. We hope you find this response useful. Please feel free to useful hobbies post any follow-up or additional questions you may have. Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I haven’t seen asked by anyone. I’m an older new grad.

I recently had someone look at one of my resumes and give me her input. She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). In some ways I think it’s not a bad idea since the previous education dates me if I include the years I attended (which I don’t but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). On the other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for undergrad and grad studies, not to mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though it’s not in the sciences. It seems like the RN to BSN courses are more human and social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and latex bibliography, that is the majority of my BA. Useful Hobbies! OK… That’s some background info, now I’ll get to the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the last 10 years of employment history. Do you think this ‘rule’ also applies to education? Should I leave it to discuss in an interview (as recommended by the person who revised my resume)?

I’m feeling very conflicted about this. The new resume doesn’t feel like me, my degrees can be related to the psycho-social aspect of nursing, and survive dissertation, when you fill in the online application portion they ask for all education (although you usually have to useful hobbies essay add on marquis de sade essay, education). I would greatly appreciate your insight and recommendation. My sincerest apologies for the delay. Congratulations on your recent graduation! This is useful, a tough situation. Persuasive Essays Grade! Both sides of the argument have merit. Moreover, there really aren’t any steadfast rules about resumes…only staunch opinions. To me, your nursing resume and cover letter are all about telling your story in a way that convinces the essay, reader you’re the right person for writing phd dissertation latex, the job while providing them with the details they need.

Personally, I’d keep the education details on the resume, and use a brief portion of the cover letter to tie that education into the story about you being the useful hobbies, best candidate for the job in question. De Sade Essay! Given the information you’ve provided about your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to do just that. Again, there is useful hobbies essay, no right or wrong answer here. You may even try it both ways. Some readers will appreciate it one way and other will appreciate it another. However, I’m of the belief that all education is valuable.

I hope this information helps. Marquis De Sade! We’d love to hear back about how it all works out!!

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I’d love to hobbies, explore if there are any ways we can help each other.” Can’t hurt to try, right? Especially if you’re just starting out, it’s tempting to be lured into content mills like Demand Studios or free-for-alls like Guru , oDesk and Elance , where it looks like you might stand a better chance to writing phd dissertation, land something even if you don’t have the biggest portfolio yet. While it may seem like these sites are your best best when you’re a newcomer, they’re largely a crapshoot when it comes to useful hobbies, winning a project. These sites are a rush for annotated bibliography the lowest bid, and hobbies, you’re competing against marquis essay, hundreds if not thousands of other desperate freelancers prepared to sell their firstborn for the chance to write someone’s 250-page ebook. (Some writers have been able to hobbies essay, make a decent buck on sites like Upwork , but they are often the exception rather than the rule and marquis essay, have usually invested huge amounts of time to hobbies essay, make it happen.) Even if you’re brand-spanking new to the game , no one deserves a gig that pays one cent per word. And chances are if someone is looking for the sort of writer willing to write a word a cent, they’re not going to be the best client to work for.

Don’t sell yourself short just because you’re new. Have a little patience, keep persevering, and you will find those clients who truly value you. Looking to get even more serious about your freelance writing. The Write Life published two e-books to help you find more paid writing gigs. Check out our shop to buy 71 Ways to et godt essay, Make Money as a Freelance Writer and Get Better Clients and Earn More Money. This post originally ran in September 2013. We updated it in February 2017. Kelly Gurnett is a freelance blogger, writer and editor; you can follow her on Twitter @CordeliaCallsIt. Looking for freelance writing jobs? Check out useful essay, The Write Life#8217;s Job Board. Good luck!

Kelly Gurnett runs the blog Cordelia Calls It Quits and is growing her own freelance writing, editing and latex bibliography, blogging empire day by day. Hobbies! You can follow her on Twitter and Facebook and hire her services here. Learn how to persuasive unit sixth, find freelance writing jobs that pay and earn the kind of money you deserve. Essay! Move from irregular client work and annotated, crappy pay to hobbies, being a freelance leader in your field. Paul Jarvis, who#8217;s been freelancing for 16+ years, shares his advice on pricing, positioning and more. Great list Kelly! For those who are a bit more familiar with AP and Chicago Style for writing for magazine styled publications, allfreelancewriting.com also has a great (and free!) writers market listing. I think writers, especially new ones, need to latex, value their skills and pitch to clients who are willing to pay decent rates, instead of trying to get work from the penny pinching cheap clients!

Great suggestion, Daryl. Thanks! You are SO write about valuing your work. Essay! I#8217;m actually writing a post on writing phd dissertation, that to appear here soon, so keep your eyes pealed. Essay! Undervaluing our work (especially when we#8217;re just starting out) is persuasive unit grade a huge problem for freelance writers. Useful Essay! Hi Kelly! i#8217;m one of the many confident in my writing skills and I#8217;m passionate about it.

I am now hoping to start my first freelance writing job at uvocorp (my essay sample is still under evaluation). Phd Dissertation Latex! May I hear a word or two from you as your usual advice to beginners like me? About applying to UVOCORP, I must say, stay away from that company. I#8217;ve been working as a Freelance writer ever since online outsourcing came to being. I encountered that company once when I am looking for other academic writing companies. But the experience is just horrible. They will have you started on a couple of hobbies, assignments, and dissertation proposal, approve them right on the spot, but don#8217;t get too excited. Once they see that you already has a few dollars on your earnings, the support sharks will flood you with multiple revisions with corresponding monetary penalties.

The first and hobbies essay, second revisions are ok, but after running your work on plagiarism checker hundreds of times and proof-reading for grammar mistakes thousands of short on effect of smoking, time. They will still ask you to revise something and dissolve your earnings through penalties one after another. explaining things will not do you justice either, they wouldn#8217;t even care what you say, they will just send your work for essay revision and ask for ridiculous changes that were not part of the original instructions. They will not stop until you say you give up, in the end you lost all your earnings from essay unreasonable revisions and even end up owing them money for negative balance on your earnings. its just horrible.. Useful Hobbies Essay! so stay away from that company, its an institutionalized hoodlum. HAHA. That is sad. Latex Annotated Bibliography! I feel sorry for useful hobbies essay you. At least you have a sense of humor. So, are you an academic writer? I have been looking for chemistry or biochem based writing work and have had trouble finding appropriate places to look. Persuasive Unit! Do you have any suggestions? Thanks!

Heidi, you could find chemistry specialist writers at Writerslabs. Hey Heidi, You can try Text-Writers for your academic writing needs. I worked as a freelance academic writer for about 5 years and Uvocorp was one of the 7-8 sites I worked with. I totally agree with Norbert. Everything looked fine for about 8-10 assignments before I started receiving revision requests. I had them review their comments and remove fines for useful hobbies essay the first two revision requests. However, I just gave up when I got the next seemingly senseless plagiarism remark. I was not sure if it was unintentional from their part, but I felt annoyed and writing phd dissertation, disappointed by then. Useful Essay! Oh!

That sounds horrible and there are so many #8220;promising#8221; sites that should be trashed. I started out writing for a website, not quite as bad as that one, but making just a few dollars for rather long articles and no byline. The amount of time I spent researching and latex annotated bibliography, writing meant that I#8217;d make a dollar or two an hour. Ha! I was young and hobbies, desperate though would never do it again ! I#8217;m the managing editor for ArchiExpo e-Magazine now and spend part of my time researching freelance journalists. The website needs to be catchy and informative, with writing samples easy to access. Et Godt Engelsk! I always advise my friends, who wish to get into freelance writing, to useful hobbies, create a great website and proposal, put forward their experience. I#8217;ve come across a myriad of flim-flam, so called #8216;freelance writing job sites#8217;#8230;and I appreciate the info on uvocorp. Useful Hobbies Essay! So where are the legit sites? Are there any?

I began as a freelancer just this summer and found a lot of low-pay cruddy stuff. I wrote a blog on my experiences and it offers tips, tools and help. My fist post may be helpful to you as a beginner: http://www.amandapelletier.com/paid-freelance-writing-jobs-online/ BEST of survive, LUCK! Don#8217;t give up! I#8217;m looking for useful a article writing job. Just couldn#8217;t get hold of any. I#8217;m new at this and thought it would be a good idea to et godt essay engelsk, investigate and maybe find jobs,. I am a writer and have a manuscript I am trying to get published.

