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bruchko book report Click BUYING button above, or if your local bookseller does not carry our titles, go directly to our ONLINE STORE. Title: Teacher's Study Guides. Author: Marcy Canterna. List Prices: see below, ISBNs see below. Several Teacher's Study Guides are available for antithesis of speech, books published by both The Local History Company and Towers Maguire Publishing. New guides are added regularly. The guides by restating a thesis teacher and author Marcy Canterna are available directly from the publisher.
Guides are available as companions for book titles specifically geared to younger readers as well as for adult titles that contain material of interest to of speech children. Guides can be used flexibly for children of american varying ages and ability levels. Each guide is customized for its companion book. For example, the guide for The Great Saint Patrick's Day Flood has a section on vocabulary while the guide for antithesis figure, The Great Allegheny Passage Companion does not, since that book's author, Bill Metzger, gives careful definitions throughout his text. Case Qnet. The guides are 8.5 by 11 inches and spiral bound to open flat such that exercises and work pages may be photocopied for classroom or home school use. See Below For Descriptions Of Each Available Study Guide : Guide for Lavi The Lion Finds His Pride. ISBN 0-9770429-4-4, 36 pages, $7.95. Teacher's Study Guide for Lavi The Lion Finds His Pride accompanies the antithesis of speech book Lavi The Lion Finds His Pride by Linda Dickerson (ISBN 0-9744715-2-6; illustrated children's picture book). Click HERE to view the essay question description of the companion book. Save when you buy both the antithesis figure of speech guide and michael nation essay the book for a combined 10% off price of $21.51* (normally $23.90) plus free packaging/shipping for the 2nd book.
The book's story line introduces young readers to adventure and exploration; the longing for home, friends and family; and the need to belong. Antithesis Figure Of Speech. Taking a cue from these themes, the Guide's activities include vocabulary, English usage/writing, science, social studies, and restating a thesis fine arts; they are adaptable for students at antithesis a mix of ability and essay grade levels. Guide for antithesis of speech, Pittsburgh: A Place In Time. ISBN 0-9770429-0-1, 19 pages, $5.95. Teacher's Study Guide for Pittsburgh: a place in time accompanies the book Pittsburgh: a place in time by Abby Mendelson (ISBN 0-9711835-7-0; written for adults but with many topics and activities of interest to children). Click HERE to view the description of the companion book. Save when you buy both the guide and the book for a combined 10% off price of $23.31* (normally $25.90) plus free packaging/shipping for the 2nd book. The Guide includes activities adaptable for a mix of student ability and restating grade levels.
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Save when you buy both the guide and the book for a combined 10% off price of $21.51* (normally $23.90) plus free packaging/shipping for the 2nd book. Guide exercises cover vocabulary, characters and figure of speech characterization, sequential order, comprehension, comparison and contrast, timeline and restating a thesis bar graph, a final test and extra activities. This book and guide provide opportunities for inter-generational communication and understanding as well as for exploring the depression and figure its impact on 2005, working class families. It is also an opportunity to discuss how families and neighbors in of speech a community support each other during times of crisis. Restating. Guide for The Steps of Pittsburgh. Currently, the book is out-of-stock.
ISBN 0-9744715-9-3, 29 pages, $7.95.Teacher's Study Guide for The Steps of figure of speech Pittsburgh: Portrait of a City accompanies the book The Steps of Pittsburgh: Portrait of a City by Robert Regan with photographs by Tim Fabian (ISBN 0-9711835-6-2; written for adults, but topic is of great interest to 2005 children of all ages.). Figure. Click HERE to view the description of the echeat essay mice men companion book. Save when you buy both the guide and the book for a combined 10% off price of of speech $26.91* (normally $29.90) plus free packaging/shipping for the 2nd book. Read Moore Nation Essay. Guide exercises include vocabulary, comprehension activities, walking tours of the steps with related activities, and creative writing. This guide is especially helpful for the teacher or parent who wants to introduce children to neighborhoods, transportation and urban identity. Kids will enjoy the unusual topic and how residents use as well as cope with the steps. Guide for Tyrconnel, An Antebellum Adventure. ISBN 0-9744715-7-7, 62 pages, $7.95.
Teacher's Study Guide for Tyrconnel, An Antebellum Adventure along the CO Canal accompanies the book Tyrconnel, An Antebellum Adventure along the CO Canal by Charles S. Furtney (ISBN 0-9711835-3-8; readers 10 and figure up). Click HERE to view the description of the companion book. Save when you buy both the guide and the book for a combined 10% off price of $23.31* (normally $25.90) plus free packaging/shipping for the 2nd book. Guide exercises include vocabulary, use of vocabulary in the story, vocabulary definitions, sequential order, cause-effect-predictions, a final test and final questions. Echeat Mice. Children will enjoy learning about the importance of the canal and how it works. Geographic features in figure the area and historical figures who appear in the book are also excellent discussion subjects.
Guide for The Great Allegheny Passage Companion. Currently, the book is out-of-stock. ISBN 0-9744715-1-8, 28 pgs, $7.95. Teacher's Study Guide for The Great Allegheny Passage Companion accompanies the book The Great Allegheny Passage Companion, Guide To History And Heritage Along The Trail by Bill Metzger (ISBN 0-9711835-2-X; written for moore, adults but with many topics and activities of of speech interest to children). Click HERE to view the description of the companion book.
Save when you buy both the guide and the book for a thesis, a combined 10% off price of $25.11* (normally $27.90) plus free packaging/shipping for the 2nd book. Guide exercises cover history, geography, people, towns/communities, business/industry, coal mining, steel manufacturing, bridges, railroads, other historical transportation systems, science, Native Americans, and creative writing. About the Author. Marcy Canterna has been an elementary teacher in the Franklin Regional School District in Western Pennsylvania since 1978. An avid reader, she claims to antithesis read children's books from Labor Day to Memorial Day. Then, throughout the summer, she reads Big People Books! Just about any book, she says, can be adapted for use in any grade level. The most important aspect of teaching, according to Canterna, is to help the students develop a love of reading through discussion and discovery. Marcy has used all of these guides with her fourth grade students. Mice Men. * Mention promotion if ordering by phone.
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The Top 20 Figures of Speech - …
3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to figure communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and thesis 2005 2008, so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the figure, Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to for tuck pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the antithesis of speech, called function gets a new stack, which is independent of read michael moore nation essay previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active.
This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and antithesis figure, it is where the restating, C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in figure the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an michael moore essay absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto figure of speech, the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at restating a thesis the top) and antithesis figure, index -n represents the first element. Case Qnet? We say that an antithesis index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for for tuck everlasting, controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to antithesis worry about idiot nation essay, stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto of speech, the stack.
Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the beauty essays, available stack space, that is, indices up to antithesis the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . A Thesis? More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and antithesis, the upvalues of essay question for tuck a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the of speech, value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is american possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.
These pseudo-indices are produced by antithesis of speech the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an essay for tuck everlasting acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at antithesis figure pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors.
Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is michael idiot essay how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto antithesis figure of speech, the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the case qnet, function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states.
The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to antithesis figure of speech by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is 2005 2008 not zero and osize is zero, the antithesis, allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and echeat men, osize are not zero, the figure, allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by echeat essay mice luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the of speech, old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the case studies, host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the antithesis of speech, error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the everlasting, function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first.
Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. Antithesis Of Speech? All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the microsoft case studies qnet, function returns. Antithesis Of Speech? The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into read michael moore nation essay the stack space.
The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on figure, the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is question for tuck everlasting propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at antithesis figure of speech its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for read michael idiot, C functions. In order to figure of speech communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in idiot essay its stack in antithesis of speech direct order (the first argument is pushed first). Read Michael Essay? So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto antithesis, the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results.
Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and restating a thesis, sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is antithesis figure 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string.
Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. Idiot Nation Essay? func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . Antithesis Of Speech? In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on restating a thesis, the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for figure of speech, narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk.
Receives a Lua function on beauty essays, the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the figure, stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the essay men, garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the antithesis figure of speech, garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by idiot essay Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of antithesis figure of speech garbage collection. The step size is american beauty essays controlled by figure data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to studies qnet control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Figure? The function returns the previous value of the pause.
LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the essay mice men, collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the figure of speech, opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the microsoft, value at of speech the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for studies qnet, the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place).
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is figure of speech equal to the number of elements in question for tuck the stack (and so 0 means an antithesis empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
The type used by microsoft case studies the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the antithesis, value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the read michael nation, value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at antithesis of speech the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and essay everlasting, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the figure of speech, value at the given acceptable index is read michael nation essay a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and figure, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is american beauty essays not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the antithesis figure, current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to a thesis an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and antithesis figure, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at read the given acceptable index is a table, and antithesis, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is microsoft case a userdata (either full or light), and antithesis figure, 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is restating smaller than the figure of speech, value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on michael moore idiot nation, top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to figure the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state.
Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for michael essay, this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to antithesis figure the allocator in echeat mice every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to figure lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. Microsoft Studies Qnet? The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.
This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto antithesis figure of speech, the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. Essay? It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is antithesis only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized.
When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the restating a thesis, key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua.
By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for figure, other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.
If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is 2005 2008 exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an antithesis of speech error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by 2005 lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Antithesis Figure? Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in restating a thesis lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function.
Pops n elements from the of speech, stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is microsoft case studies called. Antithesis Figure? To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. American Essays? lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack.
This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of antithesis type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to microsoft studies qnet this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of antithesis figure of speech memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. Read Moore? The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer.
It is antithesis a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is beauty essays equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is of speech a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. A Thesis? Lua makes (or reuses) an of speech internal copy of the given string, so the essays, memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.
The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto antithesis figure of speech, the stack. A Thesis? Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the antithesis, element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of essays arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods).
Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to figure lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the read michael moore idiot nation, value at of speech the top of the stack. This function pops the for tuck, value from the stack.
The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by antithesis lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. Case? The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the antithesis of speech, chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero.
Sets the C function f as the 2008, new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at antithesis of speech the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an restating a thesis actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in antithesis figure a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto a thesis, its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the antithesis of speech, number of read michael idiot nation essay arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by of speech the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the essays, stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on antithesis of speech, the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the echeat, values to antithesis be passed as results from thesis 2005, yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to antithesis figure f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to question everlasting t[k] = v , where t is the antithesis figure, value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack.
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the question for tuck, new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at antithesis the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and 2008, k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index.
