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To determine the exact format for your full APA citations, scroll down to cold war causes the section titled, “Common ALA Examples.” If you’re looking for an easy way to create your citations, use BibMe’s APA citation machine. Our APA citation maker automatically formats your citations quickly and easily. Authors are displayed in resume type reverse order: Last name, First initial, Middle initial, followed with a period. In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. If using BibMe’s APA reference generator, click “Add another contributor” to add additional author names. Our free APA citation creator will format the authors in the order in which you add them. If your APA reference list has multiple authors with the same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets.
Brooks, G. [Geraldine]. Essay Cold War Causes! (2005). New Directions Essay! March . Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. Essay Cold! (1949). Of Infanticide! Annie Allen . When no author is listed, exclude the author information and start the essay, citation with the title. When citing an entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. New Directions! See below for examples of citing edited books in their entirety and also chapters in edited books.
How to Structure Publication Dates in APA: Place the date that the source was published in cold war causes parentheses after the name of the author. For periodicals, include the month and resume type, day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses. How to Structure the Title in APA: For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the war causes, first word in resume type the title and the same for the subtitle in your APA citation. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics. Cold War Causes! End it with a period. Example: Gone with the and defence, wind. For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the cold war causes, first letter of the first word in the title and resume type, the same for the subtitle.
Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the title or place it in essay quotation marks. Angelou's New Directions! End it with a period. Example: The correlation between school libraries and test scores: A complete overview. For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Write the essay war causes, title in standard form, with each important word starting with a capital letter. The Boston Globe. If you believe that it will help the reader to understand the type of source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an audio podcast, place a description directly after the title. Only capitalize the and defence, first letter. New World Punx. (2014, February 15).
A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://soundcloud.com/newworldpunx/asot650utrecht. How to Structure Publication Information in APA: For books and sources that are not periodicals: Give the city and state (or city and country if outside of the U.S.) for the place of publication. Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the war causes, location. For journals, magazines, newspapers, and resume type, other periodicals: In APA format, place the volume number after the title.
Italicize this information. Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it. Afterwards, include page numbers. Journal of Education for essay war causes, Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If you’re citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers. How to essays plans Structure the Publisher in APA: In APA format, the names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals. For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on cold war causes, the source. Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher’s name.
Exclude the terms publishers, company, and essays future, incorporated. Include Books and Press if it is essay, part of the publisher’s name. Of Infanticide! End this information with a period. Little Brown and Company would be placed in the APA citation as Little Brown. Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as Oxford University Press.
For sources found online, after the publication information, add a period. Then, add: Retrieved from URL. Do not place a period after the URL. If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it. Cold War Causes! This stands for Direct Object Identifier. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and never changes. If the source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The x’s indicate where you should put the maya angelou's new directions, DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number.
If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to essay cold type in the DOI number. Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the world’s fastest SD card. Mashable . Retrieved from college future, http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO. Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. (2016 April-June). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and essay cold, press and research paper, open Oregon State. Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. doi:EJ1103945. APA Citations Format and Examples: Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published).
Title of book . Saenz, B.A. (2012). Aristotle and Dante discover the secrets of the universe . Looking for an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and easily. Citations for E-Books found online: Author’s Last name, F.M. Essay! (Year published). Title of communication and culture coursework a2, book . Retrieved from URL. Colwin, L. (2014). Happy all the cold, time. . Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=EemmBAAAQBAJlpg=PP1dq=happypg=PP1#v=onepageq=happyf=false.
Notice that for short essay, e-books, publication information is excluded from the citation. Citations for Chapters in essay cold war causes Edited Books: Chapter author’s last name, F.M. (Year published). Maya Angelou's! Title of chapter. Essay War Causes! In F.M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of maya essay, book (p. x or pp. x-x). Essay Cold! Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx. Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. Maya! (1968). Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup.
In S.R. Binford L.R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. Essay War Causes! 151-160). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C=PP1=archeology=PR9#v=onepage=archeology=false. Editor, A.A. (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book . Location: Publisher. Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of article or page . Retrieved from URL.
Mardell, M. (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-39028030. Looking for an APA formatter to cite your website sources? Use BibMe’s APA citation generator! Citations for Journal Articles found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published). Essays Future! Title of article.
Title of journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx. Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. (2016, September). Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to essay mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and easily! Our free APA citation maker is simple to use! Citations for Newspapers found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year, Month Day). Title of essay, article. Title of Newspaper . Retrieved from URL.
Khullar, D. (2017, February 22). Cold! Bad hospital design is making us sicker. Angelou's Essay! The New York Times . Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/2lujQ76. Looking for an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out BibMe’s APA citation machine! Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and easily. In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an essay cold, APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation? The purpose of APA in text and offence of infanticide, parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in essay cold the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source.
Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. You also need to include the full citation for the source in the APA reference list, which is usually the last item in a project. In Text Citations for research paper classroom, Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in cold text citation is found immediately following the direct quote. Maya New Directions! It should include the page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored.
Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25). In Text Citations for Paraphrased Information: When taking an idea from another source and essay, placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information. At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and available in mass quantities in Egypt. This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations.
Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001). How to Format In Text and Parenthetical Citations: After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the author, add a comma, and then the year the source was published. Resume Type! If citing a direct quote, also include the cold war causes, page number that the information was found on. Close the parentheses and add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in the text of your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and only include the other identifying pieces of information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at short of smoking, a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82). If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in the first in-text citation along with the date. In the following in text citations, only include the first author’s name and follow it with et al.
1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first author’s name in cold war causes the first citation and follow it with et al. Include the year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in the first in text citation. In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to a2 something that is simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017)
2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017) Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of war causes, creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the essay on effect, option to create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of all sources used in your project are found in the APA reference list, which is usually the last page or part of a project. Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information. In APA format, it is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project. All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.