My manuscript has been accepted by two companies, but It cost a lot of money to do that, so I thought I would try to make money this way. Useful Essay! Should I go further with this, and writing phd dissertation latex, if so, can you help me along and teach me the ropes? Do you mean you are so RIGHT? I certainly wouldn#8217;t pay more than a cent per paragraph for that level of skill. I am glad this topic is ongoing and agree with Catherine#8217;s assessment. Outsourcing and exporting work over-seas occurred in my former profession by the Medical Transcription Services, and it seems a fact of life in my 2-month stint as a content article writer. I work for a #8220;content mill#8221; at the moment which is entry level to me but work is useful essay often sporadic and glad to have a patient working spouse at the moment! The content mill has an author forum which is helpful for learning the ropes and venting! I did apply to The Writers Hub, and was surprised when they asked what my per survive proposal page rate would be?

I stated similarly to what I charged when doing transcription, but gave a 10% discount in comparison. Useful Hobbies Essay! I am hoping to network locally with a non-proffit in essay on effect the coming weeks and eventually find a content article opportunity that pays decently, desires my talents, and provides a reasonable degree of work or referrals. Perhaps that is useful what the majority of us want here. Writing Phd Dissertation Latex! I am very grateful for this site, thread, and posts! Are commenters here that dense that they can#8217;t tell a pun from an error?

She is responding to hobbies, a post about writing, she is mentioning that she#8217;s will soon be #8220;writing#8221; a post, and ends by showing some concern for #8220;writers.#8221; Her saying, #8220;you are so write#8221; and then going on to mention writing multiple times is marquis clearly a pun. How so many missed that only to find a chance to criticize is hobbies essay troubling. I thought it was just auto-correct showing its butt again. Even the essays, best of us can be made to look silly if our words are spelled wrong, especially if we#8217;re using a mobile device. It should be that simple#8230;and 30-40+ years ago it was. Hobbies Essay! We#8217;d see #8220;right#8221; spelled as #8220;write#8221; and #8220;peeled#8221; spelled as #8220;pealed#8221; and know instantly what was intended. Unfortunately, it#8217;s been my experience that errors in every type of writing#8230;ads, serious magazine and survive dissertation, book writing, the news that crawls across the TV screen, etc#8230;.are so common that it#8217;s as though everyone thinks they#8217;re being paid to hobbies essay, make errors. Why is this so? An inadequate and/or failing K-12 public education system since about 1966 results in seriously adverse consequences.

We can#8217;t poorly or inadequate educate millions of children without ending up with millions of HS graduates with gaps in their knowledge and cognitive development. One of those consequences is an inability to short essay of smoking, write well and correctly, along with either a failure to care or the inaccurate belief in their own ability thanks to reforms after 1966 that had teachers giving students awards and praise just for breathing and failing to useful hobbies essay, correct their work for fear of hurting the student#8217;s self-esteem. What baffles me is phd dissertation how adult educators failed to understand that self-esteem is a product of self-respect, which can only come from a #8220;doing#8221; #8212; doing things well, doing things right, doing what one respects. Useful Hobbies! I have, as of yesterday, begun exploring the opportunity of writing for income. However, as writers go, I#8217;m extremely confident in my abilities and I believe that as a writer I still not only write on an intellectual level on par with the best, I also FEEL my writing. Therefore, with no qualifications save my own, self-perceived ones, I say this: do not lose the spirit of essay, writing looking too intensely at the writing itself. Yeah, only essay true writers got that pun! I#8217;m not so sure about that being an attempt at persuasive unit grade, humor, especially when the phrase; #8220;keep your eyes pealed#8221; has been incorrectly spelt..

Shouldn#8217;t that be peeled? Hmmm? In response to Roy: Maybe it#8217;s peeled, but what if he or she is useful actually writing to someone with very noisy eyes? I thought it was a fun twist#8230; I don#8217;t understand why people feel the et godt essay, need to attack#8230; I actually want to reply to useful essay, David Russell but can#8217;t seem to. David, you should write to et godt essay engelsk, the editor of MedicalExpo e-Magazine and propose your journalism services. Take a look at the magazine first (emag.medicalexpo.com) to see what they#8217;ve recently published, get an idea for the kind of info, and pitch a potential story. I know the useful hobbies, editor and they pay well.

I#8217;m also the managing editor of ArchiExpo e-Magazine, as mentioned in another comment, and if you#8217;re interested in trying your hand in architecture and design-focused writing, get in touch! My girl came across this site, after I told her about losing a comment posting gig. I appreciate the time you took putting this together. I#8217;ve been a part of the survive proposal, oDesk site for about 2 and useful hobbies essay, a half years now, and writing, I know all too well the struggle it is to get good paying work. oDesk is cool, but the useful, foolishness that involves taking tests just so that you seem a little more proficient than the next person has always bugged me. Et Godt Engelsk! I#8217;ve been using oDesk as a starting point, and then convince my clients to essay, move away so that we work together privately. Dissertation! My international clients hate all the extra fees. I#8217;m really looking forward to trying the hobbies essay, sites you mentioned, and essay engelsk, once again Thanks for your time. You might want to consider keeping your eyes peeled for spelling errors if you want writing jobs#8230; Edna, you might want to consider the correct use of an ellipsis before criticising others. Wrong. Revisit the definition.

Yes, spelt is just wrong on useful, so many levels. Actually, #8220;spelt#8221; is perfectly acceptable in England. #8220;Spelt#8221; isn#8217;t that a grain? On the latex annotated, western side of the pond, we would look at some cross-eyed if they used that term seriously. Useful Hobbies! Spelt is latex definitely the way it is spelled and pronounced in Britain. My daughter reads and watches many British books, shows, and movies, and she spells and pronounces it that way because she has become so accustomed to it. She had one English teacher criticize her until she showed said teacher that it is the British way to spell it. She also says (and spells) #8220;learnt#8221; instead of #8220;learned.#8221; Being an Anglophile myself, I have no problem with it.

It is not incorrect. Americans changed English. If anything, we#8217;re the ones who mispronounce words! It#8217;s funny because I find myself editing books that I am reading, ALL of the useful essay, time. Survive Proposal! I wonder how these people got their jobs as editors, when I, the measly reader, can pick them out so quickly, without even trying and it drives me CRAZY to useful essay, feel like I have to proofread books that I am paying over de sade essay $20 a book for! I have so many stories and poetry and even a couple of novels that I have written or started writing and I always joke that when I die, someone will find my writing and only then, will I get famous for hobbies essay my writing. Persuasive Essays Unit Sixth Grade! I, as the writer, would never turn something in, to have it read by anyone, without proofreading it myself either.

I also want to remind everyone that often times, when we are just writing a comment, we may often accidentally hit the hobbies essay, wrong key and submit our comments, without proofreading what we have written#8230; it doesn#8217;t necessarily make anyone unintelligent#8230; thank you for et godt engelsk a lot of hobbies essay, good info on persuasive unit grade, here. where can i get such paying jobs for hobbies essay writing books reviews and editing them? One of the posts reads: #8220;You are SO write about valuing your work. I’m actually writing a post on that to appear here soon, so keep your eyes pealed. Writing Phd Dissertation! Undervaluing our work (especially when we’re just starting out) is a huge problem for freelance writers.#8221; Hopefully the author has already been advised of the, shall we say #8220;typos,#8221; and not #8220;senior moments#8221;? I am referring to hobbies, #8220;write#8221; and #8220;pealed.#8221; Maybe Rule Number One for a writer would be to proofread first? I actually DID write a PULSE piece on LinkedIn, about how I dropped the idea of marquis, Outsource ( http://www.linkedin.com/pulse/article/outsource-how-much-fun-working-cheap-dark-glenn/edit ) with exactly that idea. The race to the bottom with pay to plays and such, simply isn#8217;t worth doing. It might be that *somebody* is making $$ on those sites, but example of person wanting *150 original* descriptions for some sort of useful, fragrant oils on a budget of less than $500 is more often where those places go. Dissertation! If someone is speaking or writing accurately about a subject, they are #8220;right.#8221; The information on your site is helpful. Any sites you can recommend off the top of your head for someone starting out as a freelance academic essay writer? Should pay well too.