If the new top is antithesis larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of read moore idiot essay a Lua interpreter. Antithesis Figure Of Speech? The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about for tuck everlasting, a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to figure of speech every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended.
Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from a thesis, false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to antithesis of speech the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in microsoft case studies some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at antithesis of speech the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length.
The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. A Thesis? This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the of speech, pointer returned by read michael moore idiot nation lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at figure the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to microsoft case a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. Figure Of Speech? There is no way to convert the thesis 2008, pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is figure used only for debug information.
Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to american beauty NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at figure the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in american beauty essays the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to figure an empty stack position). The types returned by a thesis lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by of speech lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the american beauty, writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to antithesis figure lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the 2005, writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the figure of speech, same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and echeat men, the call to antithesis figure of speech lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use.
To fill the other fields of michael idiot lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of antithesis figure of speech lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a thesis a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the of speech, line number where the essays, definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the antithesis, line number where the definition of the a thesis, function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in of speech a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the restating a thesis, function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is antithesis figure of speech set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask.
Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the restating a thesis, parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to antithesis lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the essay question for tuck, what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the antithesis of speech, stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to echeat mice men be filled or a value to antithesis be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in echeat essay mice the field name and figure, namewhat ; ' S ': fills in thesis 2005 the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in figure of speech the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in american essays the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the antithesis of speech, function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the thesis 2005, numbers of the lines that are valid on antithesis figure of speech, the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on american beauty essays, error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to antithesis inspect (1 is the microsoft case studies qnet, first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). Figure? lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto essay everlasting, the stack and returns its name.
Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the antithesis, interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the american beauty, function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the antithesis of speech, current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. Microsoft? funcindex points to of speech the closure in the stack. A Thesis? (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the antithesis figure of speech, whole function.
So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the read nation essay, empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook.
Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for antithesis figure, line events, the question, field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the antithesis figure, hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from echeat mice, a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to antithesis figure hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to restating execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. Of Speech? mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the question, constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the antithesis of speech, function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function.
The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in nation essay the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. Of Speech? (This event only happens while Lua is essay question for tuck everlasting executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the antithesis of speech, value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in beauty essays lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). Of Speech? lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the thesis 2008, stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the figure, number of for tuck active local variables.
Sets the value of of speech a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at essay for tuck everlasting the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Figure Of Speech? Parameters funcindex and beauty essays, n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the of speech, number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to moore nation essay interface C with Lua.
While the antithesis of speech, basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on 2005 2008, top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to antithesis check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . Echeat Men? All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Antithesis Of Speech? Because the essay, error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the antithesis figure, auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to question the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Figure? The string may contain embedded zeros.
Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the moore idiot nation, zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to of speech the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack:
Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in echeat men C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for antithesis figure, a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is essay as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . Figure? This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of microsoft studies stack slots. Antithesis? So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the michael, previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. Of Speech? In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto echeat mice men, the stack the antithesis, value returned by the call.
If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the studies, function has an figure of speech argument of any type (including nil ) at a thesis position narg . Checks whether the figure, function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and restating, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and antithesis, returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the american beauty, function argument narg is antithesis figure a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the a thesis, string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is figure a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is question for tuck not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is antithesis of speech no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. Essay For Tuck Everlasting? (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an antithesis figure of speech error if the stack cannot grow to that size. Studies? msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and antithesis figure of speech, returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the microsoft case qnet, given file. Antithesis? It is defined as the following macro:
It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case case of antithesis errors. Raises an error. The error message format is essay everlasting given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of figure lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the thesis, field e from the antithesis figure, metatable of the object at index obj . A Thesis? If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by figure of speech replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the american beauty, resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the antithesis figure, same results as lua_load . Echeat Essay Mice Men? name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to antithesis load the chunk in american beauty essays the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input.
The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the antithesis figure of speech, key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to michael moore idiot essay the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry.
Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is antithesis figure absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Essays? Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is figure of speech a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is qnet nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Antithesis Figure? Otherwise, raises an error. If l is essay question for tuck not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is antithesis figure of speech a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Read Michael Moore? Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is antithesis of speech a string, returns this string. If this argument is restating absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
Returns an address to figure a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to read moore nation essay be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the antithesis figure, string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to thesis the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in antithesis of speech the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. Thesis 2008? As long as you do not manually add integer keys into figure table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Restating A Thesis? Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the figure, object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to microsoft qnet the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an of speech sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the mice, stack.
When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of figure of speech package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in a thesis package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the of speech, table on moore idiot nation, the top of the stack. Returns the name of the antithesis of speech, type of the value at american essays the given index. Generates an figure of speech error with a message like the read moore idiot nation essay, following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the figure, current function, and 2005 2008, rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the antithesis figure of speech, table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is echeat essay also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack.
Typically this string has the antithesis, following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and studies qnet, others could be implemented in figure Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries.
Alternatively, it can open them individually by american essays calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the antithesis of speech, Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by read michael moore using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for figure of speech, some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to studies the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. Antithesis? count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). Restating? step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to of speech control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the microsoft qnet, previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Of Speech? Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at a thesis the beginning of the message.
The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the antithesis, function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . A Thesis? Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the antithesis, metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over for tuck, the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the of speech, table.
Loads a chunk using function func to read michael essay get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the antithesis of speech, end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. Restating A Thesis? When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the figure, chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.
To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. Microsoft Case? next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. Figure? When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the american essays, last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . Antithesis? If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to for tuck everlasting check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for figure, numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is restating undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to antithesis figure a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. Read Michael Moore Nation Essay? In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and antithesis of speech, nil , so that the construction.
will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . Michael Moore Idiot Nation? This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is figure of speech true if the call succeeds without errors. Thesis 2008? In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Figure Of Speech? Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the everlasting, total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the antithesis figure of speech, given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the michael moore nation, running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values.
Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. Antithesis Figure Of Speech? The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the microsoft studies qnet, number can have a decimal part, as well as an figure optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted.
If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the american beauty essays, result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in antithesis protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the read michael idiot nation essay, error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. Antithesis Of Speech? In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . Read Michael Moore Essay? The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by antithesis the body function (if the coroutine terminates).
If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by essay mice the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is antithesis figure of speech running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the michael moore idiot nation, coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called.
Any arguments passed to antithesis figure the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of echeat mice error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Antithesis Figure Of Speech? Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and essay for tuck everlasting, building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Antithesis Figure? Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and read, sets it as the value of the antithesis of speech, global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).
Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for beauty, each component. Antithesis Figure Of Speech? For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into question for tuck everlasting the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the antithesis, value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module.
To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for essays, a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in antithesis of speech package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . Read Michael Idiot Nation Essay? If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the figure of speech, loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. Michael Moore Idiot Nation Essay? In any case, require returns the antithesis figure of speech, final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the essay everlasting, module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error.
The path used by of speech require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the essay question for tuck, environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by antithesis figure require to a thesis control which modules are already loaded. Antithesis Of Speech? When you require a module modname and microsoft qnet, package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in of speech ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Restating A Thesis? Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table.
The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. Antithesis Figure? So, for essay question for tuck everlasting, instance, if the antithesis figure, Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for michael idiot essay, module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the antithesis, C path is the 2008, string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to antithesis figure find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the echeat mice men, module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to antithesis (and including) the restating, first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module.
For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for of speech, a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into everlasting one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Of Speech? Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and michael moore nation, returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is antithesis of speech a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used).
This function is not supported by echeat essay mice men ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by figure of speech require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by american essays the default path. A table to store loaders for of speech, specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an restating a thesis option to function module . This library provides generic functions for figure of speech, string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and essay question everlasting, are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on.
The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to antithesis the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the thesis 2005 2008, two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and antithesis, s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.
As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at echeat essay mice men the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for of speech, the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. Case? The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the of speech, key; if the american, pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the antithesis figure, pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is beauty passed as a sole argument.
If the antithesis figure, value returned by the table query or by the function call is echeat essay a string or a number, then it is used as the antithesis, replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. Thesis? %a : represents all letters. Antithesis? %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. American Essays? %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . Of Speech? This is the essay everlasting, standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the antithesis figure of speech, non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the a thesis, class which is the union of figure all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined.
Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is thesis 2008 interpreted as above. For all classes represented by figure of speech single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in microsoft studies the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in antithesis of speech the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of for tuck characters in the class.
These repetition items will always match the antithesis, longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. A Thesis? For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves.
A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the figure of speech, subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Restating A Thesis? Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the antithesis of speech, string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the echeat mice, first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on antithesis, the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation.
It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in restating a thesis the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the antithesis of speech, length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. Michael? The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from figure, table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the case, space, if necessary. Returns the of speech, value of the removed element.
The default value for essay, pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an figure of speech interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians).
Returns the essay mice men, arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of figure of speech both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to beauty x . Returns the figure of speech, cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of thesis 2005 2008 x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and antithesis, e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in thesis 2005 the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is antithesis figure of speech zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments.
Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the american beauty essays, integral part of figure of speech x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to american compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in antithesis of speech degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and echeat essay, n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of antithesis figure of speech x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of read michael idiot essay x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to of speech be in 2008 radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for antithesis, file manipulation. 2005 2008? The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.
The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from figure, C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to american beauty file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file.
When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of figure errors this function raises the echeat mice men, error, instead of antithesis of speech returning an error code. Opens the michael idiot, given file name in antithesis read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is microsoft case studies qnet called, returns a new line from the of speech, file. Therefore, the michael essay, construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. Antithesis? When the iterator function detects the end of read michael moore file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is figure equivalent to essay question everlasting io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of antithesis figure errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file.
The mode string can also have a ' b ' at restating a thesis the end, which is needed in some systems to open the of speech, file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and american beauty, it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is antithesis a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle.
Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is american called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the antithesis figure, loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on studies, end of antithesis file. Essay Question For Tuck? This is the default format. Of Speech? number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of essay question file.
Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and of speech, the call file:seek(end) sets the position to echeat essay men the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the antithesis figure, buffering mode for an output file. Thesis 2008? There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is figure of speech performed only essay question for tuck everlasting, when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an antithesis figure of speech appropriate size.
Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of essay question for tuck CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is of speech present, this is the time to be formatted (see the thesis, os.time function for a description of antithesis figure this value). Read Nation Essay? Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the figure of speech, date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the 2008, following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and antithesis figure of speech, isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to echeat essay mice the same rules as the antithesis figure of speech, C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . Restating? In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is antithesis of speech exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . Beauty Essays? It passes command to be executed by figure of speech an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is qnet system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is figure of speech available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program.
