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Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) Additional insights into nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. Coursework Questions Wuthering Heights? Nongovernmental organizations, or NGOs, are generally accepted to critical be organizations which have not been established by questions wuthering, governments or agreements among governments. According to Harold Jacobson, author of one of the established texts in international organization, NGOs, like intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), have regularly scheduled meetings of their members' representatives, specified decision-making procedures, and a permanent staff. Their members are usually individuals and private associations, rather than states, and they may be formally established networks of other organizations. A wide variety of thesis film NGOs function in intractable conflicts. Coursework? These include conflict resolution NGOs, as well as those in humanitarian assistance, development, human rights, peacebuilding, and other areas. While the term NGOs is sometimes used interchangeably with grassroots organizations, social movements, major groups, and civil society, NGOs are not the same as any of character these. Grassroots organizations are generally locally organized groups of individuals which have spring up to empower their members and take action on questions wuthering heights particular issues of concern to them. Some NGOs are grassroots organizations. But many are not. Social movements are broader and more diffuse than organizations; a social movement encompasses a broad segment of society which is interested in fomenting or resisting social change in some particular issue--area, such as disarmament, environmental, civil rights, or women's movements. A social movement may include NGOs and grassroots organizations.
Major groups is a term coined at the time of the United Nations 1992 Rio Earth Summit as a part of Agenda 21 to thinking skills encompass the heights, societal sectors which were expected to play roles, in addition to nation-states and intergovernmental organizations, in environment and development. About Thinking Skills? NGOs are identified as one of these sectors, but NGOs overlap with many of the other sectors; there are women's NGOs, farmers' NGOs, labor NGOs, and business NGOs, among others. Finally civil society is a term that became popularized at the end of the Cold War to describe what appeared to have been missing in state-dominated societies, broad societal participation in and concern for governance, but not necessarily government. Civil society is thought to questions be the necessary ingredient for democratic governance to arise. NGOs are one part of civil society. While it is often argued that NGOs are the voice of the people, representing grassroots democracy, a counter argument is made that NGOs have tended to reinforce, rather than counter, existing power structures, having members and headquarters that are primarily in the rich northern countries. Some also believe that NGO decision-making does not provide for responsible, democratic representation or accountability. NGOs themselves can be local, national, or international. Sometimes international NGOs are referred to as INGOs. Historically, most NGOs accredited to the UN Economic and Social Council have been international, but contrary to the popular wisdom, even the first group of NGOs accredited to coursework only ECOSOC in the 1940s included some national NGOs.
Nongovernmental organizations are not a homogenous group. The long list of acronyms that has accumulated around NGOs can be used to questions heights illustrate this. People speak of NGOs, INGOs (international NGOs), BINGOs (business international NGOs), RINGOs (religious international NGOs), ENGOs (environmental NGOs), GONGOs (government-operated NGOs -- which may have been set up by governments to look like NGOs in order to qualify for outside aid), QUANGOs (quasi-nongovernmental organizations -- i.e. Character Essay? those that are at least partially created or supported by states), and many others. While some other groups are nongovernmental, they are not usually included under the term NGO. The term usually explicitly excludes for-profit corporations, and wuthering private contractors, and multinational corporations (MNCs), although associations formed by MNCs, such as the International Chamber of Commerce, are considered NGOs. Similarly, political parties, liberation movements, and terrorist organizations are not usually considered NGOs. Recently, however, some from irony outside the field of international organization, especially military writers, have begun to refer to terrorist movements as NGOs, some would say in wuthering heights, order to discredit NGOs.
Peter Willetts, an authority on NGOs, argues in defining NGOs that a commitment to gap year essay non-violence is the best respected of the principles defining an NGO. Why do Non-Governmental Organizations Matter? In the early 1990s there began to be a recognition of the importance of NGOs. NGOs were found to have closer ties to on-the-ground realities in developing countries and, perhaps more important, to be able to deliver development aid considerably more cheaply than states or intergovernmental organizations. As the UN Secretary-General's 1998 report stated, In terms of net transfers, non-governmental organizations collectively constitute the second largest source of development assistance. An article in the New York Times just before the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 cited development successes by NGOs such as the Trickle-Up Program, and stressed their low costs and high impact. NGOs also began to play a role in humanitarian assistance in conjunction with peacekeeping missions. They began to be referred to increasingly in UN resolutions, and some even began to meet informally with members of the UN Security Council to heights coordinate actions in of maryland school only, emergency situations. Both the number of questions nongovernmental organizations and their involvement in national and international policy-making have increased tremendously over the last half century and especially the interaction ritual essays on face-to-face citation, last several decades. At the questions wuthering heights, time of the foundation of the United Nations in 1945 there were 2865 international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs); by 1990 that number had increased to 13,591. This compared to 3443 international intergovernmental organizations and thesis film roughly 200 nation-states. But, more important, in the 1990s there began to coursework questions heights be a recognition of the gap year essay, import of the NGO role. In human rights, development, environment, and even disarmament, NGOs had begun to questions be recognized for thesis film their role in coursework questions wuthering heights, influencing public policy at the UN and thesis film on-the-ground in nation-states. NGOs also matter in intractable conflicts. Coursework Wuthering? NGOs play a variety of essay both positive and negative roles, from conflict resolvers doing Track II diplomacy, to development aid and questions humanitarian assistance, which can exacerbate or reduce conflict, to human rights advocacy, to election monitoring, to disarmament and environment work.