Thanks in advance and keep up. Question: What are fair prices for our work? Question: Has it been difficult to support yourself as a freelance writer? Thank you for the infomation. Its great to find a place that is useful essay really out to help not hurt. Hi Donna and others, The online writing lab at Purdue University has resources on the Chicago Manual of Style and the APA manual, as well as many articles related to English grammar usage that are user-friendly!

Just type owl purdue university in your fave search engine and it should appear as a result. Grade! -I just got approved to useful hobbies, start writing content for Text Broker but understand the competition for persuasive essays unit sixth getting jobs is hobbies essay stiff. Et Godt! I got a fairly good rating but not tops. Useful Hobbies! Glad to have joined this particular thread and sooo thankful for et godt essay the supportive content on here. I am hoping to network locally with a non-proffit in the coming weeks and useful, eventually find a content article opportunity that pays decently, desires my talents, and provides a reasonable degree of work or referrals. Engelsk! Perhaps that is hobbies essay what the majority of us want here.

I am very grateful for this site, thread, and posts! I#8217;m looking for someone who is going to pay me to publish a 1,000 word new prospective book. And hopefully a movie. Of Smoking! It is hobbies called Zombie Revelations and survive dissertation, has the old with a real touch of reality. 1000 words is a short story. Hobbies Essay! There are competitions you could enter it in, and you might find an anthology that#8217;s looking for stories. Dissertation! Try http://www.ralan.com.

Where can I find job writing for 200 words only? Thanks for the insight! Great collection of useful, resources, Kelly! Thanks, Susan. I hope they help you! #128578; Did you ever use any of these sites? Success rate? Love this post #8212; So many great ideas here! Thanks, Lexi. I hope it can save some writers from going through the penny-a-word phase too many of us went through at one point!

P.S. LOVE the dissertation, image you guys chose for this post. Too freakin#8217; cute. Useful! Kelly, I 100% agree with you about staying away from content mills. I would add staying away from Yahoo! voices too for de sade essay the low pay along with some of the shady posts on Craigslist (although I do sometimes find gigs worth going for). I#8217;ve also had some luck with Ebyline, and a string of luck lately approaching businesses directly about blogging for them resulting in multiple and hobbies essay, ongoing work for at least $50 per post.

I#8217;ve never heard about Ebyline but will have to check them out. You#8217;re right; the majority of what you#8217;ll find on essays unit grade, Craigslist is dreck, so those job posts should always be evaluated cautiously. Good for you for approaching businesses directly! That#8217;s a great approach but one many freelancers are afraid to useful hobbies, take. I#8217;m glad it#8217;s been working so well for you! What is your approach in dissertation proposal going to businesses directly? For example#8230;? I use totaljobs and arivatoday.com to find writing gigs from companies and popular websites. Thanks so much Kelly for taking the essay, time to research and put together this list. It will get some good use here! It#8217; so discouraging to #8216;beat the pavement#8217; only to find gigs offering $10 for a 500 word article.

Sheesh! People don#8217;t get that we writers like to eat too! :o) I so hear you. Never accept those $10/500 word articles, no matter how hungry you are. OK, if you#8217;re really, REALLY hungry and on effect, need to make ends meet that month, and that#8217;s all you#8217;ve got currently, I#8217;ll allow it. But otherwise? Your skills and time are worth far more, and useful hobbies essay, there ARE clients out there who will recognize and honor that. Hold out for the good ones. (See: my upcoming article on how we writers need to learn to value (and insist on the value of) our own talents higher than we often do.) #128578; I am so glad to run across fellow writers who value what they do and will stand up and say so. Far too often we get treated like the #8220;red headed step children#8221; of the essay, creative industries and many of us allow it. I tried ODesk and was not only appalled by the pay rates, but by the attitude of many clients. One of them even said outright that we should be grateful to make five dollars an article (for well researched, 1,000 word pieces) and how their last writer was far too #8220;uppity#8221; for hobbies essay his tastes.

Well now, I posted a response that I cannot quote in polite company. Marquis De Sade Essay! LOL. So, thank you, your voice is much appreciated. oDesk has put me under supervision based on negative feedback from clients even though my rating is 4.77. One client said that he already had 700 words. Useful Hobbies! When I looked at what he wrote, it was on a sixth-grade level. No research, statistics, compelling copy, SEO keywords, etc. So I had to start from scratch. Marquis! I ended up acting like a tutor. Another client loved my work but kept disappearing.

I asked for her website address, information about her company, etc. She let another week go by then disappeared again. I could go on and on. I think that clients who use the content mills do believe that they can get stellar writing for peanuts. I believe these incidents are blessings in disguise. I#8217;ve had my wake-up call.

I follow top-notch bloggers and copywriters and hone my skills continually. It is up to the freelancer to useful hobbies, determine his standards and persuasive unit sixth, ultimately his worth. Hello Denita and useful, others, I am thankful for this site, thread and continued posts including yours. At present I am an IC with Textbroker International, and try to look at sixth grade, most the jobs as blessings in disguise. Useful Essay! Generally, I am a better conversationalist since starting this in marquis de sade essay late September, agree with you about developing writing skills, and have kind of found my subject niche as it were. The big picture tells me I have it pretty good, given local opportunities and employment services for those of us who have a handicapability are inadequate in my place of residence. In a former profession I was under #8220;supervision#8221; before leaving and it was somewhat demeaning more than helpful.

I hope your experience is dynamically different, but you sound quite capable and hobbies, willing to short on effect of smoking, improve where need be which says a lot favorably concerning what you bring to the proverbial table. All the best to useful hobbies, you Denita, enjoyed the chance to talk shop! #8216;Never accept those $10/500 word articles, no matter how hungry you are#8217; hahahahaha. Avoid sites like Researchwritingcenter.com, they pay 6 $ for 550 words paper and penalize you until you remain with 4 $ and engelsk, gradually close your account. Dusman am a victim of reserachwritingcenter#8217;s indecency. This company is a fraud, they penalize your papers beyond 100%. #8221; PLEASE PROOF READ YOUR WORK#8221; They keep saying and they are the lowest payers on the planet. I love this list it is helpful in not hitting dead ends when looking for work. Hi Kelly (and others), This is my second day becoming nose deep in freelance writing, and I don#8217;t feel like I#8217;ve reached the point of useful hobbies essay, knowing everything before submerging within.

Can you please lead me to the right direction? Where do I begin? What do I need to start with? I have read the article, but it doesnt give me the nitty-gritty of, Brooke do this. What kind of short, articles should I be interested in? Copyright, Blogger, etc. *Goal* Would be traveling and writing about new and useful, exhilerating places. (I know it sounds much more glorious then it is, but that#8217;s why it is a goal, right?) I think the writing, better question is, what kind of writing do YOU want to do? What topics interest you? What style are you most comfortable writing in? Freelance writing is a huge industry, and you could be everything from useful hobbies essay a lifestyle blogger to a marketing copy writer.

You need to determine what niche fits your skills and interests best; that will make it much easier for dissertation you to locate specific, nitty-gritty advice. I am based out of India. I would like to write short stories. Useful Hobbies! Could anyone guide me as how I should go about it. Please recommend sites where I should register myself. I have registered myself in Freelancer. Your post is latex annotated a few weeks old , but if you#8217;re still looking for nitty-gritty, where do I start#8230; a friend, Rebecca Flansburg and useful essay, I have put together some resources that deal with those basics. De Sade Essay! You can find them here: Might be something helpful for useful hobbies essay you. Link goes to engelsk, an unused site.

This article was quite helpful and the comments were too. I am. just about to finish my English MA and I am broke as joke, living. at hobbies essay, my parents, and finding writing work online is my priority for. the persuasive essays sixth grade, time being. This shall be quite the adventure I am beginning. to hobbies, see so I#8217;m trying to find a nice community online to help me. on writing phd dissertation latex, my way. Best of luck to everyone trying to survive out there! You can do it! You#8217;ve found a great resource here, so make yourself at home on hobbies, the site! This is short essay my second day becoming nose deep in freelance writing, and useful essay, I don’t feel like I’ve reached the bibliography, point of knowing everything before submerging within#8230; Thank you for hobbies essay this post. I just recently got into freelance writing and writing phd dissertation latex, I feel so stupid already.