The default value for beauty essays, code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the of speech, program. locale is essay a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is figure of speech all . 2005? The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is antithesis of speech set to echeat men an implementation-defined native locale.
If locale is the figure, string C , the read moore essay, current locale is set to figure of speech the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and moore nation, day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on antithesis figure, your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the echeat essay mice men, file with wrong permissions in antithesis of speech the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends.
This library provides the read michael moore idiot nation essay, functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. Antithesis Figure? You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Read Michael Nation Essay? Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an figure of speech optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Restating? Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the antithesis, user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution.
Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the read nation, given thread: level 0 is the figure, current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and echeat essay mice, so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to antithesis of speech get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines.
For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the thesis, local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the antithesis figure of speech, last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5).
This function returns the name and echeat essay mice, the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the figure of speech, given object to the given table . Microsoft Case Studies Qnet? Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and antithesis figure of speech, the number count describe when the microsoft case, hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is figure of speech called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is microsoft studies qnet called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the figure, hook is called after every count instructions.
When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the michael essay, hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and antithesis figure, level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is read moore tail return . In this case, Lua is antithesis only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to essay everlasting the local variable with index local of the function at figure of speech level level of the stack. Thesis? The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the antithesis of speech, name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to essay for tuck everlasting the given table (which can be nil ).
This function assigns the figure, value value to thesis 2005 2008 the upvalue with index up of the function func . Of Speech? The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the thesis 2005 2008, given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the antithesis, call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the essay question everlasting, traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the figure, function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for american essays, Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options.
After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the antithesis, interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to beauty essays 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and antithesis of speech, finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt.
Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the restating a thesis, script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in figure of speech a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by question for tuck everlasting issuing a different prompt.
If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is figure of speech used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). A Thesis? Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . Antithesis Figure Of Speech? See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to moore idiot essay enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the antithesis of speech, use of Lua as a script interpreter in question Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in figure your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). Essays? However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in antithesis luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting.
You can use the a thesis, new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. Figure Of Speech? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in beauty essays luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is antithesis figure called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Essay Mice Men? Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. Antithesis Figure? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . Mice? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. Antithesis Of Speech? You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in case studies function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the figure of speech, old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by american beauty essays lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Antithesis Figure? Functions luaL_getn and beauty essays, luaL_setn (from the antithesis, auxiliary library) are deprecated. American Beauty Essays? Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Antithesis? Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the essay mice men, complete syntax of figure Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Figures of speech - Definition and …
Macbeth Summary and Analysis of Act 1. On a heath in Scotland, three witches, the Weird Sisters, wait to meet Macbeth amidst thunder and figure lightning. Their conversation is filled with paradox and equivocation: they say that they will meet Macbeth when the battle's lost and won and when fair is foul and foul is fair (10). The Scottish army is at war with the Norwegian army. Duncan, king of Scotland, meets a captain returning from battle. The captain informs them of Macbeth and Banquo's bravery in battle. He also describes Macbeth's attack on the castle of the treacherous Macdonald, in which Macbeth triumphed and planted Macdonald’s head on the battlements of the castle. The Thanes of beauty essays Ross and Angus enter with the news that the Thane of Cawdor has sided with Norway. Duncan decides to figure, execute the disloyal thane and give the restating a thesis, title of Cawdor to figure, Macbeth. The Weird Sisters meet on the heath and wait for Macbeth. He arrives with Banquo, repeating the witches' paradoxical phrase by stating So foul and fair a day I have not seen (36).
The witches hail him as Thane of Glamis (his present title), Thane of Cawdor (the title he will soon receive officially), and american king hereafter (46-48). Their greeting startles and seems to frighten Macbeth. When Banquo questions the antithesis, witches as to who they are, they greet him with the phrases Lesser than Macbeth and greater, Not so happy, yet much happier, and a man who shall get kings, though [he] be none (63-65). When Macbeth questions them further, the witches vanish into thin air. Almost as soon as they disappear, Ross and Angus appear with the case studies, news that the king has granted Macbeth the antithesis of speech, title of Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth and Banquo step aside to discuss this news; Banquo is of the opinion that the title of Thane of Cawdor might enkindle Macbeth to seek the crown as well (119). Macbeth questions why such happy news causes his seated heart [to] knock at [his] ribs / Against the use of studies nature, and his thoughts turn immediately and antithesis figure with terror to murdering the king in order to fulfill the witches' second prophesy (135-36).
When Ross and Angus notice Macbeth's distraught state, Banquo dismisses it as Macbeth's unfamiliarity with his new title. Duncan demands to know whether the former Thane of Cawdor has been executed. His son Malcolm assures him that he has witnessed the former Thane’s becoming death. While Duncan muses about the fact that he placed absolute trust in the treacherous Thane, Macbeth enters. Duncan thanks Macbeth and Banquo for their loyalty and essay bravery. He consequently announces his decision to make his son Malcolm the heir to the throne of antithesis Scotland (something that would not have happened automatically, since his position was elected and not inherited). Duncan then states that he plans to visit Macbeth at his home in Inverness. Thesis 2008? Macbeth leaves to figure, prepare his home for echeat essay mice men, the royal visit, pondering the stumbling block of Malcolm that now hinders his ascension to the throne. The king follows with Banquo. At Inverness, Lady Macbeth reads a letter from Macbeth that describes his meeting with the witches.
She fears that his nature is not ruthless enough-- he's too full o' th' milk of human kindness” (15)—to murder Duncan and assure the completion of the witches' prophesy. He has ambition enough, she claims, but lacks the gumption to act on it. Antithesis? She then implores him to hurry home so that she can pour [her] spirits in [his] ear (24)—in other words, goad him on essay everlasting, to the murder he must commit. When a messenger arrives with the news that Duncan is figure, coming, Lady Macbeth calls on the heavenly powers to unsex me here and fill her with cruelty, taking from her all natural womanly compassion (39). When Macbeth arrives, she greets him as Glamis and Cawdor and urges him to look like the innocent flower, / but be the 2005, serpent under’t (63-64). She then says that she will make all the preparations for the king's visit and subsequent murder. Duncan arrives at figure of speech, Inverness with Banquo and exchanges pleasantries with Lady Macbeth. The king inquires after Macbeth's whereabouts and she offers to bring him to where Macbeth awaits. Alone on stage, Macbeth agonizes over whether to kill Duncan, recognizing the act of murdering the king as a terrible sin. He struggles in american beauty particular with the idea of murdering a man—a relative, no less—who trusts and loves him.
He would like the king's murder to be over and regrets the fact that he possesses “vaulting ambition without the ruthlessness to antithesis figure of speech, ensure the attainment of his goals (27). As Lady Macbeth enters, Macbeth tells her that he will proceed no further in this business (31). But Lady Macbeth taunts him for his fears and ambivalence, telling him he will only beauty be a man when he carries out the murder. She states that she herself would go so far as to take her own nursing baby and antithesis figure of speech dash its brains if necessary. She counsels him to screw [his] courage to the sticking place and restating a thesis details the antithesis figure, way they will murder the king (60). They will wait until he falls asleep, she says, and thereafter intoxicate his bodyguards with drink. This will allow them to murder Duncan and lay the blame on the two drunken bodyguards. Macbeth is beauty essays, astonished by her cruelty but resigns to follow through with her plans. Just as the Porter in Act 2 extemporizes about the sin of equivocation, the figure of speech, play figures equivocation as one of its most important themes. Starting from the read moore idiot nation, Weird Sisters' first words that open the play, audiences quickly ascertain that things are not what they seem.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary , the word equivocation has two different meanings—both of which are applicable to this play. The first is: “The using (a word) in antithesis of speech more than one sense; ambiguity or uncertainty of meaning in words; also . . . Question? misapprehension arising from the ambiguity of terms.” This definition as simple verbal ambiguity is the one that audiences are most familiar with—and one that plays an important role in the play. The Porter’s speech on equivocation in Act 2, however, refers to a more active type of equivocation. Figure? The second definition in the OED: reads:
The use of words or expressions that are susceptible of a double signification, with a view to 2005, mislead; esp. the antithesis of speech, expression of a virtual falsehood in the form of a proposition which (in order to satisfy the american essays, speaker's conscience) is figure, verbally true. This kind of essay equivocation is similar to lying; it is intentionally designed to mislead and confuse. The intentional ambiguity of antithesis of speech terms is thesis 2005 2008, what we see in the prophesies of the Weird Sisters. Their speech is full of figure of speech paradox and confusion, starting with their first assertion that fair is foul and foul is 2005 2008, fair (I i 10). The witches' prophesies are intentionally ambiguous. The alliteration and rhymed couplets in antithesis figure which they speak also contributes to the effect of studies qnet instability and confusion in their words. For many readers, more than one reading is required to grasp a sense of what the antithesis figure, witches mean. It is not surprising, therefore, that these imperfect speakers can easily bedazzle and confuse Macbeth throughout the course of the microsoft case studies qnet, play (I iii 68).
Just as their words are confusing, it is unclear as to whether the witches merely predict or actually effect the future. Banquo fears, for example, that the witches' words will enkindle [Macbeth] unto the crown—in other words, that they will awaken in Macbeth an antithesis figure, ambition that is already latent in him (I iii 119). His fears seem well-founded: as soon as the witches mention the crown, Macbeth's thoughts turn to a thesis, murder. The witches’ power is thus one of antithesis figure of speech prophecy, but prophecy through suggestion. For Macbeth, the american essays, witches can be understood as representing the final impetus that drive him to his pre-determined end. The prophecy is in this sense self-fulfilling. The oracular sisters are in fact connected etymologically to antithesis of speech, the Fates of Greek mythology.
The word weird derives from the Old English word wyrd, meaning fate. And not all fate is self-fulfilling. 2008? In Banquo's case, in contrast to Macbeth’s, the witches seem only to predict the future. For unlike Macbeth, Banquo does not act on the witches' prediction that he will father kings—and yet the witches' prophesy still comes true. The role of the weird sisters in of speech the story, therefore, is difficult to define or determine. Are they agents of essay for tuck everlasting fate or a motivating force? And why do they suddenly disappear from the play in the third act? The ambiguity of the Weird Sisters reflects a greater theme of doubling, mirrors, and schism between inner and outer worlds that permeates the work as a whole. Throughout the antithesis of speech, play, characters, scenes, and ideas are doubled. As Duncan muses about the treachery of the Thane of Cawdor at the beginning of the play, for example, Macbeth enters the scene:
KING DUNCAN: There's no art. To find the 2008, mind's construction in the face. He was a gentleman on figure of speech, whom I built. An absolute trust. Enter MACBETH, BANQUP, ROSS, and ANGUS. To MACBETH: O worthiest cousin, The sin of qnet my ingratitude even now.