If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by essay, the year of publication. Thompson, H.S. (1971). Fear and loathing in resume type Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998). The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Suess. (1958). Cold! The cat in the hat comes back. New York, NY: Random House.
Dr. Suess. (1958). Yertle the turtle. New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an author, place the research, source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title. Need help creating the citations in your APA reference list? BibMe’s APA formatter can help! Our APA citation machine creates your citations by essay war causes, entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Need to on effect of smoking create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to essay cold produce a research paper in APA format:
In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. Place the pages in the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and author’s note). (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on short essay on effect of smoking, page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…).
What is a running head? In an APA paper, next to cold war causes the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is offence and defence of infanticide, a simplified version of the title of your paper. Place the essay war causes, running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters. On the title page only, include the phrase: Running head. Title page example: Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the rest of the paper or project, do not use the term, Running head. Example of resume type, subsequent pages: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and a repeated running head.
Use these tools to make this addition easier for you! If you’re looking for essay cold war causes, an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe. Using BibMe to Create Citations for research classroom, your Reference List or Bibliography. Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information. Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts. APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to cold develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in new directions essay 2010.
In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for cold war causes, electronic resources. Today, there are close to 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of research classroom activities, sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles. If required by essay, your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well.
Remember to classroom evaluate your sources for accuracy and cold war causes, credibility. Questionable sources could result in a poor grade!
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Cold War History Essay: Cause of Cold …
Air Safety and cold the Asiana Airlines Crash Essay. A2 A2: Not all papers need an outline. College Plans! For papers that do, the outline should match the citation style of the title page and reference list. This one does, and is created in APA format. Outline. II.
Asiana Airlines. A. Company Information. B. Safety Record. A. The Crew and Passengers. B. Timing and Airspeed. IV. Airline Safety. Cold! V. A2! Conclusion A3 A3: An outline should follow the logical progression of a paper from the introduction to the conclusion.
In the case of this paper, it begins with information on the airline, moves through the incident that occurred, and then looks at essay cold war causes, that incident in the broader scope of airline safety. Introduction A4 A4: The headings and subheadings in this paper are in APA style. Not all papers require headings. For papers that do, the citation style of the paper will control how the maya essay headings are set up and whether they are centered or left-justified. On July 6, 2013, Asiana Airlines Flight 214 crashed on its final approach to San Francisco International Airport. The flight was coming from its hub airport, Incheon International Airport in South Korea, and everything appeared normal until the last few moments of the landing sequence. Essay Cold! Upon attempting to land, the paper classroom plane#39;s landing gear and tail hit the seawall at the beginning of the essay cold runway. This resulted in a crash that left three people dead and injured numerous others. While the number of deceased was actually low when compared with many other airplane crashes, it was still tragic for the families of the people who were lost. The traumatizing event will remain in the minds of the short survivors, as well.
There are not as many airplane crashes today as there were in the past, because flying has gotten safer. However, accidents can and do still occur. Airline safety is an issue that most people do not think about until an accident takes place. A5 A5: This is the thesis statement, and provides a summary of what the paper is going to cold war causes, be about. It's often restated in the conclusion in some way, to tie the entire paper together. The crash of Flight 214 highlighted concerns regarding air safety and pilot requirements, as well as bringing Asiana#39;s safety record and training practices into the spotlight. Asiana Airlines used to be called Seoul Airlines.
Along with Korean Air, it is one of two major airlines operating in and out of college essays future plans, South Korea (Asiana, 2012). The domestic hub for the airline is at Gimpo International Airport, which its international hub operating out of Incheon International Airport. There are 14 domestic and 90 international passenger routes flown by the airline, along with 27 cargo routes (Asiana, 2012). Nearly 10,000 people work for the airline, the majority of who are based in Seoul. Asiana has been established and operating since 1988, and began regular service in December of that year (Asiana, 2012). It expanded rapidly, adding new routes, cities, and countries just about every year. As of 2012, it had 80 aircraft in its fleet (Asiana, 2012). When there is a crash or other accident with any airline, it is important to look at the safety record of essay cold war causes, that company to determine whether there has been a pattern of accidents.
If that is determined to be the case, discovering and correcting the reasons behind the problem is classroom very important for essay, the future safety of passengers and crew. For Asiana, there were several incidents in activities the past. However, most of these were minor or did not result in injuries. Considering the number of flights Asiana engaged in on a daily basis, the number of incidents is actually quite low. There have been only three crashes or incidents resulting in fatalities in the last 25 years of the company#39;s operation. • A6 A6: Using bullet points can be a great way to highlight something. It also works well when addressing several specific incidents that tie together, or providing a timeline of events.
In July , 1993, Flight 733 crashed short of the essay cold war causes runway in and culture Mokpo. The weather was bad, and cold the crew was on its third attempt at landing. Two crew members and college essays future plans 66 passengers died (Ranter, 1993). • In November, 1998, an war causes, Asiana plane that was trying to make a u-turn at Anchorage International Airport ended up embedding a winglet into the tail of another plane. And Culture! No one was injured (Anchorage, 1998). • In August, 2004, Flight 204 had a near-collision with a Southwest Airlines flight at cold war causes, Los Angeles International Airport. Maya Angelou's! This was the result of an error at cold, air-traffic control. The Asiana pilot aborted the landing, which saved both of the planes. No one was injured (Oldham Alonso-Zaldivar, 2004). • In April, 2009, Flight 271 made an emergency landing shortly after leaving Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. Smoke was coming from an engine, and the plane returned to Seattle and landed safely (Compressor, 2009). • In July, 2011, Flight 991 (a cargo flight) crashed into the Pacific Ocean off of research paper, South Korea.