I found a blog that suggested odesk so I signed up with them and since I didn#8217;t have a portfolio yet I applied for useful essay a job paying $20 for phd dissertation 10 articles due in one week. I#8217;m halfway done but after reading this I don#8217;t even want to complete the rest. I feel so cheated. I thought it would be a good way to hobbies, get some experience under my belt but I have put so much time and energy in the articles I have done so far and phd dissertation latex, it doesn#8217;t even seem worth it. Should I even complete the job? Ugh.

I#8217;m so sorry to useful essay, hear that. You#8217;re not the only freelancer to have gotten lured into one of those sites. My rule of bibliography, thumb, even as a newbie, was never to accept less than $10 for every 100 words, unless it was a fantastic gig that would get me good exposure. Even if you don#8217;t have a portfolio, you should only take on projects you#8217;ll be proud to show to useful hobbies, other people when they ask what you#8217;ve done. It sounds like you are creating good work right now, but unfortunately, it#8217;s for a client who totally doesn#8217;t deserve it. It#8217;s a judgment call on latex annotated, whether to complete the essay, project or not.

There#8217;s something to be said for keeping your word, but at survive dissertation, the same time? This is clearly a client who doesn#8217;t value a writer#8217;s worth, so in my book, you don#8217;t owe him much. He#8217;s paying for work that#8217;s worth $2 an article. In my book, $2 buys you a paragraph, maybe. Personally, I#8217;d cut and run. If he winds up writing a bad review of you on odesk, it#8217;s not a huge loss #8212; you#8217;re better off getting the heck out of odesk anyway. Love your words of encouragement to stay true to writing and get properly paid for your talent. Useful Hobbies Essay! I love writing and have been caught up in content mills since I decided to write online about a month ago. I must admit the pennies I have received for my time, talent and dedication has been great to encourage me to seek something better.

Are there any books or articles you recommend for beginners looking to earn a living writing online? Glad to hear you#8217;re getting out! Content mills are the worst trap #8212; there#8217;s no chance of marquis de sade essay, advancement, no value of what you#8217;re really worth, and the #8220;portfolio#8221; you wind up building through cheap jobs isn#8217;t usually the kind of portfolio that will help your career. The Write Life has actually put together a great list of resources to check out. You can find it here: http://thewritelife.com/resources/ Hey, kelly.

This article was an actual eye opener.I#8217;m from hobbies India and being a novice writer, I didn#8217;t have any expectations which made me vulnerable to such clients. I#8217;ve worked for clients who have been paying rather poorly but require an dissertation proposal #8216;outstanding#8217; quality of work from us. Useful Essay! I#8217;m amused and at the same time rather disappointed when I realize that I had been working for 0.16 cents per word !! Once again a big thank you for now I know what to expect and essay, whom to deny. Take Care. You#8217;re very welcome. You#8217;re not the first to be lured into low-paying jobs.

I#8217;m glad we#8217;ve helped you realize you deserve much, much more! Thank you for the tips. Useful! I am handicapped and survive dissertation proposal, a fairly new mom at 41 to our 9 month old first and only son. I have been wanting to start a blog so I can have more time for my son since I have heard that with patience you could earn okay from blogging but, I for hobbies now, I can#8217;t let go of my day job that pays $4.50 an hour because it still pays the bills. Latex Bibliography! However, after the recent typhoon Yolanda/Haiyan hit the Philippines, I know I have to pursue blogging or find a better paying writing job that doesn#8217;t require me to useful, sit in front of the computer for 8-9 hours a day anymore.

Can anyone give me additional tips on the best way I could start a blog aside from wordpress or blogger please? Thank you. First of all, congrats on your new baby! Second of all, my thoughts are with you and all your friends and loved ones #8212; are you located in the Philippines yourself? I hope you#8217;re all safe and well. Annotated Bibliography! Third, The Write Life has put together a great list of useful hobbies essay, resources you can check out. Et Godt! You can find it here: http://thewritelife.com/resources/. The very first section is on blogging, but there#8217;s also lots of useful, other material to help you with all sorts of annotated bibliography, writing careers. Useful Hobbies Essay! If there#8217;s ever anything else I or The Write Life can help you with, don#8217;t hesitate to reach out! First off, congrats on your 1st son! Sounds like you come central Visayas too ( like me, am from Bohol) Phils.

If you are , here#8217;s hoping for de sade a better writing year for both of us. Yolanda (Haiyan) and the quake that hit our country and the economic woes they brought are really challenges we need to hurdle. Haven#8217;t much advice to give you on useful essay, blogging except join as many writers#8217; forums at essay, LInked In, if you haven#8217;t done yet. You see, I am more comfortable in hobbies writing articles than blogs. I have heard (from joining a lot of LI writing forums) of unit grade, a lot of successful/well-paid bloggers there who might be able to help you to name a few Francesca Nicasio, a US-based Filipina blogger, Carol Tice (US), Bamidele Omnibalusi (Africa), and more. Essay! Also, writing websites that work like a vendo machines (like Xoobiz, in 2011, but now seems closed) where writers can draw writing jobs from a queue will also help, as we need not waste time in dissertation pitching for jobs. (please see my post somewhere in this forum re this you like me want writing jobs you can do anytime on useful essay, your free time) If you bump into business article writing gigs and Xoobiz-type sites, I#8217;d appreciate it too if you could let me know. @Karen de Guzman, sorry I missed saying that my comment was in reply to essay engelsk, your post. Thank you for the great tips. I also get money writing for Bubblews and I. I also write for sendmeglobal where they only give award to a writer each month. I was able to useful, win it once.

You have opened my eyes to other relevant targets. Thanks. I#8217;ve recently started blogging just for survive proposal the love of hobbies essay, it and am curious about paid gigs. Marquis De Sade! There is soooo much info out there and this article has saved me from contentmills, not to mention wasted hours-thanks very, very much!! That was a good read! I guess you your words of wisdom are meant for useful US-based writers, knowing how much it costs to live there, this makes sense #8230; well, kinda. If you were writing for a while before delving into the freelance world, i.e., well-versed in specific type of unit grade, writing, then it would be a shame to get peanuts for your expertise. However, taking those low-paying gigs is what you really need if you got no clue what your niche is, and useful, want to get experience.

I started working on oDesk a little over a month ago, it#8217;s an engelsk amazing website. Although It#8217;s infested with low-paying gigs, I managed to land a couple of good jobs on essay, there. Since I write for my own amusement and because Jennifer (Oh dear Jennifer who gave me my first writing gig!) told me I write well, I continue to dissertation, #8220;work#8221; on oDesk. It#8217;s funny that I consistently manage to get $5-$10 per 500 words, not so bad compared to the pittance most jobs pay. Useful! I#8217;ll have to disagree with you on staying away from sixth #8220;outsourcing platforms#8221;, because unless you#8217;re a seasoned writer, you shouldn#8217;t be starting anywhere else.

At least for the sake of getting good at your craft before pitching to high-paying clients. Speaking of High-paying clients, I stumbled upon your post as I was looking for them, but all I could find is advice, and advice only. Next thing will be a blogger telling me to be #8220;one with nature#8221; and those high-paying clients will come to me on their own. Useful Hobbies Essay! Great point that you have to dissertation proposal, start somewhere, Talal #8212; you#8217;re right that new freelance writers have to gain that somewhere, and that there can be good jobs hiding among the less-than-stellar ones. Hobbies! It just takes time to sort through and separate the wheat from the chaff! I vehemently disagree with you here.

Content mills horribly abuse writers and make it difficult for people who have spent years in this field to get a fair wage due to the expectation that companies can pay less to phd dissertation latex, get more. Useful! Also, writers who start out persuasive essays unit sixth grade, here often get stuck in a rut and can#8217;t evolve past the oDesk stage. Useful Hobbies! All around bad news and not recommended for anyone who wants an actual career in writing. Thanks for persuasive sixth grade sharing your thoughts, Alicia. Useful Hobbies! To each their own opinion #8212; some people, like Talal said, enjoy using sites like oDesk because it works for their needs and latex annotated bibliography, goals. Some don#8217;t enjoy these sites, or move on hobbies essay, after building up a portfolio or a client roster. Of Smoking! It#8217;s a choice each writer makes for her own career. TWL Assistant Editor. Hobbies! you can make money writing articles at http://www.iwriter.com they have an amazing platform for beginners to rise up the writing ranks. The pay is marquis sustainable and you are able to begin your career well.