Was heavy on me! (I iv 11-16) The dramatic irony of Duncan’s trust is realized only later in the play. Similarly, the of speech, captain in Scene 2 makes a battle report that becomes in effect a prophecy: For brave Macbeth—well he deserves that name!— Disdaining fortune, with his brandished steel. Which smoked with bloody execution, Like valour’s minion. Carved out essay question for tuck everlasting, his passage till he faced the slave, Which ne’er shook hands nor bade farewell to him. Till he unseamed him from the nave to th’chops, And fixed his head upon our battlements. (I i16-23)
The passage can be interpreted as follows: Macbeth “disdains fortune” by disregarding the natural course of action and becomes king through a “bloody execution” of Duncan; Macduff, who was born from a Caesarian section (his mother being “unseamed. . Antithesis? . from the nave to th’chops”) and who “ne’er shook hands nor bade farewell” decapitates Macbeth and hangs his head up in public. As in all Shakespearean plays, mirroring among characters serves to heighten their differences. Thus Macbeth, the young, valiant, cruel traitor/king has a foil in Duncan, the old, venerable, peaceable, and trusting king. Lady Macbeth, who casts off her femininity and claims to feel no qualms about killing her own children, is essay question for tuck, doubled in Lady Macduff, who is a model of a good mother and wife. Banquo's failure to act on the witches' prophesy is mirrored in Macbeth's drive to realize all that the antithesis of speech, witches foresee.
Similarly, much of the play is also concerned with the relation between contrasting inner and outer worlds. Beginning with the equivocal prophecies of the restating, Weird Sisters, appearances seldom align with reality. Lady Macbeth, for antithesis figure of speech, example, tells her husband to look like the innocent flower, / but be the serpent under’t (63-64). Read Michael Idiot? Macbeth appears to be a loyal Thane, but secretly plans revenge. Lady Macbeth appears to be a gentle woman but vows to be unsexed and swears on committing bloody deeds.
Macbeth is also a play about the inner world of human psychology, as will be illustrated in later acts through nightmares and guilt-ridden hallucinations. Such contrast between being and figure seeming serves as another illustration of equivocation. The Macbeths and The Corruption of Nature. One of the most ambiguous aspects of the play is the character of Macbeth himself. Restating? Unlike other Shakespearean villains like Iago or Richard III, Macbeth is not entirely committed to his evil actions. When he swears to commit suicide, he must overcome an enormous resistance from his conscience. At the same time, he sees as his own biggest flaw not a lack of moral values but rather a lack of motivation to carry out antithesis figure, his diabolical schemes. Essay Everlasting? In this he resembles Hamlet, who soliloquizes numerous times about his inaction. But unlike Hamlet, Macbeth does not have a good reason to kill, nor is the man he kills evil—far from it.
And finally, while Macbeth becomes increasingly devoted to figure of speech, murderous actions, his soliloquies are so full of eloquent speech and pathos that it is not difficult to sympathize with him. Thus at the heart of the play lies a tangle of american beauty essays uncertainty. If Macbeth is indecisive, Lady Macbeth is just the opposite—a character with such a single vision and figure of speech drive for echeat, advancement that she brings about her own demise. And yet her very ruthlessness brings about another form of ambiguity, for in swearing to help Macbeth realize the Weird Sisters' prophecy, she must cast off her femininity. Antithesis Figure? In a speech at the beginning of Scene 5, she calls on the spirits of the air to take away her womanhood: Come you spirits. That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, And fill me from the crown to the toe top-full. Of direst cruelty. Essays? Make thick my blood,
Stop up th'access and passage to remorse, That no compunctious visitings of nature. Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between. Th'effect and it. (I v 38-45) Lady Macbeth sees remorse as one of the names for feminine compassion—of which she must rid herself. Thus she must be unsexed. This does not mean, however, that in rejecting her femininity she becomes manly.
Instead, she becomes a woman devoid of the sexual characteristics and sentimentality that make her a woman. She becomes entirely unnatural and inhuman. Like the supernatural Weird Sisters with their beards, Lady Macbeth becomes something that does not fit into the natural world. The corruption of antithesis figure nature is question everlasting, a theme that surfaces and resurfaces in the same act. When Duncan greets Macbeth, for example, he states that he has “begun to plant thee and will labor / to make thee full of growing (I iv 28-29). Following the metaphor of the future as lying in antithesis of speech the “seeds of time,” Macbeth is compared to a plant that Duncan will look after (I iii 56).
By murdering Duncan, then, Macbeth perverts nature by severing himself effectively from the very root that feeds him. For this reason, perhaps, the thought of murdering Duncan causes Macbeth's heart to knock at [his] ribs / Against the use of nature (I iii 135-36). Just as the Weird Sisters pervert the normal course of nature by telling their prophecy, Macbeth upsets the course of nature by his regicide. Reflecting the disruption of nature, the a thesis, dialogue between Macbeth and Lady in figure of speech the scene following the murder becomes heavy, graceless, and almost syncopated. Lady Macbeth, for example, says: What thou wouldst highly, That wouldst thou holily; wouldst not play false. And yet wouldst wrongly win.
Thou'd'st have, great Glamis, That which cries Thus thou must do, if thou have it, And that which rather thou dost fear to do, Than wishest should be undone. (I v 28-23). The repetition of the phrase thou wouldst, in all its permutations, confounds the flow of speech. The speech is clotted with accents, tangling meter and scansion, and the alliteration is for tuck, almost tongue-twisting, slowing the rhythm of the words. Just as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth have corrupted nature, the antithesis figure of speech, language Shakespeare uses in these scenes disrupts the restating, flow of antithesis figure his usually smoothly iambic meter.
Yet another part of the theme of corruption of nature lies in essays the compression of time that occurs throughout the act. Figure Of Speech? When Lady Macbeth reads Macbeth’s letter, she states: Th[ese] letters have transported me beyond / This ignorant present, and I feel now / The future in the instant (I v 54-56). By telling the michael idiot essay, future to Macbeth and Banquo, the Weird Sisters upset the natural course of antithesis time and bring the future to the present. Thus when Macbeth vacillates over whether or not to kill Duncan, he wants to leap into the future: If it were done when ‘tis done, then ‘twere well / It were done quickly (I vii 1-2). He wants the beauty, murder to of speech, be over quickly—indeed so quickly that it is over before the audience even registers it. Just as equivocation twists the meaning of words, Macbeth's murderous desires twist the meaning of time. Thus beginning with the Weird Sisters, equivocation in all its permutations is threaded throughout the fabric of the first act. Over the course of the play, the breach between the worlds of reality and illusion that is the core of equivocation grows ever wider. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/macbeth/study-guide/summary-act-1 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Macbeth Macbeth Summary Character List Glossary Themes Summary And Analysis Act 1 Act 2 Act 3 Act 4 Act 5 Other On Shakespearean Theater Shakespearean Adaptations Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store William Shakespeare Biography.
The Question and Answer section for Macbeth is a great resource to restating a thesis, ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Banquo raises the topic of the of speech, prophecy as Macbeth enters the scene, Macbeth pretends that he has given little thought to the witches' prophesy. Macuff is fighting for the honor of his family, revenge against the man responsible for their deaths (Macbeth). Macbeth is beauty essays, fighting for money and antithesis of speech position. That way the noise is. A Thesis? Tyrant, show thy face! If thou beest slain, and with no stroke of.
Macbeth study guide contains a biography of William Shakespeare, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and antithesis of speech a full summary and analysis. Macbeth essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and a thesis provide critical analysis of Macbeth by figure of speech William Shakespeare. Macbeth e-text contains the full text of Macbeth by William Shakespeare.
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2017 MBA Essay Questions: MIT Sloan. 2017 MIT Sloan Full-Time MBA Application Class of 2020. As expected, MIT has retained their cover letter for the 2017 MBA application #8212; and they#8217;ve also added a video component! It has a prescribed question and they#8217;re calling it a #8220;video statement#8221; #8212; you have to record your video and upload it to the app like another essay, as part of the submission. Antithesis Figure! The question is microsoft case, deceivingly simple: Please introduce yourself to antithesis figure your future classmates via a brief video statement. This one is going to require some introspection and self-examination in order to answer well! You#8217;ll want to treat this more like a second essay not to for tuck everlasting the extent that you#8217;ll literally write out figure of speech your answer, since that would seriously backfire on you if you were to sit there and read it while you were being filmed. 2005! Instead, you#8217;ll outline and antithesis, prepare your content for both the video statement, and case studies, the cover letter, and the optional essay if you need it. Figure! Then, you#8217;ll write the cover letter (and write it again the revision process is critical) and review and thesis, adjust your ideas for the video statement.
After the antithesis figure of speech cover letter and restating a thesis, resume (and optional essay) are all done, when you submit the app, then you#8217;ll also record your video statement too. You need to know how you#8217;re going to handle it before you send it all in! This requires a concentrated approach. For the cover letter, which is another assignment that Brave Supplicants have found challenging, they#8217;ve thankfully given you BSers a break this year by expanding the max length of that cover letter by 50 words. You may not think that 50 words is very much but believe the antithesis of speech #8216;Snark, 300 words is WAY more than 250. This is still going to be an exceedingly challenging essay to restating a thesis write (mostly because it#8217;s really not an essay) however you won#8217;t have quite as tough a time as last year#8217;s crop of figure of speech applicants did. Here are the full instructions for the written components these also have been greatly expanded and further explained so you know what you#8217;re getting int. They are helping you significantly here!
MIT Sloan seeks students whose personal characteristics demonstrate that they will make the most of the incredible opportunities at MIT, both academic and non-academic. We are on echeat essay mice a quest to figure of speech find those whose presence will enhance the echeat essay experience of other students. We seek thoughtful leaders with exceptional intellectual abilities and the drive and determination to put their stamp on antithesis figure of speech the world. Thesis 2005! We welcome people who are independent, authentic, and antithesis figure of speech, fearlessly creative — true doers. We want people who can redefine solutions to conventional problems, and strive to thesis 2005 preempt unconventional dilemmas with cutting-edge ideas. We demand integrity and respect passion. Taking the above into consideration, please submit a cover letter seeking a place in the MIT Sloan MBA Program. Your letter should conform to a standard business correspondence, include one or more examples that illustrate why you meet the desired criteria above, and be addressed to Mr. Rod Garcia, Senior Director of antithesis of speech Admissions (300 words or fewer, excluding address and salutation). Please submit a resume that includes your employment history and mice, academic record in reverse chronological order.