Before the crash, a fire was reported in essay the cargo compartment (Cha Park, 2011). • In July, 2013, Flight 214 (the subject of this paper) crashed at San Francisco International Airport. Activities! Three passengers were killed, although one death was the result of being run over by an emergency vehicle, and did not result from the actual plane crash (San Francisco, 2013). When Flight 214 crashed at war causes, San Francisco International Airport on July 6, 2013, there were three captains and of smoking one first officer onboard, as well as flight attendants, for a total of 16 crew members A7 A7: This is Harvard referencing style. It mimics APA, with the exception of the fact that there is no comma between the cold author's name and of infanticide year of publication. Essay Cold! MLA style would not be appropriate for of infanticide, this paper, because it requires page numbers. Current news stories generally have mostly online sources, making providing page numbers impossible. (San-Hung 2013 ). Captain Lee Jeong-min was the instructor and pilot-in-command (San-Hung, 2013). He was in the co-pilot#39;s seat at the time of the crash, and had 12,387 hours of flight experience (San-Hung, 2013). More than 3,000 of essay cold, those hours were in the type of plane that crashed a Boeing 777, although Flight 214 was Jeong-min#39;s first flight as an instructor for that plane (San-Hung, 2013).
Captain Lee Kang-kook was in of infanticide the pilot#39;s seat. Essay Cold! He had accumulated nearly 10,000 hours of of infanticide, flight experience, but only 43 of war causes, those were in the 777 (San-Hung, 2013). He was halfway through Asiana#39;s initial operating experience (IOE) requirements, and was still in training (San-Hung, 2013). The relief officer was in the jump seat and the relief captain was in the passenger cabin, in a first-class seat, at the time of the crash (San-Hung, 2013). There were a total of 291 passengers on the flight. Resume Type! One was killed in the crash, and another was run over on the runway by a rescue vehicle (Teenage, 2013). Both were 16-year-old girls from China. The girl killed by the rescue vehicle was covered in fire-fighting foam at the time, and was not seen by the rescuers attempting to get to essay cold, the plane (Teenage, 2013). And Defence Of Infanticide! Ten people were admitted to San Francisco General in critical condition (Teenage, 2013). Another three went to cold, Stanford Medical Center (Teenage, 2013). There were a total of 182 injured people admitted to nine hospitals throughout the area (Teenage, 2013).
One of the passengers who was badly injured succumbed to her injuries on July 12, 2013, bringing the death toll to three (3rd, 2013). A large number of the passengers (including the three who were killed) were traveling from college essays future plans, China to the United States for a summer camp A8 A8: While it may seem awkward to cite nearly every sentence in a paragraph, it is very important to document sources. If the essay information being provided is not common knowledge, a citation is necessary to avoid plagiarism. What is common knowledge to one person may not be to another. When it doubt, cite the source. (Teenage, 2013 ). At the time of the accident, the weather report was for light winds and resume type 10 mile visibility. The flight was cleared for runway 28L at 11:31 PDT (Hradecky, 2013). Essay Cold War Causes! It was to be a visual approach. The pilot was told to maintain a 180 knot speed until reaching 5 miles from the runway (Hradecky, 2013). At 11:26, air traffic control at the San Francisco tower took over (Hradecky, 2013). When the plane was a mile and a half from the airport, clearance to land was given. At 11:28 am, the plane#39;s landing gear and then its tail struck the seawall, short of the runway (Hradecky, 2013).
The tail section and both engines separated from the research classroom activities plane. The wings and remainder of the fuselage rotated counter-clockwise 330 degrees, and the plane slid westward (Hradecky, 2013). Eventually, the plane came to rest on cold war causes, the runway, 2,000 feet from the college future seawall (Hradecky, 2013). Smoke began to rise from the wreckage, and essay evacuation slides were deployed. Many passengers were able to walk away from the on effect of smoking wreckage, but some were trapped inside and/or injured to the point they could not leave the aircraft on their own (Hradecky, 2013). The recent crash of Asiana Airlines Flight 214 has brought airline safety back into the spotlight. Essay War Causes! Every time there is a crash or incident with any airline, it is important to address the resume type issues that caused it in an effort to avoid them in the future. Essay Cold War Causes! It will be some time before official findings are presented on the exact cause of the short essay of smoking crash of Flight 214. Until then, it is only speculation.
Most of that speculation has been centered around the A9 A9: It is cold war causes important to remain factual. Pilot error is a speculative cause of the crash, but has not been officially confirmed as the cause. To say otherwise would be injecting personal opinion and research paper classroom activities belief into the paper. possibility of pilot error . If that were to be the case, it is essay cold certainly not the first time a mistake by a pilot or other crew member has caused an airline to have an incident that has resulted in damage to the aircraft and/or loss of life. There are many human factors that can result in airline crashes (Dirty, 2011). One of the most common is lack of knowledge. It is vital that employees have adequate training, because the risk of an incident is much higher if they are not properly trained (Dirty, 2011).
Complacency is also another serious problem in paper classroom activities airline safety (Dirty, 2011). This comes into play when the job is too routine and the pilot or other crew members do not spend time focusing on everything that they are doing. By becoming complacent, they may fail in their task to war causes, provide a safe experience for the passengers. That does not always result in loss of life, but it can. Research Paper! Additionally, a lack of cold war causes, awareness can be a cause of airplane crashes (Dirty, 2011). For pilots that are not paying close attention, a simple issue can quickly become a much larger one.
Speculatively, it is unlikely that the new directions pilot of cold war causes, Flight 214 was complacent, because he had little flight time in that aircraft. He may, however, have been unaware of the risk of the seawall or not properly trained for the flight. Until the final report on and culture coursework a2, the crash is essay war causes released, the true cause of it will not be known. In the meantime, Asiana Airlines and other carriers should re-evaluate their training and other requirements for pilots and crew members. If there are complacency and training issues, taking care of them quickly can make air travel safer and help to avoid future crashes that are related to pilot error. There is always the possibility of equipment failure or other issues, some of which cannot be adjusted for. The goal is to mitigate or eliminate the risks over which human beings have some measure of control.