Hello and thank you for proving such an interesting article! Even though I#8217;m not an English native speaker, I have managed to get some American and useful hobbies essay, English clients so far, and persuasive essays unit sixth grade, they have been satisfied with my works. Being a young, I started on useful essay, Elance some weeks ago while at the same time trying oDesk. All of my clients come from the former, as for the latter I didn#8217;t bother to go back. What is phd dissertation your advice for me? I think Elance is good for essay building some portfolio and acquiring experience, but naturally I want to move on to something bigger and better. So where to et godt, start, or better to say what#8217;s the next step I should follow? Hi Matteo, thanks for useful essay your comment! We actually have a post coming up on what to look out for when using outsourcing sites like Elance and oDesk. Keep an eye out for that in the next few weeks!

I love everything you posted on et godt engelsk, freelancing for hobbies essay a better pay. Et Godt! Great informative post! I#8217;ve got a desk job and am seriously thinking of a career change towards this direction. i do love writing and am someone who loves working in her own time, her own hours anywhere in the world. It#8217;s a great list and gives people motivation to get started. Usually to essay, make a change in annotated bibliography life its quite scary but your post is so straight forward and well written that it makes anyone feel ready to take on the world! Thanks for this post and some of the other ones as well about freelance writing.

Your blog is awesome #128512; Thanks for the kind words, Grace! I hope TWL can help motivate and support you in your career change. I#8217;m so glad I found this article. I will be graduating with a Professional Writing degree in essay May. I#8217;m trying to see what types of writing jobs are out survive, there, because I#8217;m nervous about the essay, job market. I just signed up to latex annotated, write articles on useful hobbies, Hire writers.com, but the pay is so cheap and I work really hard on the articles. I got paid more writing for my school#8217;s newspaper than I did writing for Hire writers.com. I#8217;m curious as to where you got your Professional Writing degree. I was a technical writer before becoming a s-a-h mom. It#8217;s a really good gig and pays good.

Now I#8217;m doing freelance writing while my child is in school. It took me a long time to get my tech writing job (b/c I initially was in elementary ed), and I#8217;m thinking it may take a long time to proposal, work may way up as a freelance writer. Whatever you do, when first out of college, it can take a long time to build up your experience. Essay! It can be a long, frustrating climb, but do have patience and try not to get frustrated when you keep hearing that you need experience to marquis de sade, get the job. Useful Essay! It really, truly is character-building and most of dissertation, us (whose dad doesn#8217;t own the company!) have to go through it. Best of luck!

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code chivalry essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of useful essay words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Persuasive Unit Sixth Grade. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. Useful Hobbies Essay. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of survive proposal stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of hobbies individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of persuasive essays unit grade poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Useful Essay. Some editors will indicate a caesura by short, inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is useful hobbies, a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to essay overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is essay, substituted for essays sixth one removed by hobbies, the printers because of an error.

For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in de sade essay, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to useful hobbies whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Survive Dissertation Proposal. Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. Useful Hobbies Essay. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and writing latex, teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly.

Additionally, the hobbies essay, canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and survive, political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Essay. Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of annotated a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for useful essay some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the latex bibliography, Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and hobbies, slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the unit, Roman Empire before the coming of useful hobbies essay Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to short essay on effect of smoking dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Essay. Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of marquis essay text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at useful hobbies essay the spot where the two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for phd dissertation latex a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by useful hobbies essay, the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). Short Essay. This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). Essay. The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and persuasive essays grade, Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and useful hobbies essay, their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the essay engelsk, nominative, the accusative, the useful hobbies, genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms.

Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. De Sade. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. Useful Hobbies Essay. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the proposal, lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from useful, combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . Unit. The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. Useful Essay. In pop music from the essays unit sixth grade, 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. Useful Hobbies. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the latex annotated bibliography, catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.

Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. Useful Hobbies. The voice of your eyes is latex bibliography, deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the hobbies essay, People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. De Sade Essay. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of useful torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point.

This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in phd dissertation, The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into useful hobbies a pool of water or fall into short essay of smoking a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Hobbies Essay. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of et godt engelsk catachresis is hobbies, abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of writing phd dissertation two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of hobbies essay a different color. The second is the annotated bibliography, proverbial metaphor about how birds of useful hobbies a feather flock together. However, by essay, taking the two dead metaphors and essay, combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and essay engelsk, state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at useful hobbies essay its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for bibliography originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. Useful Hobbies. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for latex the line.

For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Useful Hobbies Essay. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the de sade, other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the useful, truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in writing phd dissertation, the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line.

The act of useful essay such truncation is called catalexis. Bibliography. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of hobbies famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. Latex Annotated Bibliography. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of useful essay z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in short of smoking, American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft,

The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and hobbies essay, advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye,

The lunatic is carried at last to sixth the asylum a confirmed case. Useful. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of essay engelsk King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. Hobbies Essay. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the survive, normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and useful hobbies essay, timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to essays sixth the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an useful hobbies example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the survive proposal, first word on useful essay, the next page.

A printer could thus check the persuasive essays, order by flipping quickly from hobbies, one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to essays unit sixth grade modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c.

350 BCE): Tragedy is an useful imitation of an survive proposal action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . Essay. . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to latex annotated download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. Hobbies Essay. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is et godt essay, used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Useful. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. Latex. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to useful hobbies essay the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of essay of smoking English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the hobbies, Queen gave patronage to essay engelsk in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and hobbies essay, written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and short essay, the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and useful essay, wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.

The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. Phd Dissertation Latex. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to useful essay be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in persuasive essays unit sixth, the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Hobbies Essay. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from bibliography, I Samuel 22:1-2, where the essay, Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Survive. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of essay various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to latex raid the useful essay, Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in dissertation proposal, Drout 88). Cf.

Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of hobbies essay their fellows debate the short of smoking, nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of essay education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in short on effect, a cave of ignorance, chained in useful hobbies essay, place and unable to short essay on effect view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Essay. Some of persuasive sixth grade those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the useful hobbies, perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. Survive Dissertation Proposal. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and essay, forcing him to leave the cave, to persuasive essays unit grade look at useful hobbies essay the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the marquis de sade essay, material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world.

C. S. Hobbies Essay. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the de sade essay, characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and hobbies, more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from survive dissertation proposal, this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is useful hobbies, really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and survive, they come in essay, two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.

It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Short On Effect Of Smoking. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. Hobbies Essay. B. Short Essay. Yeats, and useful hobbies, probably led to the creation of the dissertation proposal, Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the useful hobbies, deceased individual's name and date of latex annotated birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of useful hobbies essay hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Survive Dissertation Proposal. Contrast with bowdlerization. Hobbies. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in essays grade, great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. Useful Hobbies. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and de sade essay, the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to hobbies essay monitor and of smoking, control such material.

All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. Useful Essay. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Dissertation. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). Useful Essay. This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Latex. In classical Greek artwork and hobbies essay, literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Survive Proposal. Their lineage traces them to useful hobbies essay Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to marquis de sade essay twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the useful hobbies, younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and on effect, attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids.

The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and hobbies essay, sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and dissertation proposal, Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of useful essay hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the et godt engelsk, Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. Hobbies Essay. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at annotated the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on useful, their quests.

Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and sixth, developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Hobbies. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Proposal. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and hobbies essay, the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to bibliography be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the useful hobbies, chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and essay, the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and useful hobbies, mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and dissertation proposal, plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes.

The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and hobbies, an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of essay chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and useful essay, (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length.

The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in et godt essay engelsk, the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in essay, temperament and et godt essay, motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the hobbies essay, narrative). The main character of a work of writing phd dissertation latex a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the useful, deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of marquis essay tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and useful essay, action to create in short on effect of smoking, the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.

CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to hobbies a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and dissertation proposal, Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Useful Hobbies. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of writing latex four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on useful hobbies essay, topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Short. Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by useful, Baugh, a proposed method for latex indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and hobbies, so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the dissertation proposal, author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by essay, night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation.

Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in essays grade, Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Useful Essay. Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and marquis de sade essay, an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in useful hobbies essay, the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the proposal, brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the hobbies, protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Annotated. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in hobbies essay, arms supervised by essay, witnesses and hobbies essay, heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and phd dissertation latex, feudalism . See knight for additional information.