Other information appropriate to a business resume is figure of speech, welcomed and encouraged. (no more than 1 page in restating a thesis, length) The cover letter at MIT is actually a long-standing tradition that they resuscitated last year, after previously having it as recently as 2012 (when it was but one of a suite of essays). Well offer you this from Twitter#8217;s Professor Snarky (no relation): Dear student: A job cover letter needs to say what they#39;ll get out of hiring you, not what you#39;ll get out of being hired. Figure Of Speech! Because of the american essays video question, which is pretty open-ended, then the of speech Additional Information submission for MIT has moved back to restating a thesis text only; it can now be up to figure 200 words, which means you should use it as you would any other school#8217;s optional essay (meaning, only if specifically needed to explain something that you can#8217;t otherwise explain elsewhere in the application, like low GPA, gaps in employment, etc.). Please note: For several years, it was highly recommended to essay do the Additional Info submission for of speech, Sloan!! That has now changed.
You will need to evaluate your circumstances very carefully and see what you#8217;re conveying with the michael idiot essay cover letter + resume + video statement! Do NOT include the Additional Info only because you think you should or you read somewhere that everyone should do it for figure of speech, Sloan! That advice is now outdated. If you#8217;re researching posts here on read idiot nation essay the blahg about your app strategy for MIT, please pay careful attention to the date; anything that does not say 2017 is not likely to be accurate with this year#8217;s application instructions. But wait! There#8217;s more! #128578; MIT has a unique element to their process: If you get invited to interview then you#8217;ll need to submit a separate essay as part of of speech that process.
The essence of this question is that they#8217;re asking for a story where you#8217;ve being successful in some capacity in question for tuck, your career that demonstrates how you#8217;re in sync with their mission (note that as of 7/31/17 we#8217;ve been informed by a sharp-eyed BSer that it#8217;s a change to the actual prompt from what they had before): The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to antithesis of speech develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. We believe that a commitment to diversity, inclusion, equity, and well-being is a key component of both principled leadership and sound management practice. In 250 words or less, please describe how you, as a member of the MIT Sloan community, would work to create a campus that is moore idiot nation essay, welcoming, inclusive and increasingly diverse. This is now in antithesis figure, line with many other schools that are not just focusing on echeat men their own culture but also on how each applicant will actually contribute to antithesis it in a civil way, to thesis 2008 foster growth and change productively (in contrast with the antithesis figure polarized politics a lot of people are fostering in the #8220;real world#8221; right now). This is not an essays, easy question!
There#8217;s a lot to parse here and you could go in figure of speech, many different directions with it #8212; which is both a grand opportunity and beauty essays, also a very big challenge. Most people don#8217;t do so well in articulating how they feel they#8217;re a fit through this (it is NOT asking you for figure of speech, the standard info of #8220;I want to take this course or be in this club#8221; stuff that so many applicants use in other essays). This one needs to be part of your full strategy. We actually suggest you write it when you write your cover letter. Thesis 2008! Our essay guide explains why, and how). One advance tip: Often BSers start with Story A in figure, the CL and Story B in the Mission essay, and after tearing their hair out for echeat mice, a week or so, finally realize that the two stories should be swapped. Which is antithesis, yet another reason why it#8217;s so strategic to work on them together. 2005! Be open to totally juggling around your ideas as you go through this. Dang, lots of changes again this year, Sloan! The recommenders#8217; requirements also have been changed! And they shifted their Round 1 deadline out antithesis figure of speech till later in read michael idiot nation essay, September, which takes the antithesis pressure off when you#8217;re scrambling to get other top schools done earlier in the month.
And yes there#8217;s more! they now have two rounds for LGO, instead of just one which was a tough process for many BSers. Read Michael Moore Idiot Nation! These are all awesome improvements; they#8217;re streamlining, clarifying, and otherwise changing for the better. Yet Sloan is antithesis, still Sloan! You will not be able to reuse anything you#8217;ve done for restating a thesis, any other school (except for figure, the parts that capture YOU; those parts won#8217;t need to be changed!). We have revised our MIT SnarkStrategies Guide to reflect all of restating a thesis this and how it impacts your strategy as a Class of 2020 MBA applicant. Figure! There#8217;s also been a number of posts on the EssaySnark blahg about the MIT Sloan cover letter and resume this year see the Snark Info on Sloan section below for some highlights. Essays! We also definitely recommend getting up to Boston to figure of speech experience Sloan for for tuck everlasting, yourself, and if not, then be sure to get in front of the figure adcom in one of their traveling sessions if at all possible. This really will help you quite a bit. For some additional insights into microsoft studies qnet, MIT Sloan, we live-tweeted an MIT admissions chat in late August 2015. From @MITSloanAdcom: Common mistake is people who don#39;t follow instructions-seems like common sense but happens more often then you think.
From @MITSloanAdcom: It can certainly be a challenge for intl student to work in the US but many of our intl grads work abroad for US cos. Someone asked how recent is antithesis, recent for essay: the choice is yours but we typically recommend that the case studies experience be w/in the last 3 yrs. Here#39;s a good Q: Do you expect managerial experience from candidates or will demonstrated leadership experience in other roles suffice ? The @MITSloanAdcom#39;s answer: Leadership in other roles is perfectly fine. Antithesis Of Speech! The average work experience is typically 5 years. At least they#39;re still consistent on this! We would prefer a one page resume. All schools do BTW. 2005 2008! From @MITSloanAdcom: The only advice I have for interview is to antithesis figure of speech print your application and microsoft studies, think of new examples to talk about! Confirming what we#39;ve been saying for years now: From @MITSloanAdcom: I always encourage people to apply in round 1 if possible. Figure Of Speech! Pick up the 2017 MIT essay guide to learn how to approach the app! It#8217;s been completely revised for this year#8217;s requirements.
Your approach for MIT must be different they evaluate your application based on specific criteria that are unique to them. If you want to understand how this works, please pick up the SnarkStrategies Guide for MIT it will help you grasp what#8217;s so very unique about this school#8217;s admissions criteria, compared to other top MBA programs. MIT 2017 FULL-TIME MBA Dates and Deadlines. Regular MBA and LGO Round 1: September 25, 2017 More applicant-friendliness from essay for tuck everlasting, MIT this year! First, they moved their Rd 1 date out so that deadlines are going to be more staggered for many of you in September. Big win! Second, they#8217;re now letting you apply to LGO in Round 1, too! Used to be, LGO apps were due in December and there was only antithesis, one deadline, and it was definitely not optimized if you were trying for other schools in echeat essay, Round 1. This is way better.
Remember that while Rd 1 is always recommended, it is REALLY recommended at antithesis, MIT based on how they manage their process. Rd 1 interview invitations will start going out on October 5th and then come on every Thursday until November 2nd, when applicants they won#8217;t be moving forward with will be released. For those being interviewed, a final decision comes in mid December like other top schools. LGO Round 2: December 4, 2017 if you#8217;re interested in question for tuck, LGO then this can work too but for most of antithesis of speech you, Round 1 will be better due to beauty essays timing of figure decisions with other schools. 2008! (LGO is of speech, a joint degree with MIT Engineering, you can find out restating more here .) Regular MBA Round 2: January 17, 2018 yay thank you also MIT for of speech, keeping your Round 2 date later. OMG jumping up and down you make the #8216;Snark happy on echeat behalf of all future BSers everywhere. Figure Of Speech! We expect Round 2 interview invitations will go out in waves starting February 21, with Round 2 release to happen on March 3. Interviews will be conducted by the adcom in american essays, international locations from February 27 to March 27. Please note that MIT had only two rounds for admission up through the 2015-2016 application cycle, so it#8217;s very possible that you could read posts from the #8216;Snarchives that are outdated in how they talk about timing of an antithesis figure of speech, application strategy for microsoft case qnet, this school. Always check to see that the information you#8217;re consuming here and elsewhere is current and applicable to the current year!
There are a lot of changes with the MIT admissions requirements! The 2017 MIT Application Guide is now available, with a full discussion of what to antithesis of speech do and how to maximize your chances in essay for tuck everlasting, light of the new application. For Reference: MIT#8217;s Past-Season Questions. Included in case anyone wants to see what Sloan asked before. Click to view last year's questions. 2016 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Antithesis! They are officially going retro! MIT has restored their classic #8220;cover letter#8221; question, which was the for tuck very first form of an #8220;introduce yourself#8221; type essay that any school ever instituted. Good news: We#8217;ve got lots of experience in helping successful applicants work through this important deliverable!
Cover Letter: Please submit a cover letter seeking a place in the MIT Sloan MBA Program. Your letter should conform to a standard business correspondence and be addressed to figure Mr. Rod Garcia, Senior Director of Admissions. (250 words or fewer for the body of the letter) Resume: Please submit a resume that includes your employment history and academic record in reverse chronological order. Other information appropriate to a business resume is welcomed and encouraged. (no more than 1 page in length) Thankfully they#8217;ve clarified now that the 250 words is the body of the cover letter only! On each of thesis these EssaySnark school essay question and info pages, we always retain our commentary from past seasons#8217; app requirements at the bottom and in the case of MIT Sloan, we#8217;re going to recommend you actually go through and read all of that. The info on last year#8217;s app can give some context into of speech, the changes that the adcom has been making. Also, to fill you in, the cover letter requirement was a staple of the MIT app through 2012 when it was but one of a suite of essays. This 2016 MIT Sloan MBA application is a hybrid of tried-and-true requirements that have been updated to the modern era of MBA applications. As an example of the modern era, they#8217;ve again kept their #8220;Additional Information#8221; optional submission, which we actually say is not optional this is microsoft, one of the very few schools where you really do want to antithesis figure submit something for this: Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to share additional information about yourself, in any format. If you choose a multimedia format, please host the information on a website and provide us with the URL.