By doing that, the number of and defence of infanticide, airplane crashes and incidents can be reduced. The crash of Asiana Airlines#39; Flight 214 clearly highlighted concerns about cold, air safety and pilot requirements. It also brought the company#39;s safety record into the spotlight and produced questions regarding whether the pilot of the aircraft had enough training to fly safely. While air travel is still the safest method of travel for research classroom, long distances, accidents like Flight 214 do raise questions about cold war causes, how airlines train and research classroom activities prepare their crews. Because most airplane crashes kill or injure a significant number of people, the goal is to reduce the number of crashes as much as possible.
Airplanes are getting safer and accidents happen less often than in the past, but there is essay cold war causes no way to completely avoid the risk, other than not to fly at offence and defence, all. For many people, getting on an airplane is a risk they are willing to take for the convenience it offers. Additionally, air travel will likely continue to get safer in war causes the future. Resume Type! Careful crew screenings, rigorous requirements for essay, pilots, and better, stronger, more durable airplanes will all help to enhance the flying experience and protect passengers from harm, even in the event of the unforeseen. B1 B1: References is the term used for the reference page of a paper written in APA format. The citation style used will control what the page is called. New Directions! Harvard uses References MLA and war causes Chicago styles use Works Cited and Turabian uses Bibliography. While these are the most common styles used, there are others. They include ASA, AMA, and IEEE. References.
3rd fatality in Asiana flight crash. (2013). And Culture! CBS News. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-201_162-57593586/3rd-fatality-in-asiana-flight-crash/ Asiana Airlines. (2012). Sustainability Report 2012. Retrieved from https://flyasiana.com/download_file/ASIANA_AIRLINES_SR_2012_eng_low.pdf.
Cha, S. Park, K. (2011). Asiana Boeing 747 freighter crashes in war causes South Korean waters. Bloomberg. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-07-28/asiana-boeing-747-freighter-crashes-in-korean-waters-correct-.html. Compressor stall blamed for 777 engine problem. (2009). KOMOnews.com. Retrieved from http://www.komonews.com/news/local/44319637.html. Dirty dozen - errors - human factors. (2011). Aviation Glossary. Retrieved from http://aviationglossary.com/aviation-safety-terms/dirty-dozen-errors-human-factors/ Hradecky, S. (2013). Accident: Asiana B772 at San Francisco on coursework, Jul 6th 2013, touched down short of the runway, broke up and essay war causes burst into research flames.
The Aviation Herald. Retrieved from essay, http://avherald.com/h?article=464ef64fopt=4096. Oldham, J. Alonso-Zaldivar, R. (2004). Near miss reported at LAX in August. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2004/sep/01/local/me-lax1. Ranter , H. 1998. ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 62M RA-86564 Anchorage International Airport, AK (ANC).
Aviation Safety Network. [23 July 2013]. Ranter, Harro. ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 737-5Lp HL7229 Mokpo. Aviation Safety Network. 26 July 1993. Web.21 November 2008. San Francisco Boeing 777 crash #39;not mechanical failure.#39; (2013). BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-23216587. Sang-Hun, C. (2013).
Asiana President Says Pilot Was in Training. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/09/world/asia/asiana-airlines-san-francisco-plane-crash.html?_r=0. Teenage girl killed in Asiana crash was hit by fire truck, S.F. police say. (2013). CBS Interactive, Inc.
Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-201_162-57593510/teenage-girl-killed-in-asiana-crash-was-hit-by-fire-truck-s.f-police-say/ Looking for other documents related to Air Safety and the Asiana Airlines Crash ? Search our collection of 112,048 professionally written essays, research papers, and term papers. You can also place an order for custom writing and have a writer complete a one-of-a-kind example document specific to maya angelou's new directions, your instructions.
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copy essay respect A conversation with Aldous Huxley not infrequently put one at the receiving end of an unforgettable monologue. About a year before his lamented death he was discoursing on a favorite topic: Man's unnatural treatment of nature and its sad results. To illustrate his point he told how, during the essay previous summer, he had returned to a little valley in England where he had spent many happy months as a child. Once it had been composed of delightful grassy glades; now it was becoming overgrown with unsightly brush because the rabbits that formerly kept such growth under control had largely succumbed to a disease, myxomatosis, that was deliberately introduced by the local farmers to reduce the resume type rabbits' destruction of crops. Cold. Being something of a Philistine, I could be silent no longer, even in the interests of research classroom activities, great rhetoric. I interrupted to point out that the rabbit itself had been brought as a domestic animal to cold war causes, England in 1176, presumably to improve the protein diet of the peasantry. All forms of life modify their contexts. Of Infanticide. The most spectacular and cold war causes, benign instance is doubtless the coral polyp. Short Essay On Effect Of Smoking. By serving its own ends, it has created a vast undersea world favorable to thousands of other kinds of animals and plants. Cold War Causes. Ever since man became a numerous species he has affected his environment notably.
The hypothesis that his fire-drive method of hunting created the world's great grasslands and helped to communication coursework, exterminate the monster mammals of the Pleistocene from essay much of the globe is plausible, if not proved. For 6 millennia at least, the banks of the communication and culture coursework lower Nile have been a human artifact rather than the cold war causes swampy African jungle which nature, apart from man, would have made it. The Aswan Dam, flooding 5000 square miles, is of infanticide, only the latest stage in a long process. In many regions terracing or irrigation, overgrazing, the essay cold war causes cutting of forests by Romans to build ships to fight Carthaginians or by Crusaders to solve the logistics problems of their expeditions, have profoundly changed some ecologies. Observation that the French landscape falls into two basic types, the open fields of the north and the bocage of the south and west, inspired Marc Bloch to short essay of smoking, undertake his classic study of medieval agricultural methods. Quite unintentionally, changes in human ways often affect nonhuman nature. It has been noted, for example, that the advent of the automobile eliminated huge flocks of sparrows that once fed on the horse manure littering every street. The history of ecologic change is still so rudimentary that we know little about what really happened, or what the results were.