This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her,

And worship her by hobbies, years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of proposal a play in classical Greece. Useful. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the dissertation, leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by useful hobbies, remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of essay singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of hobbies essay singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of persuasive sixth male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and useful essay, interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by dissertation, replacing the useful essay, singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on writing, stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years.

Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to useful hobbies essay summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Marquis Essay. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in hobbies, authority and power to essay the other persons in useful essay, the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from on effect, his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of hobbies essay Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and on effect of smoking, place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of essay Christ allowing himself to essay enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and useful, crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. Of Smoking. It refers to any systematic account or narration of useful hobbies essay events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. Essay On Effect Of Smoking. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the useful essay, British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . Et Godt Engelsk. See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Hobbies Essay. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . Survive. . the useful, assumption that whatever has gone out of essay of smoking date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the useful essay, myth that all change is beneficial progress. Essay. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the useful hobbies, 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and essay, Lewis states Barfield made short work of hobbies my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in et godt engelsk, a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the useful hobbies, Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on latex, the east side of useful hobbies large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and annotated, Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the useful essay, departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the persuasive essays unit sixth, dead.

This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in useful hobbies essay, Greek to speak of the Olympian in marquis, contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). Hobbies Essay. See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and engelsk, ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against useful hobbies essay, the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the survive, job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of useful hobbies medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the essays unit sixth, tanka . Hobbies. Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by essay engelsk, an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of useful a cinquain from annotated bibliography, Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of useful essay diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of survive dissertation conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the useful hobbies, two-syllable title or subject for et godt essay engelsk the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of hobbies three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the persuasive essays unit sixth grade, subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in useful, which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the short of smoking, earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the useful, narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.

Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is short of smoking, also thematically circular, in that it implies the useful hobbies, cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of essay of smoking death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and useful hobbies essay, Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. Marquis De Sade. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is hobbies essay, usually used in proposal, reference to hobbies the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the proposal, Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Useful Hobbies. The Golden Age of on effect of smoking Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the useful essay, fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE).

The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from unit, a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for hobbies essay the hokku , the persuasive essays grade, predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in essay, the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an short independent clause . If the essay, clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to writing latex be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here.

For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at essay school, including this one from his chemistry class:

Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in unit sixth, the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Useful. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.

They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in et godt essay, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in essay, some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by survive proposal, clucking the useful hobbies essay, tongue or drawing in air with the persuasive sixth grade, tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by useful hobbies essay, the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by engelsk, inserting an hobbies essay exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of engelsk its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at essay a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to latex annotated bibliography find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on useful essay, the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in short essay of smoking, which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in useful essay, the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the writing phd dissertation latex, two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance.

See rhetorical schemes for useful more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to et godt essay engelsk reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for useful hobbies essay breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and essays sixth, number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of useful a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings.

First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the et godt essay, problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in useful essay, which the persuasive essays unit grade, author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by useful essay, an author. Writing Phd Dissertation Latex. For instance, in J. Hobbies. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the latex annotated bibliography, departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the useful, world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to engelsk fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by useful hobbies essay, coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by et godt essay engelsk, returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the useful hobbies, tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to dissertation frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Hobbies. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living.

Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and short of smoking, complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. Useful Hobbies. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on latex annotated bibliography, nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay.

Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an useful hobbies essay egg. By Renaissance times, the on effect, word was applied to useful hobbies essay those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of unit sixth that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization.

It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and hobbies, Cockney, and essay on effect, recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in hobbies, a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the essay, actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in useful essay, the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is survive dissertation, baffling for hobbies essay outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the phd dissertation, speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of useful essay one language to phd dissertation another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Hobbies Essay. Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for survive dissertation these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace.

Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and hobbies essay, they can be enormously helpful in et godt engelsk, learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of hobbies false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Short Of Smoking. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an useful hobbies unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the latex bibliography, strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon useful hobbies essay sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for marquis essay singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in essay, folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Writing Phd Dissertation Latex. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to useful combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. Et Godt. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in hobbies, plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Marquis Essay. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)

COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the useful hobbies essay, American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). Annotated. This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the hobbies essay, Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. Survive Proposal. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the essay, Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over latex bibliography the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to hobbies essay the habit of powerful civilizations to engelsk colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of hobbies essay a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. Latex Annotated. The term is often applied in academic discussion of useful hobbies literature from the short on effect, colonial period.

We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of useful essay Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the persuasive essays, word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the useful essay, word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an essay engelsk impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and useful essay, twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. Marquis Essay. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of useful essay Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of latex annotated bibliography human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in essay, which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. Unit Grade. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and essay, other Renaissance literature.

See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on dissertation, trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by useful, walking up to the altar to de sade essay eat the grain sitting on useful hobbies, it. Et Godt Essay. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Useful. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the latex, comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part).

(2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of hobbies what looks like the essays grade, practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Hobbies Essay. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of essay of smoking a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and hobbies, an animal substituted in unit sixth, his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Hobbies. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from short essay on effect of smoking, killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of useful hobbies essay innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality.

The dialogue is de sade, usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is useful hobbies, the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to de sade pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Essay. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in persuasive essays sixth grade, ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in essay, which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at writing Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the essay, security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process.

Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in short essay of smoking, German. In German, a tale in useful essay, the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to writing phd dissertation latex a hlaford (lord) in exchange for useful hobbies essay food, mead, and heriot , the loan of on effect fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an useful hobbies essay oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of survive dissertation early Anglo-Saxon society. Useful Hobbies. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the phd dissertation latex, rigid constraints of their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the hobbies, young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Et Godt Essay Engelsk. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of hobbies closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). Essay Engelsk. This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. Hobbies. If the latex, syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at essay a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of annotated bibliography a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. Essay. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to latex hang hoboes and essay, bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into writing latex forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the useful, muscle-bound Hercules, and so on.

COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of marquis de sade essay Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the hobbies essay, Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the persuasive essays unit grade, hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is useful essay, found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Essay. Examples outside of hobbies essay Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the latex annotated, logic, wholeness, and hobbies essay, closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is short essay on effect, one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and useful, medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. Marquis De Sade. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of hobbies essay a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Persuasive Essays Sixth Grade. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and hobbies essay, the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Writing Latex. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an useful ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and et godt, a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of useful a rooster and a serpent.

Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of essay on effect of smoking classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the useful hobbies, encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and et godt essay engelsk, the heraldic practice of useful hobbies dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in dissertation proposal, a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by useful hobbies, multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in marquis de sade, spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the useful, type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the latex, creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Useful Hobbies Essay. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to writing latex creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Useful Hobbies. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the short on effect of smoking, English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.

See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to useful hobbies essay his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to essays unit his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. Useful Hobbies. If the writing, defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and essay, the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for et godt essay engelsk thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to essay denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.

In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . Latex. One of the useful essay, most famous conceits is latex bibliography, John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to useful hobbies the points on a geometer's compass. Essays Unit Sixth. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is useful, concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in survive, poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the useful hobbies, early 1800s, the annotated, Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the essay, distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of et godt some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to essay create a theory of of smoking concrete poetry.

T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an hobbies essay altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to persuasive unit sixth grade present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on useful hobbies, glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by short on effect of smoking, critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and useful hobbies essay, Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. De Sade Essay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of essay a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Proposal. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and essay, an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of sixth grade narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of hobbies narratives driven by survive dissertation, internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the useful essay, loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the et godt engelsk, protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of useful hobbies Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and marquis essay, his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him.

The five classics include the useful, I Ching ( The Book of phd dissertation latex Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of useful hobbies Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the de sade essay, present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in essay, Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the latex annotated, minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. Useful. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Essay. Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and hobbies essay, it does not necessarily connote violence.

Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to latex annotated bibliography a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Hobbies. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. De Sade. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of useful hobbies alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by marquis, changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of useful English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). Phd Dissertation. See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and hobbies, their symbols in survive dissertation, the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon.

Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at essay the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.

Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and short essay of smoking, Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Useful Hobbies Essay. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the writing latex, town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and useful hobbies essay, they're (they are) are common in marquis, verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to essay the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and writing, the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. Hobbies. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the marquis de sade essay, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and essay, female character who struggle through misunderstandings and essay, difficulties until they fall in useful hobbies essay, love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for writing instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to hobbies wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from latex, place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hobbies essay hunger and the elements, is a convention in dissertation, medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon useful hobbies whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play.

CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and survive dissertation, acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the useful hobbies essay, crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and latex annotated bibliography, Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and useful hobbies, rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of marquis de sade object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks.

Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the useful hobbies essay, lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in phd dissertation, the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to hobbies essay each other on engelsk, the chain of essay being, and each would coincide with the persuasive unit sixth, others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life.

See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on useful hobbies, stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and writing phd dissertation latex, so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the useful hobbies essay, same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Phd Dissertation Latex. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the hobbies essay, form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in short on effect of smoking, later years was the useful hobbies, heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. Essay Engelsk. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Useful Hobbies Essay. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in writing phd dissertation, Troilus and hobbies essay, Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for short on effect of smoking his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an useful inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to writing latex try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the hobbies, women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at essay length. Cf. Useful Hobbies Essay. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of persuasive essays unit sixth behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of essay chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by dissertation proposal, C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles.

The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to hobbies protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the de sade, passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of essay this ideal of chastity, the writing, knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of hobbies Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and short essay, the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of useful hobbies courtly love eventually becomes a source of short essay on effect parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well.

Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of hobbies essay courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and marquis de sade, the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to hobbies climb into survive dissertation bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no.

1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of hobbies essay English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole.

Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and et godt essay engelsk, tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in useful, his struggle. The crisis usually leads to essay or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of essay a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from persuasive essays sixth, A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation.

Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and useful hobbies, R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by marquis essay, gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Hobbies Essay. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the survive proposal, best text. However, they must not ignore the useful hobbies, alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from et godt essay, history. Useful Hobbies. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives.

The first version by annotated bibliography, Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in useful hobbies essay, line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in latex annotated, the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Useful Hobbies. Wm. scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the marquis, page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the useful hobbies, section with variant readings. The words before the on effect of smoking, bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at useful hobbies least the version the short of smoking, editor has chosen for his edition. Useful Hobbies Essay. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible.

A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and dissertation proposal, even contradictory variant readings. Useful Essay. For instance, in writing phd dissertation, the case of The Aeneid , about hobbies essay, 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the bibliography, case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. Useful Hobbies. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and persuasive grade, Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in hobbies essay, the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the writing, world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in useful hobbies, red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in survive dissertation, which the last line of each of the first six serves as the hobbies essay, last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the survive proposal, first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in hobbies, the collection of the entire seven sonnets. Et Godt. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. Useful Essay. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in essay, prehistoric times.

Currently in a death-like state of useful hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and essay, plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and useful essay, alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and short essay, Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and useful hobbies, characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of short on effect of smoking Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the useful, Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in persuasive essays unit sixth, Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in essay, Mandarin China, and so forth. Short On Effect. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and essay, be relatively confident that the dissertation, reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the useful hobbies essay, way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and survive dissertation, archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in hobbies essay, the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the essay, concerns and features of those works produced by essay, the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the essay, following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and useful essay, sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in persuasive essays sixth grade, the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the useful essay, later real-world rise of the bibliography, internet after 1993. Useful. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. Dissertation. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of essay closely related works. Dissertation Proposal. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to useful many poems and marquis, stories written by various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the hobbies essay, legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to latex the complete set of mystery plays performed during the hobbies essay, Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). Annotated Bibliography. The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in useful essay, ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and writing latex, four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. Hobbies. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of essay engelsk identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and hobbies essay, internal rhyme . Persuasive Unit Sixth. Typically, the consonants in hobbies, one word or line repeat in persuasive grade, the same pattern at the beginning and end of the hobbies essay, next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and de sade essay, he makes much use of them in hobbies essay, his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . Persuasive Unit. For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Essay. Not to et godt essay engelsk be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of useful hobbies Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to de sade essay replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Hobbies. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the writing latex, lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. Useful Hobbies Essay. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5).

CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of de sade rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the hobbies essay, lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the essay on effect of smoking, term refers to essay a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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Example Of A Business Analyst Resume. Hi, do you know one of the best roles you can play on a project is that of a business analyst? That’s right. The business analyst gets to talk ‘business’ with the users – ‘re-engineering’ work processes, gathering system requirements and otherwise perform all manner of interesting data analysis. It is one of the most popular jobs in the IT industry and – increasingly – one of the most important, next to the project manager. If you’re looking for a business analyst role in a company, you should know there are certain skill sets you need to bring out in your resume.

A business analyst needs to be an excellent communicator. A detail oriented person. Useful Hobbies? Very good with presentations to senior management. Great at time management, scope control and negotiation. The list goes on. In this article, I thought I’d share with you what an example of short essay on effect, a business analyst resume, so you get a good idea what sort of skills and experiences you should bring out. Learn what to hobbies essay include in a business analyst resume. Now, before we zoom in on how a business analyst resume should look like, let’s first understand what a BA does. To me, the role of persuasive unit, a business analyst really comes down to a few things.

A business analyst is: A requirements modeler A junior project manager Industry and solution expert. Let’s try to understand each of the above. First and useful hobbies foremost, I think that a BA is a ‘requirements modeler’. Marquis Essay? What is a requirements modeler? To me, it’s someone who can extract business system requirements from hobbies essay, stakeholders and represent them in a form that is easy for BOTH business and IT to essay engelsk understand. The truth is that, modern business systems are tremendously complex beasts and useful hobbies essay you need a ‘bridge between business and IT’ (i.e. the business analyst) to ensure what the survive dissertation proposal, system users think the hobbies, system should be is truly represented in latex bibliography the ultimate system delivered by IT. It takes a special skill set in order to do this, including an analytical mindset to challenge and automate manual choke points in business processes, a good grasp of hobbies, technology, as well as careful attention to details in system specifications.

The other role I think a BA plays is that of latex annotated, a junior project manager. How is useful essay, a business analyst a project manager? I’ve touched briefly on this topic, playing out the areas where PMs and BAs have overlapping skill sets. A BA is also a junior project manager. You see, a BA needs to do many of the essay of smoking, things a PM does – define and useful hobbies essay control scope, negotiate change requests to the system, facilitate meetings / workshops and short on effect of smoking be adept at managing senior stakeholders. The one areas BAs don’t touch though, is the hobbies, ‘big picture’ – they focus on one particular module or functional domain, but leave the running of the entire project – milestones and go-live dates – to the PM. A BA is also adept at industry and essay engelsk system solutions.

For a business analyst in the banking domain, this means he or she is well versed in useful banking parlance, e.g. client risk profiling, investment suitability, CRM, sales / services channels, CASA, e-banking, ATM kiosks, the trade life cycle – the survive dissertation proposal, list goes on. In addition, the hobbies, BA will know some specific system solutions (e.g. Siebel for CRM, Temenos for persuasive, core banking systems) which help them in answering users’ queries as to whether a solution can meet their business requirements. The best BAs also certify themselves, tapping on the accreditation programmes rolled out by third-party vendors (e.g. certified Siebel or Temenos consultants are in high demand out there). I’ve gone on at length about what a BA does and I’m starting to detract from the actual purpose of this article – business analyst resume. But I feel it’s important to understand the BA role well so that you can represent your skill sets much better to useful essay your potential employer. Ok, let’s jump into a example of a business analyst resume, which I’ve attached over here (confidential content has been sanitized). I’ve used this resume format for many years and latex used it to useful hobbies essay clinch BA (and also project manager positions) in dissertation proposal well-known consulting firms and international banks in Asia (particularly Singapore).

If you look at the sample resume, you’ll see the following major sections: Professional Profile Work Experience Education Professional Memberships and Certification Publications Awards / Recognitions Areas of Expertise (Industries, Skill Areas, Software, Technical) Let’s step through each section in turn. The professional profile section is useful, easily the MOST important section your entire BA resume. Why? Because it’s the first thing your potential interviewer will read! Get it wrong, and bibliography it’s likely your resume is headed for the thrash bin. The intention of this section is to give the employer an overview of your career profile to-date.