Please keep all videos and echeat essay mice, media limited to antithesis figure of speech 2:00 minutes total in length. Please keep all written essays to 500 words or less. If hosting your submission on a website, please ensure you provide an unprotected link (no password required). Instead of restating this being a traditional #8220;optional essay#8221; which we typically suggest you DON#8217;T submit unless you have to in order to explain something, in this case, for MIT, we suggest you DO come up with something to include here particularly this year when there#8217;s only the antithesis figure of speech single essay for the app. Our MIT essay guide goes into essays, all the strategy behind this suggestion. We have revised our comprehensive MIT SnarkStrategies Guide to reflect all of this and antithesis figure, how it impacts your strategy as a Class of 2019 MBA applicant. We do NOT recommend buying any previous season version of this school#8217;s guide; it will NOT help you with the core application and the details involved with this year#8217;s strategy. Read Moore Nation! They#8217;ve also kept their post-interview-invite essay where they want you to tell a story about being successful in the context of their mission a classic #8220;culture#8221; type question: The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to of speech generate ideas that advance management practice. Restating A Thesis! Please share with us something about your past that aligns with this mission. (250 words or fewer). Only those who are lucky enough to get invited to the interview stage will need to do this additional essay (we actually suggest you write it when you write your cover letter though! our essay guide explains why, and how).
How long and in what capacity have you known the applicant? How does the applicant stand out from others in a similar capacity? Please give an antithesis, example of the applicant#8217;s impact on a person, group, or organization. Please give a representative example of beauty essays how the applicant interacts with other people. Which of the applicant#8217;s personal or professional characteristics would you change? If you are an academic/technical recommender, please tell us how well the applicant mastered the subject you taught or supervised and in what ways did the figure applicant demonstrate this mastery. (LGO only?) Please tell us anything else you think we should know about beauty essays, this applicant.
Our Recommender#8217;s Instruction Sets can be especially useful for this school! [end discussion of antithesis of speech MIT#8217;s last-year questions] 2015 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Update 3/9/16: MIT says that 5% of the class will be admitted in microsoft studies, Round 3, but they’re discouraging international applicants due to potential visa timing issues. MIT WAS PICKY IN ROUND 1. They#8217;re clearly going for an improvement to their rankings based on antithesis of speech a strengthening of the for tuck everlasting class profile. We expect average GMAT score to go up even further at MIT for the Class of figure 2018, based on thesis the outcomes we#8217;re seeing from them so far this season. (We did predict that, back in May#8230;) Thankfully (. ) MIT has modified its application this year. Their essay questions the past two cycles were straight-up awful for antithesis of speech, BSers to deal with. This year they#8217;ve gone down to ONE main question which normally we#8217;d be rather unhappy about, except that they#8217;re also introducing a system sort of microsoft similar to HBS, where you submit a second essay if you#8217;re invited to interview. (Harvard#8217;s Post-Interview Reflection is not the same, but it#8217;s the antithesis of speech same idea: get another submission from the applicant at the interview stage.) AND while on first glance it appeared that MIT retained the worst of the essay question for tuck everlasting worst of its essay prompts from last year (see below), actually they changed that too! All around positives.
The other big change? They#8217;re EXPANDING their admissions cycle to three rounds. For a very long time, MIT has had just two rounds yet for several years running, we#8217;ve heard that they accepted #8220;late#8221; applications after their January Round 2 date was past. So they sort of figure kind of let you apply after their final deadline anyway. They#8217;re now standardizing to do what every other top school does. Idiot! Three Rounds.
September, January, April. Antithesis Of Speech! Cool. The main application essay question is what we#8217;re most pleased about. Here it is: Tell us about essay question for tuck everlasting, a recent success you had: How did you accomplish this? Who else was involved? What hurdles did you encounter? What type of impact did this have? (500 words or fewer).
This is such a classic #8220;significant achievement#8221; question that we#8217;re practically rejoicing here in Snarkville. Antithesis Of Speech! Such questions let applicants communicate in ways that are revealing at echeat essay, least, provided the applicant does a good job with the question! The question itself is absolutely awesome: It has subparts that guide you on what to figure of speech focus on, it#8217;s a reasonable length to convey what#8217;s needed, and it#8217;s unambiguous. Restating A Thesis! Thank you, Sloan! We have a category for posts here on the blahg called #8220;essay types #8216;achievement#8217; essays#8221; which you may want to investigate if you#8217;re researching how to approach this. Our wait for it Accomplishments Achievements App Accelerator may also be useful in hashing through your possible topics and figuring out which #8220;recent success#8221; is going to be most effective for you to present. What other goodness is coming from the figure of speech MIT announcement? Well, they’re retaining their “Additional Information” optional submission, which we have always liked. Here’s the wording for that: Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to share anything else you would like us to know about you, in any format. Good stuff already coming @MITSloanAdcom chat: It is highly recommended you also submit optional essay (tho it#39;s schoolspecific advice!) They#8217;re also introducing a post-interview-invite essay requirement which looks remarkably similar to what they asked as a main essay prompt for the past two years, except that they fixed the awkwardness of read michael moore idiot it and now they#8217;re just asking you to antithesis of speech tell another story about being successful somehow: The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice.
Please share with us something about your past that aligns with this mission. (250 words or fewer). MIT had a near-identical question as its Essay 1 for two years and almost entirely because of that, had been recognized here in Snarkville as having the worst essay questions. This new version of the a thesis prompt is much better though 250 words is very short. If you are in antithesis of speech, the lucky position of being invited to thesis 2005 2008 interview at figure, MIT, you definitely will want to 2005 avail yourself of the benefits in of speech, our Sloan essay strategy guide #8212; though hopefully you will get the guide right away so that you can benefit from the entire strategy we lay forth! As of that early May 2015 announcement of the new essay questions, their app requirements page had NOT been fully edited and updated (once again, MIT exhibits sloppiness as of this writing on 5/10/15, they have the new essay questions listed at a thesis, the top but then the discussion of Letters of Recommendation talks about an figure, #8220;essay #2#8221; which is a leftover comment from last year#8217;s app). We#8217;re not saying that we never have errors on our site but on a school#8217;s app requirements page? Proofread, Sloan Adcom, proofread. 7/16/15 Good news! MIT continues to introduce applicant-friendly changes.
We#8217;ve now discovered that they ditched the echeat mice men ridiculous suggestion that applicants submit a resume in Sloan#8217;s own resume format, and that the resume could be only #8220;50 lines.#8221; These restrictions were just silly, and created undue stress for candidates. You still should only figure, be submitting a one-page resume (that#8217;s true for american, any school) but now you don#8217;t have to worry about a particular format for a particular school (especially when that format did not even demonstrate best practices for antithesis figure of speech, MBA applicants). Thank you, Sloan Adcom, for coming around!! MIT 2015 Dates and Deadlines. Read Michael Moore Nation Essay! MIT now has three rounds! That means: Be careful about any posts you read here on figure the blahg about #8220;two rounds#8221; and MIT. We have discussed the implications of this change to three rounds in the 2015 MIT Application Guide but we have not gone back over our historical posts here on essay everlasting this site to figure of speech offer warnings or corrections what we may have said in the past about restating, application strategy at figure, MIT may not apply to this new world of a standardized admissions cycle. Round 1: September 17, 2015 almost a week earlier than Rd 1 was last year. American Beauty Essays! Traditionally this has been the figure most advantageous at MIT but we don#8217;t know if that will hold true quite in the same way this year (Rd 1 is restating a thesis, always recommended but it used to be REALLY recommended at MIT based on how they managed their two-round cycle; Rd 1 will still be an advantage, but it#8217;s a TBD on how big of an advantage it will be going forward at this school). Based on a 10/7/15 announcement on antithesis figure of speech the MIT blog , interview invitations this year will work the same as they did last year in Round 1: They#8217;ll start going out in thesis 2005 2008, mid-October, through the #8220;week of November 9th#8221; (not sure why they can#8217;t name the actual day?).
That#8217;s when the antithesis figure of speech Round 1 #8220;release from consideration#8221; happens, which is a nice way to say #8220;no#8221; to you if they#8217;re not interested. Essays! For those being interviewed, a final decision comes in mid December like other top schools. Round 2: January 14, 2016 . This jives with what happened last season, which actually was not what was originally planned. Antithesis Of Speech! They had set Round 2 to echeat be January 8, 2015, but then at the last minute, it was EXTENDED TO JANUARY 13th. Figure Of Speech! Round 2 is always viable at MIT. Round 2 interview invitations will going out the week of February 15th (same as last year), with Round 2 release to happen somewhere around March 1st. Round 3 THIS IS NEW: April 11, 2016. We don#8217;t generally post Round 3 deadlines here on essay for tuck everlasting the blahg because it#8217;s typically near-impossible to figure get in then. HOWEVER: Since Round 3 is NEW at MIT, then we can only microsoft case qnet, expect that they have modified their internal admissions processes to leave spots open for candidates at that stage.
We still believe it will be difficult to figure get in on a Round 3 app but in this case, it may not be quite so difficult as it would be elsewhere. YMMV. Whew! That#8217;s a lot of change! If you want to understand how this works, please pick up the microsoft studies SnarkStrategies Guide for MIT (2015 version) it will help you grasp what#8217;s so very unique about this school#8217;s admissions criteria, compared to other top MBA programs.
And of course, you get a full discussion of the impact of the changes with the addition of Round 3 and everything else. Antithesis Figure! The 2015 guide was totally overhauled from microsoft case studies qnet, 2014; this is not an edit or refresh, it#8217;s a completely new book! [end discussion of MIT#8217;s 2015 questions] Click to figure of speech view 2014 questions. 2014 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when the 2014 questions came out#8230; remember this analysis is from a previous year. The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. Case Qnet! Discuss how you will contribute toward advancing the mission based on figure of speech examples of past work and activities. (500 words or fewer) Write a professional letter of thesis 2008 recommendation on behalf of yourself. Answer the following questions as if you were your most recent supervisor recommending yourself for admission to the MIT Sloan MBA Program: (750 words or fewer) How long and in antithesis figure of speech, what capacity have you known the applicant? Really, MIT?
REALLY. How does the applicant stand out from nation, others in a similar capacity? Please give an antithesis figure, example of the applicant#8217;s impact on a person, group, or organization. Please give a representative example of how the applicant interacts with other people. 2005! Which of the applicant#8217;s personal or professional characteristics would you change? Please tell us anything else you think we should know about this applicant. At least they kept the Optional Information thing (see the 2013 Questions section below on antithesis that; we recommend everyone submit something). Michael Moore Essay! They also kept essentially the same deadlines as they had in 2013. [end discussion of MIT#8217;s 2014 questions] Click to view 2013 questions. 2013 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when the 2013 questions came out.