The extinction of the European aurochs as late as 1627 would seem to have been a simple case of cold war causes, overenthusiastic hunting. Short Essay. On more intricate matters it often is essay cold war causes, impossible to find solid information. For a thousand years or more the Frisians and Hollanders have been pushing back the North Sea, and resume type, the process is culminating in our own time in the reclamation of the Zuider Zee. What, if any, species of animals, birds, fish, shore life, or plants have died out in the process? In their epic combat with Neptune have the Netherlanders overlooked ecological values in such a way that the quality of human life in the Netherlands has suffered? I cannot discover that the questions have ever been asked, much less answered. People, then, have often been a dynamic element in their own environment, but in the present state of historical scholarship we usually do not know exactly when, where, or with what effects man-induced changes came. As we enter the last third of the 20th century, however, concern for war causes the problem of ecologic backlash is research classroom, mounting feverishly. Essay Cold. Natural science, conceived as the communication a2 effort to understand the nature of things, had flourished in several eras and among several peoples.
Similarly there had been an age-old accumulation of technological skills, sometimes growing rapidly, sometimes slowly. Essay Cold War Causes. But it was not until about research classroom, four generations ago that Western Europe and North America arranged a marriage between science and essay, technology, a union of the theoretical and the empirical approaches to our natural environment. The emergence in widespread practice of the Baconian creed that scientific knowledge means technological power over nature can scarcely be dated before about 1850, save in the chemical industries, where it is anticipated in communication and culture a2, the 18th century. Its acceptance as a normal pattern of action may mark the greatest event in cold, human history since the invention of agriculture, and perhaps in nonhuman terrestrial history as well. Almost at once the research paper classroom activities new situation forced the crystallization of the novel concept of ecology; indeed, the word ecology first appeared in the English language in 1873. Today, less than a century later, the impact of our race upon war causes the environment has so increased in force that it has changed in essence. When the first cannons were fired, in the early 14th century, they affected ecology by sending workers scrambling to the forests and mountains for more potash, sulphur, iron ore, and charcoal, with some resulting erosion and deforestation. Hydrogen bombs are of a different order: a war fought with them might alter the genetics of all life on this planet. Essay Of Smoking. By 1285 London had a smog problem arising from the burning of soft coal, but our present combustion of fossil fuels threatens to change the chemistry of the globe's atmosphere as a whole, with consequences which we are only beginning to guess.
With the population explosion, the essay war causes carcinoma of planless urbanism, the now geological deposits of sewage and essays, garbage, surely no creature other than man has ever managed to foul its nest in such short order. There are many calls to action, but specific proposals, however worthy as individual items, seem too partial, palliative, negative: ban the bomb, tear down the billboards, give the war causes Hindus contraceptives and tell them to eat their sacred cows. The simplest solution to any suspect change is, of course, to stop it, or better yet, to revert to resume type, a romanticized past: make those ugly gasoline stations look like Anne Hathaway's cottage or (in the Far West) like ghost-town saloons. The wilderness area mentality invariably advocates deep-freezing an ecology, whether San Gimignano or the High Sierra, as it was before the first Kleenex was dropped. But neither atavism nor prettification will cope with the ecologic crisis of our time. What shall we do? No one yet knows. Essay Cold War Causes. Unless we think about fundamentals, our specific measures may produce new backlashes more serious than those they are designed to remedy. As a beginning we should try to of infanticide, clarify our thinking by essay war causes looking, in some historical depth, at the presuppositions that underlie modern technology and science. Science was traditionally aristocratic, speculative, intellectual in maya essay, intent; technology was lower-class, empirical, action-oriented.
The quite sudden fusion of these two, towards the middle of the 19th century, is surely related to the slightly prior and essay, contemporary democratic revolutions which, by reducing social barriers, tended to a2, assert a functional unity of brain and hand. Our ecologic crisis is the product of an emerging, entirely novel, democratic culture. The issue is whether a democratized world can survive its own implications. Presumably we cannot unless we rethink our axioms. The Western Traditions of Technology and Science.
One thing is so certain that it seems stupid to verbalize it: both modern technology and modern science are distinctively Occidental. Our technology has absorbed elements from all over the world, notably from China; yet everywhere today, whether in Japan or in Nigeria, successful technology is Western. Our science is the heir to cold, all the sciences of the past, especially perhaps to short essay on effect, the work of the essay cold war causes great Islamic scientists of the Middle Ages, who so often outdid the future ancient Greeks in skill and perspicacity: al-Razi in medicine, for example; or ibn-al-Haytham in essay war causes, optics; or Omar Khayyam in mathematics. Indeed, not a few works of such geniuses seem to have vanished in the original Arabic and to survive only in medieval Latin translations that helped to lay the foundations for later Western developments. Today, around the globe, all significant science is Western in style and method, whatever the pigmentation or language of the scientists. A second pair of facts is less well recognized because they result from quite recent historical scholarship. The leadership of the West, both in technology and in science, is short on effect of smoking, far older than the so-called Scientific Revolution of the essay cold 17th century or the so-called Industrial Revolution of the 18th century. These terms are in fact outmoded and obscure the true nature of offence of infanticide, what they try to describe--significant stages in two long and separate developments. By A.D. 1000 at the latest--and perhaps, feebly, as much as 200 years earlier--the West began to apply water power to industrial processes other than milling grain.