So in the sample resume I’ve attached, I first talk about my role and what I do in my CURRENT company . Then I follow up with the useful hobbies essay, roles and responsibilities in my PREVIOUS companies. Annotated? Keep these short and sweet, probably not more than a paragraph per employer in your job history. As you describe your roles, mention WHAT role it is essay, , what the major responsibilities were and how many YEARS your spent there. I’d then round off with a paragraph on my specializations and skill sets – for a system business analyst, it’s good to bring out three things here – functional domain knowledge (i.e. what you know about the banking business), methodologies you employ and also geographical areas you’ve worked in. It’s also useful to bring out any major accreditation you have in this section. In particular, it’s interesting to survive dissertation note I mentioned ‘ geographical areas ‘ in useful hobbies the above. Increasingly, employers (at least those in Asia) are interested in candidates with a broad international outlook – so if you’ve worked in the Congo, Moscow or Borneo – those are great highlights to include here. The countries you’ve worked in annotated also help to differentiate your resume just a wee bit from the others – I mean, everyone may know about banking business analysis, requirements gathering and useful hobbies essay so forth, but not many may have done such work in several Asian countries. The next section – work experience – is critical for detailing your job history. For a business analyst, your most relevant experience are the projects you’ve been on. So focus on the projects you’ve done over the years (instead of bibliography, Business-As-Usual (BAU) roles).

I start this section off by listing down each company I’ve worked for in reverse chronological order (latest first). Then, for useful hobbies essay, each company, I start off specifying the DURATION of the employment there, along with a brief paragraph describing the ROLE I played in short essay on effect the company. If you played several roles in the company during your tenure, I’d find a suitable role title and still stick to a one paragraph description of useful hobbies, what you did there. Then, once the phd dissertation latex, overall description of the hobbies, role you played at the company is complete, I go project by project and specify the DURATION , the LOCATION and the ROLE I played in writing latex each project. Bringing out your relevant work experience is critical in hobbies a resume. If I played multiple roles in a project, I combine the role titles or separate them with a slash. Each role in short on effect a project is accompanied with a paragraph describing what responsibilities I had in the role.

I also try to focus on OUTPUT (meaning the KPIs I achieved, exactly HOW MANY documents I wrote, the hobbies, SIZE of teams I led, or the latex annotated bibliography, CONTRACT VALUE of projects I’ve been on) These numbers help to essay quantify and lock in latex the interviewer’s attention and also make your contributions very explicit and measurable (as opposed to being fluffy). Do take note that the work experience section can be very long, especially if you have a decade or more of useful hobbies, work experience. If that’s the case, I’d suggest you DO NOT highlight each and every project you did in the companies you worked for – either you highlight only the key projects or leave the projects out altogether, describing only the survive, role you played at the company in one or two paragraphs. For senior hires, most employers won’t expect you to describe EVERY project you did in your career history anyway. Case Study: I’ve been in (at last count) over useful hobbies 16 projects in my 12-year career in dissertation IT and management consulting.

When I left my first IT consulting firm to apply for a business analyst role in a bank, I used the template above. It worked out really well . Hobbies Essay? Over time, I tweaked the format once in survive proposal a while so as to hobbies essay suit whatever position I was applying for. So in the end, I’ve a collection of resume templates that can be used in de sade essay almost any job application I make. You should do that too – tweak your resume slightly to hobbies essay cater to writing latex different job applications . In the long run, you’ll have a ‘resume template library’ ready to meet any job application situation. Also, do take note that employers make reference checks. Be careful about useful hobbies mentioning work experience that you DON’T HAVE.

I’ve known some young candidates who played up their work experience so they could negotiate for et godt, better salaries or positions, but I’d NEVER advise you to do that. Be truthful, sell yourself based on what you have – don’t befuddle your employer. Also, you’d do well to customize your work experience to the role you’re applying for. If, for example, you’re applying for a banking business analyst position – I’d naturally play up my expertise with banking system solutions and also banking domain knowledge. I’d leave out projects which delve into telecommunications, manufacturing or other unrelated area. The next section on education is hobbies, also important.

List out any degrees / certificates and dissertation the education institutions from which they were obtained. It’s also important to indicate the useful essay, year in which the degrees / certificate was conferred. Remember that many employers check back with educational institutions as to whether your entries are valid – so don’t be daft and declare that you have some educational qualification that you don’t. Professional Memberships and Certification. Any professional memberships / certifications you have should go into this section. If you’re a certified business analyst (e.g. you have an essay, accreditation from the hobbies, International Institute of Business Analysis, or IIBA), then put it down. Or, if you’re a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) – you should also put it down here.

You’d be surprised – many employers of persuasive sixth, BAs and PMs these days DO in hobbies essay fact look at the IIBA and PMP as validations of your capabilities. So they are good accreditations to go after. If you’ve written articles or got your content published in any academic or industry journal, make it known here. I always encourage my juniors to get known for something in dissertation proposal the industry. For example, I execute projects in the private banking industry, so a natural niche where I can share knowledge is in private banking IT systems. Useful Hobbies? I try to locate some well-known magazines or journals to contribute to engelsk – and useful if you’re published, it really adds credibility to your level of latex, expertise.

The same goes for any awards or recognitions you have – be they academic or from hobbies essay, industry. Take note not to go overboard though – I’d list down more professional level awards rather than awards you got from school – unless the school award you got is really significant. I also include a couple of short on effect of smoking, sections at the end of the business analyst resume in the areas of Industries, Skill Areas, Software, Technical. Why do I split it like this? Because I want to useful draw the employer’s attention to my skills. Take note that you should not list down EVERY single skill you have. Rather, consider the needs of your potential employer and list down any RELEVANT skill you have. If I’m applying to be a project manager, then one of my Skill Areas should be project management and stakeholder management, for short essay on effect, example. If you’re applying for a role of a business analyst in implementing a core banking system, I’d name systems like Temenos, Olympic or SilverLake under the Software section.

If I am trying to clinch a BA role that is a bit more technical, I may list down under Technical skills the expertise I have in C++, Oracle, Microsoft SQL server, etc. The above are the basics of what goes into a sample business analyst resume. Essay? I do have some other thoughts about BA job roles that may be useful for you to know. Business analysts are very hot roles in the market, particularly in industries like banking and short on effect insurance. Most firms like to hire business analysts because (1) they are cheaper than project managers (2) they can handle a significant portion of the software development life cycle (SDLC) – from requirements, to useful hobbies essay some design, as well as testing. Make sure you do some research into the salary range of latex annotated bibliography, a business analyst in the industry you’re going to.

If you’ve have previous experience as a BA, even if you’re in hobbies essay a different industry, chances are the employer will still give you a shot. BAs are known for being able to adapt and execute project methodologies regardless of what industry or solution domain they are in. It’s certainly advantageous to know what private banking is marquis de sade essay, about or how a CRM software works, but on the whole, the useful, foundational skill set of essay engelsk, a BA (data analysis and elicitation of requirements) is something that is applicable to ANY industry . I never did tell you that I love being a BA. You know, in my current role, I’m a project manager, but I really miss the days of being a BA. The reason? A BA is the best role for understanding a business and you get to useful essay interview, run workshops and dissertation proposal interact with all sorts of people . And I because I’m in consulting, I get to do it for many different financial institutions. Also, a BA gets to really ‘dig in’ and become the ‘go to’ person throughout a project. Because you’re there since the start of the hobbies, project, and you understand what the marquis de sade essay, users want, you’re a natural subject matter expert on useful hobbies essay all business requirements within the project team. I enjoy being that ‘go to’ person throughout the duration of the essay on effect of smoking, project.

Also, I guess I prefer a BA job that over a programmer’s job where I’m hunched over useful hobbies essay a computer screen all day. I also prefer it over being say, a solution architect of IT systems. But I guess after a decade of BA experience, most people move on to being project managers (like I have) or start on other different adventures. I just want to make it known being a BA is persuasive essays sixth grade, great! So treasure your time if you get a BA job. I hope the useful, above has given you a good understanding of two things. Firstly, you should now know what a BA does and persuasive essays grade what kind of roles he or she plays in a system implementation project. Secondly, and very importantly, I’ve shown you an example of useful hobbies, a good business analysis resume so that you have a better chance of securing an short on effect, interview with your potential employer. If you have any questions at all about embarking on a BA career, do drop me a note. Essay? I’d love to share my thoughts with you, particularly on the BA job market here in Asia and in Singapore.

That’s all I have for now. Until next time, good luck hunting for latex bibliography, that BA job!