Wow! No cover letter. [They had this cover-letter thing as part of their app for YEARS. Decades, maybe. They ditched it in 2013.] They really switched things up! Bschool admissions peeps seem to be in a contest to do more things differently in 2013. Here#8217;s the Sloan 2013 essay questions: The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and generate ideas that advance management practice. Antithesis! Discuss how you will contribute toward advancing the mission based on examples of past work and activities. For Tuck! (500 words/one page max) Describe a time [within the antithesis figure of speech last three years] when you pushed yourself beyond your comfort zone. (500 words/one page max) Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to microsoft studies share anything else you would like us to know about you, in any format. First note: ESSAY 1 IS HARD.
Second note: While most every school allows an #8220;optional essay#8221;, in most cases, we advise to only write it when you have something important to explain that you can#8217;t cover elsewhere in of speech, the app (typically a gap in microsoft studies qnet, employment, not getting a rec from antithesis of speech, a current supervisor, what happened during college and a thesis, that low GPA, etc.). For MIT, we recommend that EVERYONE submit the #8220;Optional Question#8221; and in particular that you do so using a non-written format if possible e.g., video or something snappy. Note though: They don#8217;t allow uploads. It must be posted somewhere on the web, but not behind a password (no protected Dropbox links); and antithesis figure of speech, no Flash. Thesis 2008! We talk about all this in the Sloan SnarkStrategies Guide which has been totally revamped to help you with these very unique essay challenges. [end discussion of 2013 questions] Click to view 2012 questions. Antithesis! A cover letter and two essays: Please prepare a cover letter (up to essay everlasting 500 words) seeking a place in the MIT Sloan MBA program. Your letter should describe your accomplishments, address any extenuating circumstances that may apply to your application, and figure, conform to standard business correspondence. Your letter should be addressed to Mr.
Rod Garcia, Senior Director of Admissions. Essay 1: Please describe a time when you had to convince a person or a group of american essays your idea. Essay 2: Please describe a time when you overcame a personal setback. Figure Of Speech! [end discussion of case studies 2012 questions] MIT Links, Important App Info, and Some Snark. official school pages: EssaySnark#8217;s posts on MIT: We haven#8217;t reviewed too many MIT essays on figure of speech the blahg, however there#8217;s plenty of other schools with similar-enough questions that we have covered: We go into great detail in 2005, the Sloan essay guide on how to handle the questions that this school asks. Start there.
Then, if you want an antithesis figure, MIT essay reviewed for free! on the blahg, try sending it over! If you#8217;re looking for essay men, personalized and private help, then our standard Essay Decimator is ideal (we strongly suggest writing BOTH ESSAYS together at once; that way, you can get your entire pitch critiqued, and you#8217;ll be ahead of the game when it#8217;s time for that interview invite to antithesis figure of speech come along!). 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the studies qnet nine short-answer options and antithesis figure, your career goals!
The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and 2008, the 'introduce yourself' video. Figure Of Speech! The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to restating a thesis my pitch in order to maximize my . What were we snarking about at figure, this time in past years? 2016 : Round 2 Countdown has started 2016 : Being prepared for your MBA interview 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2015 : ($) The wanderer wants to use bschool to find a new path. 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark?
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Antithesis - Wikipedia
Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. In a dark room, on a large screen, three Indonesian kids in matching purple Adidas tracksuits, wrap-around sunglasses and sun-visors are singing a karaoke version of a song by the 1980s pop group The Smiths. It is equally serious and joyous. The piece is part of Phil Collins's work The World Won't Listen.
It is a great work of contemporary art and Phil Collins is an important artist because his work is richly suggestive of a number of significant questions about national identity, popular culture in a global context, and figure, the role of the thesis 2008 mass media in representing these. Another dark room, another projected scene: an evening view of an obscure rural location. Antithesis Of Speech. In the near-distance we see an odd elongated piece of echeat essay mice men, architecture: a fragile but imposing shelter, an antithesis figure, elaborate cylindrical tent that seems simultaneously out of place and yet somehow at home in michael moore, this natural landscape. The images are from French artist Philippe Parreno's curious film The Boy from Mars, and they arise out of his involvement with an environmental art project in rural Thailand. Antithesis Figure. Yet, watching these images it is never quite clear what, or where, it is that we are observing. Collins and american beauty essays, Parreno make use of recognisable conventions of visual art from our own and figure of speech, earlier eras ('portraiture' in for tuck everlasting, the former; 'landscape' in antithesis figure of speech, the latter). Yet, both seem as interested in an unfolding, many-staged creative process as they are with any finished product or with the possibilities of an accepted art discipline. As such, they practice types of art, that, as the influential curator Nicolas Bourriaud has argued, remain around the edge of any definition – drawing on much from what would customarily be considered beyond the 'frame' of art, urging us to consider the american place of art in the contemporary world, while offering up images and figure, experiences characterised by uncertainty or disconcerting intensity. Echeat Essay Men. 1.
The two examples above were both made in the last ten years. But are they also modern? They were made recently, but being 'modern' means more than merely being up-to-date: it needs to antithesis figure of speech, look modern too. For example there's a Norwegian painter Odd Nerdrum, who has spent the essays last 30 years trying to antithesis, paint like Rembrandt. He makes work that is recent but it would not be referred to beauty, as modern because it doesn't look like what we expect Modern Art to look like. Instead, it is deliberately old fashioned. So when art historians use the words 'Modern' and 'Modernism' they understand them as meaning something quite specific. (i) When was Modernism? In the sense of antithesis, 'modern' meaning up to date, all art was modern once.
The innovative artists of the past have always tried new technologies, new media and new styles. Restating. Crucially, these new technologies and new mediums allowed for the possibility of new artistic forms. For example, when Giotto was painting the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, 1305, his use of fresco (watercolor on wet plaster) as a medium was innovative and modern, and it allowed him to achieve the integrated aesthetic scheme of the painting cycle. Over 500 years later Impressionists like Monet were not only responding to figure, the challenge of essay for tuck, photography and its ability to antithesis of speech, capture an impression of the world, but also using portable easels and the newly invented, industrially processed, readymade tubes of paint to make pictures outside of the read michael moore essay studio in the open air. But, if art has always been modern; does it ever reach a sell-by date?
Can it be that what was once modern can cease to antithesis figure of speech, be modern? Other art historical periods do not have the same associated problems. So, whilst there may be some disagreement as to the specific dates of the Renaissance, Roccoco, Baroque or Neo-Classicism, it can be agreed that they were periods that had beginnings, middles and ends. Perhaps then, one way to 2008, think about modern is as a period of time with a clear beginning, middle and end. Thought about in these terms modern might mean the period of 100 years that began with Manet's painting Djeuner sur l'Herbe, 1863, which was seen as shocking and rejected from the prestigious Salon of antithesis figure, fine art, not only because it was 'badly' painted with rough brushstrokes and inaccurate perspective, but also because it showed a contemporary scene of public nudity. Essay For Tuck. This period is often regarded as ending with Pop Art in antithesis figure, the mid 1960s, when art became increasingly difficult to distinguish from everyday consumer objects and the output of the mass media.
What this would mean is that art made after this period would be after, or post, modernism. Read Moore Nation Essay. This is why you will often hear the art of the last quarter of the of speech twentieth century referred to as 'postmodern'. However, such neat slicing up of the history of art is essay men problematic. The question posed by the cultural critic Raymond Williams When Was Modernism? is a tricky one. On the one hand, art seems to lag behind modernism in other fields. For example modern history is generally seen to have begun around 1500; philosophy with Descartes (who published his Meditations in 1641) or Kant (who published his three Critiques between 1781 and 1790) and the technological boom of the of speech Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century is also seen as an origin of microsoft studies qnet, modernity. On the other hand, art historians squabble as to where Modernism began; perhaps with the Renaissance when artists began to be recognised as 'geniuses' with their own distinct styles, or perhaps with the Salon des Refuss in antithesis, Paris in 1863 and the exhibition of art refused by the academic institutions. As Charles Harrison observed: In writing about art, the term Modernism has only been regularly used with a capital M since the 1960s . Before the '60s the term 'Modernism' was generally used in a vague way, to refer to what it was that made works of art seem 'contemporary' whatever that meant. 2. (ii) How is Modernism? Another way of thinking about what modern means in art is to think of it as an attitude to making.
This uncouples 'Modern' from question, a specific time and place – meaning that art is not necessarily modern merely because it is antithesis figure of speech new. American. It would also mean that examples from history could be identified as modern in antithesis of speech, their outlook, such as El Greco, the seventeenth century painter whom Picasso claimed was the originator of Cubism. Furthermore, identifying modern as an restating a thesis, attitude means that it can be seen as an of speech, incomplete project that can be constantly re-engaged with. This is probably what Jackson Pollock had in mind when he made this claim for his own modernist art: My opinion is that new art needs new techniques. And the modern artists have found new means of making their statements. It seems to me that the modern painter cannot express this age of the aeroplane, the atom bomb, the radio, in the old forms of the Renaissance or of any other past culture. Each age finds its own technique.
3. Just as the times change, so too must art. And just as we live in new times, we need a new, modern art to express the read moore idiot nation essay age of text messaging, the Internet and global capitalism. The art critic Clement Greenberg offered a slightly different definition of modernism. Figure Of Speech. He claimed that modernist art was art that was about art . What this means is that modernist art takes art itself as its primary subject matter rather than traditional subjects such as landscapes, portraits or historical and religious themes.
This does not mean that modernist art cannot include traditional subjects, but rather that this is not what the art is about. Look, for example, at the William Scott painting Jug. The subject matter is a jug and a bowl. Such still life has been a subject matter for art for hundreds of years but Scott has treated the material in a thoroughly modern way. (iii) Defining Modernism. The definition of modernist art that emerges is thus: that it provides a meaningful expression of, and gives artistic and aesthetic form to three things: (i) the specific time and essays, place where it was made, (ii) the medium that it is made of, and (iii) how it was made. We can now ask if this definition can be usefully applied to much of contemporary art. 3 - When, What and How is contemporary art? (i) Contemporary – Whatever That Means. The tricky task of identifying a working definition of 'modern' is accompanied by figure of speech the equally testing challenge of defining the word 'contemporary'.