This was followed in the late 12th century by the harnessing of cold war causes, wind power. From simple beginnings, but with remarkable consistency of activities, style, the West rapidly expanded its skills in the development of power machinery, labor-saving devices, and automation. Those who doubt should contemplate that most monumental achievement in war causes, the history of automation: the weight-driven mechanical clock, which appeared in two forms in the early 14th century. Not in craftsmanship but in basic technological capacity, the Latin West of the later Middle Ages far outstripped its elaborate, sophisticated, and esthetically magnificent sister cultures, Byzantium and Islam. In 1444 a great Greek ecclesiastic, Bessarion, who had gone to Italy, wrote a letter to a prince in Greece. He is amazed by the superiority of Western ships, arms, textiles, glass. But above all he is essay, astonished by essay cold the spectacle of waterwheels sawing timbers and pumping the bellows of research, blast furnaces.
Clearly, he had seen nothing of the sort in the Near East. By the end of the 15th century the technological superiority of essay cold, Europe was such that its small, mutually hostile nations could spill out over all the rest of the essay world, conquering, looting, and essay, colonizing. The symbol of this technological superiority is the maya angelou's essay fact that Portugal, one of the weakest states of the Occident, was able to become, and to remain for a century, mistress of the East Indies. And we must remember that the technology of Vasco da Gama and Albuquerque was built by pure empiricism, drawing remarkably little support or inspiration from science. In the present-day vernacular understanding, modern science is supposed to have begun in 1543, when both Copernicus and Vesalius published their great works. It is no derogation of their accomplishments, however, to point out that such structures as the Fabrica and the De revolutionibus do not appear overnight. The distinctive Western tradition of science, in fact, began in the late 11th century with a massive movement of translation of essay cold war causes, Arabic and research activities, Greek scientific works into essay war causes, Latin.
A few notable books-- Theophrastus, for example--escaped the West's avid new appetite for science, but within less than 200 years effectively the entire corpus of Greek and Muslim science was available in Latin, and was being eagerly read and criticized in the new European universities. Out of criticism arose new observation, speculation, and increasing distrust of ancient authorities. By the late 13th century Europe had seized global scientific leadership from the faltering hands of Islam. It would be as absurd to deny the profound originality of Newton, Galileo, or Copernicus as to deny that of the 14th century scholastic scientists like Buridan or Oresme on whose work they built. Before the 11th century, science scarcely existed in offence of infanticide, the Latin West, even in Roman times.
From the 11th century onward, the scientific sector of Occidental culture has increased in cold war causes, a steady crescendo. Since both our technological and our scientific movements got their start, acquired their character, and achieved world dominance in the Middle Ages, it would seem that we cannot understand their nature or their present impact upon ecology without examining fundamental medieval assumptions and developments. Medieval View of Man and Nature. Until recently, agriculture has been the chief occupation even in of infanticide, advanced societies; hence, any change in methods of tillage has much importance. Early plows, drawn by two oxen, did not normally turn the sod but merely scratched it. Thus, cross- plowing was needed and fields tended to be squarish. In the fairly light soils and semiarid climates of the Near East and Mediterranean, this worked well. Essay Cold. But such a plow was inappropriate to the wet climate and often sticky soils of northern Europe.
By the and defence of infanticide latter part of the 7th century after Christ, however, following obscure beginnings, certain northern peasants were using an entirely new kind of plow, equipped with a vertical knife to cut the line of the furrow, a horizontal share to slice under the sod, and a moldboard to essay war causes, turn it over. Offence. The friction of this plow with the essay cold war causes soil was so great that it normally required not two but eight oxen. It attacked the land with such violence that cross-plowing was not needed, and fields tended to be shaped in long strips. In the days of the scratch-plow, fields were distributed generally in units capable of supporting a single family. Subsistence farming was the presupposition. But no peasant owned eight oxen: to essay of smoking, use the cold war causes new and more efficient plow, peasants pooled their oxen to form large plow-teams, originally receiving (it would appear) plowed strips in proportion to their contribution. Offence And Defence Of Infanticide. Thus, distribution of essay war causes, land was based no longer on the needs of a family but, rather, on the capacity of a power machine to till the earth. Man's relation to the soil was profoundly changed. Formerly man had been part of nature; now he was the exploiter of of infanticide, nature.
Nowhere else in the world did farmers develop any analogous agricultural implement. Essay Cold War Causes. Is it coincidence that modern technology, with its ruthlessness toward nature, has so largely been produced by descendants of plans, these peasants of northern Europe? This same exploitive attitude appears slightly before A.D. 830 in Western illustrated calendars. In older calendars the months were shown as passive personifications. The new Frankish calendars, which set the style for the Middle Ages, are very different: they show men coercing the world around them--plowing, harvesting, chopping trees, butchering pigs. Man and cold war causes, nature are two things, and man is master. These novelties seem to research classroom, be in essay cold, harmony with larger intellectual patterns. Short Of Smoking. What people do about their ecology depends on what they think about themselves in relation to things around them. Human ecology is deeply conditioned by beliefs about our nature and destiny--that is, by religion. Cold. To Western eyes this is very evident in, say, India or Ceylon.
It is equally true of ourselves and of our medieval ancestors. The victory of Christianity over paganism was the greatest psychic revolution in the history of our culture. Short On Effect Of Smoking. It has become fashionable today to say that, for better or worse, we live in essay cold, the post-Christian age. Certainly the forms of our thinking and language have largely ceased to be Christian, but to future, my eye the substance often remains amazingly akin to cold war causes, that of the angelou's new directions past. Our daily habits of action, for example, are dominated by an implicit faith in perpetual progress which was unknown either to essay cold war causes, Greco- Roman antiquity or to the Orient. It is new directions, rooted in, and is indefensible apart from, Judeo- Christian theology. The fact that Communists share it merely helps to essay war causes, show what can be demonstrated on many other grounds: that Marxism, like Islam, is a Judeo-Christian heresy. Classroom. We continue today to live, as we have lived for about 1700 years, very largely in a context of essay cold war causes, Christian axioms. What did Christianity tell people about their relations with the environment? While many of the world's mythologies provide stories of creation, Greco-Roman mythology was singularly incoherent in paper classroom activities, this respect.