Indeed, 'recent' might be one easy definition for essay everlasting, 'contemporary', allowing us to think of figure, contemporary art as that made within recent memory. Another closely related and very straightforward meaning of 'contemporary', and one that is entirely true to the linguistic sources of the microsoft case word, is figure of speech 'with the times' (from the Latin 'con', meaning 'with', plus 'temp' meaning 'time'). As such, to be contemporary is to be alert to the conditions of a particular moment in time, to be moving with the tides of living history. And this sense of the word is widely used in understandings of 'contemporary' art. Back in the 1980s, for instance, curators at the Tate Gallery in London decided that the art of the past ten years, on essay a rolling basis, would provide a suitable set of parameters as they made plans to develop a new 'Museum of Contemporary Art'.
4 'Contemporary' art in this regard, comes pretty close to 'modern' art – particularly, perhaps, to figure, Jackson Pollock's claim that the art of each age should find its own technique. But Pollock's comment also returns us to how 'modern' can be understood as identifying an attitude towards making art, an attitude perhaps resulting in a certain type of art. Certainly, a loose sense of what 'contemporary art' is like is often evident in the mainstream media. Coverage of exhibitions such as the annual Turner Prize show, for instance, will often be based on hostile presumptions about the prevailing tendencies in art today, with artists regularly being characterised as pranksters or self-promoting provocateurs rather than masters of a recognisable medium. However accurate such pictures are, it is of course essential to remember the michael vital role played not just by the media but also by the art market in of speech, manufacturing particular versions of a contemporary art 'world' (as has always been the case throughout the essay mice men history of art), with certain forms of antithesis figure of speech, art reaching prominence as a result of their marketability. But cast an eye over a thesis art magazines such as Artforum and antithesis figure, Frieze – expensive colour publications packed with ads promoting the question everlasting interests of the commercial art scene – and the difficulty of finding stable commonalities across what is celebrated is figure quite apparent. Such magazines will often introduce us to microsoft case qnet, much that is overtly 'edgy': radical performance art that claims to question moral norms, for antithesis figure, instance; or varieties of activist art that propose creative models of political resistance; or versions of essay for tuck everlasting, installation and conceptual art that confuse us as to what, and antithesis figure, often where, the microsoft case 'art' actually is.
All seem to antithesis figure, sit comfortably side-by-side in restating a thesis, such publications. Considering such types of widely prevalent art-making, it might seem that the antithesis figure only shared feature is an interest in subverting expectations about essay what art can and should be. Figure Of Speech. Such tendencies would, of course, be true to a thesis, a legacy of avant-gardism in the arts, and in our effort to capture something of what is 'contemporary' in art we could choose to prioritise the continuation of antithesis, a kind of rule-breaking spirit. Yet, many celebrated contemporary art practices frustrate this view. For a great deal of today's critically acclaimed art is restating a thesis not quite so obviously confrontational or so antagonistic towards older methods or values. If, for example, a great deal of recent art shows hostility towards principles of figure of speech, aesthetic refinement in art, there remains a significant strain of art, highly regarded by 'contemporary' critics, curators and collectors, that is michael idiot essay concerned with retrieving, or positively re-imagining, seemingly outdated notions such as craft and beauty. The paintings of antithesis, William McKeown for instance, make a sophisticated and unorthodox case for beauty in art today, hinting to us that this idea is essential as a way of freeing, and at the same time grounding, our imaginations. Similarly for Isabel Nolan, 'beauty' is to microsoft case qnet, be found in of speech, the vulnerabilities of both commonplace and more complex ways of representing or understanding the thesis 2005 2008 world around us: her formally diverse work inventively employs traditional craft techniques in capturing moments from everyday life and ideas from advanced science.
Much that is antithesis well-respected within contemporary art today, therefore, does not correspond to the prejudices of conservative critics. Crucially, combinations of microsoft qnet, notionally 'opposed' approaches to art can often be found alongside each other in a single exhibition, or even within a single artist's oeuvre or single work. Indeed, commentators on contemporary art have often stressed the diversity of antithesis figure, possibilities in essay question, art today – and definitions and descriptions of contemporary art will often stress the unregulated openness of this 'industry', acknowledging its resistance to definition and description. As Linda Weintraub has written, contemporary art embraces the antithesis of speech maverick and the traditionalist … no topic, no medium, no process, no intention, no professional protocols, and no aesthetic principles are exempt from the field of thesis 2008, art. Antithesis. 5. Such indications of contemporary art's multiple methodologies are certainly at thesis 2005, odds with any belief in the ongoing refinement of form – a principle once central to 'artistic progress'. For the philosopher and critic Arthur Danto, the innovations of art after the antithesis figure 'modernist' era have therefore brought about, in effect, an 'end' of art. This does not mean, he argues, an end of people making art, but rather an question for tuck everlasting, end of a particular way of understanding art that focused on the constraints of certain disciplines and mediums. Antithesis Figure Of Speech. Since pop art, Danto suggests, There is no special way works of art have to be. Essays. 6 It is figure of speech this plurality of american beauty essays, possibilities which most obviously gives us clues as to antithesis figure, what contemporary art 'is' today.
Yet how we choose to position ourselves in relation to american beauty essays, this plurality remains one of the most testing questions for those of us hoping to engage with this era's most challenging 'contemporary' art. (ii) Themes in Contemporary Art. Despite the exciting plurality of art today, recognisable constellations have emerged around which art practices and debates have become clustered. Participatory art takes the form of artists working with disparate groups of people from different communities. This is not only a way of generating works of art, but is also part of the work itself. Antithesis Of Speech. Here are three examples: Untitled 1992 (Free), a working kitchen in a New York gallery set up by artist Rirkrit Tiravanija; Tenantspin, 1999, a TV channel for the elderly residents of a Liverpool housing estate set up by essay question everlasting art collective Superflex; and Pimp my Irish Banger, 2009, a collaborative art project in which artist Terry Blake worked with young people from Dublin to paint car doors and bonnets that were later displayed in an outdoor space at the National College of Art and Design, Dublin. Of Speech. The art historian Claire Bishop has identified this trend within contemporary art as a 'Social Turn', arguing that while the mice men models of of speech, participatory art vary enormously all are linked by a belief in the empowering creativity of collective action and shared ideas. 7 These are forms of art that ask questions about who is involved in the making and experience of art. Today's art often occurs in particular places and is specific to those places.
For example Canadian artist Janet Cardiff's The Missing Voice (case study b), 1999-2000, is a narrative walking tour of East London starting at the Whitechapel Library. Participants are given a portable audio player that guides them on a 45 minute tour of the area through local areas like Spitalfields and Brick Lane that are infused with histories of crime, immigration, deprivation and intrigue. In The Birdcages of Dublin, 1999, Danny McCarthy placed five birdcages on the front walls of The Fire Station Artists Studios in american beauty essays, Buckingham Street, Dublin. Each cage contained a hidden speaker that played sounds McCarthy had made from field recordings taken from sites around Dublin alongside recordings of bird song. Both pieces put the participants in an active role of interrogating their environments. This art asks questions about figure where the making and experience of microsoft case qnet, art takes place.
Many contemporary artists are interested in the moving image. This can involve using movies for subject matter, but it also means investigating how film and video can alter how we think about art and life. Cinema is antithesis a culturally potent medium with particular characteristics as a spectacular experience, as a mode of display, and as a way of representing the world. For example in 24 Hour Psycho, 1993, Douglas Gordon slows down and projects Hitchcock's famously suspenseful chiller so that it takes 24 hours to run. Studies. It is impossible to enjoy the figure of speech work as we would normally; we enter into a different relationship with the familiar work.
Our ideas of the passing of time, narrative, memory, and even our boredom threshold are challenged by Gordon's re-presentation of the film. Comparatively, a work such as Twelve Angry Films by Jesse Jones, 2006, brings out an aspect of 'participation' in film culture, but through a process of collaborative production (working with community groups) and by creating a dedicated public space for screenings in the form of a drive-in cinema. This art asks questions about how the world is presented to us through different media, under what conditions and with what consequences? Artists today continue to question what they are making art from and come back to querying what art's forms mean. Question For Tuck. In Box (ahhareturnabout), 1977, James Coleman presented a 16mm film on a continuous loop with an accompanying soundtrack. The film shows disjointed fragments of antithesis figure of speech, a bout between two heavyweight boxers with a soundtrack that combines the imagined thoughts of one competitor with a low, thumping pulse like a heartbeat.
It is a disorientating, profoundly physical experience. The grainy and obscure flicker of the american essays film, when coupled with the jarring jump cuts, becomes part of the meaning of the figure work. It suggests how art always struggles with the translation of human experience into artistic media. Whilst Coleman addresses media that are becoming obsolete in today's increasingly digital world (film reels, slide projectors), many artists have also returned to one of the oldest artistic mediums – painting – to continue to ask questions about read michael idiot it. Elizabeth Peyton, for example, uses images snatched from the antithesis figure of speech mass media (press photographs, television, etc.). The images are used in thesis 2005, such a way that you would never mistake the pictures for photographs; instead they encourage you to think about what it means to figure, put wet paint on a surface and move it around. Restating A Thesis. This art asks questions about what is antithesis figure employed in the making and experience of art. The above examples offer just a glimpse of the rich variety of art being made today.
It can take many forms, address many audiences and raise many questions. It can often be baffling, infuriating and inscrutable. There is more art now than there has ever been, and in a greater variety. As has always been the case throughout history, a lot of it might not be to our taste. 2008. But the best art, be it from the distant past, the modern age or our contemporary times, opens up new worlds for us; new worlds of thought, of expression and feeling, new worlds of of speech, poetic and political possibility. Art in the contemporary world is art of this world: it can be by turns richly distracting and frustrating, thrilling and testing; it is full of communicative difficulties and question everlasting, new possibilities; it brings the challenging effects of today's reality home to us in antithesis figure, all their vivid strangeness. Restating. It tells us how soon now really is. © Francis Halsall Declan Long, 2011. Nicolas Bourriaud, Relational Aesthetics, Dijon: Les Presses du Rel, p. 25.
Charles Harrison, Introduction: Modernism, Problems and Methods, The Open University Press, 1983, p. 15. Jackson Pollock in an interview with William Wright, (1950), in Johnson, Ellen H. (ed.), American Artists on Art from 1940 to 1980, Harper Row, 1982. See Tate Glossary, www.tate.org.uk/collections/glossary. Linda Weintraub, Making Contemporary Art: How Today's Artists Think and Work, Thames Hudson, 2003, p. Antithesis Of Speech. 8. Arthur C. Danto, After the End of Art: Contemporary Art and the Pale of mice men, History, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998, p. 47. Claire Bishop, 'The Social Turn', in Francis Halsall et al., Rediscovering Aesthetics, Stanford University Press, 2009, p. 239.
Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.