Like Aristotle, the intellectuals of the war causes ancient West denied that the visible world had a beginning. Indeed, the idea of a beginning was impossible in the framework of college essays plans, their cyclical notion of time. In sharp contrast, Christianity inherited from cold war causes Judaism not only a concept of time as nonrepetitive and linear but also a striking story of creation. By gradual stages a loving and all- powerful God had created light and darkness, the heavenly bodies, the earth and all its plants, animals, birds, and fishes. Finally, God had created Adam and, as an afterthought, Eve to keep man from being lonely. Man named all the animals, thus establishing his dominance over them. Offence And Defence Of Infanticide. God planned all of this explicitly for man's benefit and rule: no item in war causes, the physical creation had any purpose save to serve man's purposes. And, although man's body is made of clay, he is not simply part of nature: he is made in God's image.
Especially in its Western form, Christianity is the most anthropocentric religion the world has seen. Offence. As early as the 2nd century both Tertullian and Saint Irenaeus of Lyons were insisting that when God shaped Adam he was foreshadowing the essay cold war causes image of the incarnate Christ, the Second Adam. Man shares, in maya, great measure, God's transcendence of nature. Christianity, in absolute contrast to ancient paganism and Asia's religions (except, perhaps, Zorastrianism), not only established a dualism of man and cold, nature but also insisted that it is God's will that man exploit nature for his proper ends. At the level of the common people this worked out in an interesting way. In Antiquity every tree, every spring, every stream, every hill had its own genius loci, its guardian spirit. These spirits were accessible to men, but were very unlike men; centaurs, fauns, and mermaids show their ambivalence. Before one cut a tree, mined a mountain, or dammed a brook, it was important to placate the spirit in charge of that particular situation, and to keep it placated. On Effect Of Smoking. By destroying pagan animism, Christianity made it possible to exploit nature in a mood of indifference to the feelings of natural objects. It is often said that for essay war causes animism the Church substituted the cult of saints. College. True; but the cult of saints is functionally quite different from essay cold animism.
The saint is not in natural objects; he may have special shrines, but his citizenship is in heaven. Moreover, a saint is entirely a man; he can be approached in human terms. In addition to saints, Christianity of course also had angels and demons inherited from Judaism and perhaps, at one remove, from Zorastrianism. New Directions Essay. But these were all as mobile as the essay cold war causes saints themselves. The spirits in natural objects, which formerly had protected nature from man, evaporated. Man's effective monopoly on offence and defence spirit in cold war causes, this world was confirmed, and the old inhibitions to the exploitation of nature crumbled. When one speaks in paper activities, such sweeping terms, a note of caution is in order. Essay Cold. Christianity is a complex faith, and its consequences differ in differing contexts. What I have said may well apply to the medieval West, where in new directions, fact technology made spectacular advances. But the Greek East, a highly civilized realm of cold war causes, equal Christian devotion, seems to have produced no marked technological innovation after the maya essay late 7th century, when Greek fire was invented. The key to the contrast may perhaps be found in a difference in the tonality of cold war causes, piety and thought which students of comparative theology find between the and culture coursework a2 Greek and the Latin Churches.
The Greeks believed that sin was intellectual blindness, and that salvation was found in illumination, orthodoxy--that is, clear thinking. Cold War Causes. The Latins, on the other hand, felt that sin was moral evil, and that salvation was to be found in right conduct. Eastern theology has been intellectualist. Western theology has been voluntarist. The Greek saint contemplates; the Western saint acts. The implications of Christianity for the conquest of nature would emerge more easily in the Western atmosphere. The Christian dogma of creation, which is essay, found in the first clause of all the Creeds, has another meaning for our comprehension of war causes, today's ecologic crisis. By revelation, God had given man the Bible, the of infanticide Book of Scripture. But since God had made nature, nature also must reveal the divine mentality.
The religious study of nature for the better understanding of God was known as natural theology. Essay Cold War Causes. In the early Church, and angelou's new directions essay, always in the Greek East, nature was conceived primarily as a symbolic system through which God speaks to men: the ant is war causes, a sermon to sluggards; rising flames are the symbol of the soul's aspiration. Short. The view of nature was essentially artistic rather than scientific. While Byzantium preserved and copied great numbers of ancient Greek scientific texts, science as we conceive it could scarcely flourish in such an ambience. However, in the Latin West by cold the early 13th century natural theology was following a very different bent. It was ceasing to be the decoding of the of infanticide physical symbols of God's communication with man and was becoming the effort to understand God's mind by discovering how his creation operates. Essay. The rainbow was no longer simply a symbol of hope first sent to Noah after the Deluge: Robert Grosseteste, Friar Roger Bacon, and Theodoric of Freiberg produced startlingly sophisticated work on the optics of the rainbow, but they did it as a venture in religious understanding. From the 13th century onward, up to and including Leitnitz and Newton, every major scientist, in effect, explained his motivations in religious terms. Indeed, if Galileo had not been so expert an amateur theologian he would have got into far less trouble: the college professionals resented his intrusion.
And Newton seems to essay cold war causes, have regarded himself more as a theologian than as a scientist. It was not until the late 18th century that the hypothesis of essays, God became unnecessary to many scientists. It is often hard for the historian to judge, when men explain why they are doing what they want to do, whether they are offering real reasons or merely culturally acceptable reasons. The consistency with which scientists during the long formative centuries of Western science said that the task and essay, the reward of the scientist was to think God's thoughts after him leads one to believe that this was their real motivation. If so, then modern Western science was cast in a matrix of on effect, Christian theology. The dynamism of religious devotion shaped by the Judeo-Christian dogma of creation, gave it impetus. An Alternative Christian View. We would seem to be headed toward conclusions unpalatable to many Christians. Since both science and technology are blessed words in our contemporary vocabulary, some may be happy at the notions, first, that viewed historically, modern science is an essay cold extrapolation of coursework a2, natural theology and, second, that modern technology is at least partly to cold war causes, be explained as an Occidental, voluntarist realization of the Christian dogma of man's transcendence of, and rightful master over, nature.
But, as we now recognize, somewhat over a century ago science and technology--hitherto quite separate activities--joined to angelou's essay, give mankind powers which, to judge by many of the ecologic effects, are out of control. If so, Christianity bears a huge burden of guilt. I personally doubt that disastrous ecologic backlash can be avoided simply by applying to our problems more science and more technology. Our science and essay, technology have grown out of Christian attitudes toward man's relation to nature which are almost universally held not only by Christians and neo-Christians but also by those who fondly regard themselves as post-Christians. Despite Copernicus, all the of infanticide cosmos rotates around our little globe. Despite Darwin, we are not, in our hearts, part of the essay cold natural process. We are superior to nature, contemptuous of it, willing to use it for our slightest whim. Of Smoking. The newly elected Governor of California, like myself a churchman but less troubled than I, spoke for the Christian tradition when he said (as is war causes, alleged), when you've seen one redwood tree, you've seen them all. To a Christian a tree can be no more than a physical fact. The whole concept of the sacred grove is alien to Christianity and to the ethos of the West.
For nearly 2 millennia Christian missionaries have been chopping down sacred groves, which are idolatrous because they assume spirit in nature. What we do about ecology depends on our ideas of the college future plans man-nature relationship. More science and more technology are not going to get us out of the present ecologic crisis until we find a new religion, or rethink our old one. The beatniks, who are the basic revolutionaries of our time, show a sound instinct in their affinity for essay cold Zen Buddhism, which conceives of the man-nature relationship as very nearly the mirror image of the Christian view. Zen, however, is as deeply conditioned by Asian history as Christianity is by the experience of the West, and I am dubious of its viability among us. Possibly we should ponder the greatest radical in Christian history since Christ: Saint Francis of Assisi. The prime miracle of Saint Francis is the and culture a2 fact that he did not end at the stake, as many of his left-wing followers did. He was so clearly heretical that a General of the essay cold Franciscan Order, Saint Bonavlentura, a great and research, perceptive Christian, tried to suppress the early accounts of Franciscanism. The key to an understanding of Francis is his belief in the virtue of humility--not merely for the individual but for man as a species.
Francis tried to depose man from his monarchy over creation and set up a democracy of all God's creatures. With him the ant is no longer simply a homily for cold the lazy, flames a sign of the thrust of the soul toward union with God; now they are Brother Ant and Sister Fire, praising the Creator in their own ways as Brother Man does in his. Later commentators have said that Francis preached to the birds as a rebuke to men who would not listen. The records do not read so: he urged the little birds to praise God, and in and defence of infanticide, spiritual ecstasy they flapped their wings and chirped rejoicing. Legends of saints, especially the Irish saints, had long told of cold, their dealings with animals but always, I believe, to show their human dominance over creatures. With Francis it is different. The land around Gubbio in communication and culture, the Apennines was ravaged by a fierce wolf. Saint Francis, says the legend, talked to the wolf and essay cold war causes, persuaded him of the error of communication coursework a2, his ways. The wolf repented, died in the odor of sanctity, and essay cold, was buried in consecrated ground. What Sir Steven Ruciman calls the Franciscan doctrine of the animal soul was quickly stamped out.
Quite possibly it was in part inspired, consciously or unconsciously, by the belief in reincarnation held by the Cathar heretics who at that time teemed in Italy and southern France, and who presumably had got it originally from India. It is significant that at short essay on effect of smoking, just the same moment, about 1200, traces of metempsychosis are found also in western Judaism, in the Provencal Cabbala. But Francis held neither to transmigration of souls nor to essay war causes, pantheism. His view of nature and of man rested on a unique sort of pan-psychism of all things animate and inaminate, designed for short on effect of smoking the glorification of their transcendent Creator, who, in the ultimate gesture of cosmic humility, assumed flesh, lay helpless in a manger, and hung dying on a scaffold. I am not suggesting that many contemporary Americans who are concerned about our ecologic crisis will be either able or willing to counsel with wolves or exhort birds. However, the present increasing disruption of the global environment is the product of a dynamic technology and science which were originating in the Western medieval world against which Saint Francis was rebelling in so original a way. Their growth cannot be understood historically apart from essay distinctive attitudes toward nature which are deeply grounded in Christian dogma. The fact that most people do not think of these attitudes as Christian is paper classroom activities, irrelevant. No new set of basic values has been accepted in our society to displace those of essay war causes, Christianity. Hence we shall continue to have a worsening ecologic crisis until we reject the Christian axiom that nature has no reason for short essay existence save to serve man. The greatest spiritual revolutionary in cold, Western history, Saint Francis, proposed what he thought was an alternative Christian view of short on effect of smoking, nature and man's relation to it; he tried to substitute the cold idea of the resume type equality of all creatures, including man, for the idea of man's limitless rule of creation.
He failed. Both our present science and our present technology are so tinctured with orthodox Christian arrogance toward nature that no solution for our ecologic crisis can be expected from them alone. Since the roots of our trouble are so largely religious, the remedy must also be essentially religious, whether we call it that or not. We must rethink and refeel our nature and destiny. The profoundly religious, but heretical, sense of the primitive Franciscans for the spiritual autonomy of all parts of nature may point a direction.
I propose Francis as a patron saint for ecologists.