Mary Anderson has stressed the othello essay, importance of both development aid and coursework wuthering conflict resolution organizations being sure, first of all, to do no harm. NGOs have come to have an important role in the United Nations system. Neither the original July 18, 1944 US Tentative Proposals for a General International Organization, nor the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals put forth by the four major powers (the US, UK, Soviet Union, and China) October 7, 1944, contained any reference to the role of university only non-governmental organizations, but only to what would become the coursework questions, specialized agencies of the UN system. However, the US Delegation to the San Francisco Conference included representatives of 42 national organizations as Consultants. These included organizations in the fields of labor, law, agriculture, business, and education, plus women's, church, veterans', and essay civic organizations. A recommendation by these consultants for a paragraph providing for consultation between NGOs and ECOSOC played into the international dynamics over the representation of international labor unions, and led to the inclusion of Article 71 of the Charter, which allowed for NGOs which said: The Economic and Social Council may make suitable arrangements for consultation with non-governmental organizations which are concerned with matters within its competence. Such arrangements may be made with international organizations and, where appropriate, with national organizations after consultation with the Member of the United Nations concerned. Questions Wuthering? By the time of the UN Conference on Environment and Development, the Earth Summit in 1992, some 1420 NGOs were accredited to attend the Rio conference itself, while perhaps 25,000 NGO participants from 9,000 NGOs attended the parallel NGO Global Forum (set up for gap year essay those NGOs that were interested in, but not accredited to attend the coursework questions wuthering heights, UN Summit itself). Number of non-governmental organizations in consultative status with the UN Economic and Social Council. With this increase in interest in consultative status, in ritual on face-to-face behavior, 1993 ECOSOC requested a general review of NGO consultative arrangements in order to improve the coherency of rules for NGO participation in UN conferences, as well as the practical arrangements of coursework questions heights both the Committee on NGOs and the NGO Section of the Secretariat. On July 25, 1996 the 49th plenary meeting of ECOSOC approved a Resolution 1996/31, updating the arrangements for consultation with non-governmental organizations. Similar to the two previous resolutions, it provided for general consultative status (organizations concerned with most of the activities of the about critical skills, Council and broadly representative of populations in a large number of countries), special consultative status (internationally known organizations with special competence in a few of the fields of activity of the Council), and roster status (other useful organizations), and allocated different rights to them in attending meetings, speaking, and receiving documents, among others. ECOSOC, along with the General Assembly and the Secretary-General wrestled with the question of NGO involvement in the UN system throughout the coursework wuthering heights, 90s and early 2000s. Finally, in June 2004, the Secretary-General's Panel of Eminent Persons on Civil Society and UN Relationships issued its report, arguing that the UN should.
invest more in partnerships, focus on the country level, deepen the NGO-Security Council dialogue, and engage more with elected representatives. It also suggested a single accreditation process under the General Assembly and a new Under-Secretary-General in charge of a new Office of Constituency Engagement and essay Partnerships. This office would include not only NGOs and civil society, but elected representatives, business, and the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. NGO reactions to these proposals varied greatly, from interest in questions wuthering, the possibility of more General Assembly access, to fear that this was simply a move to gap year essay increase the heights, role of business in the UN system. NGO Action, in gap year essay, and Around the UN, and in the Field. Coursework Questions Wuthering Heights? Nongovernmental organizations have used their consultative status at oedipus character, the UN to affect intractable conflict in wuthering, many ways. They have organized to get the General Assembly and other UN organs to pass resolutions on disarmament, on development, on critical thinking human rights, and on other subjects related to the underlying sources of conflicts. They have helped to develop new UN institutions and treaties. Coursework Wuthering Heights? They have been the instigators of putting new issues on the UN agenda, issues like environment, women's rights, and child soldiers.
They have gotten UN bodies to university school coursework put questions of armament and disarmament before the World Court, and have been important in the development of the International Criminal Court. They have delivered humanitarian assistance and aided refugees, and have worked on development in societies that have recently experienced violent conflict. For example, The World Court Project, begun in New Zealand in 1986, was largely responsible for getting the World Health Organization and the General Assembly to ask the advisory opinion of the wuthering, World Court on the legality of nuclear weapons. The International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), which had received a Nobel Peace Prize in 1985 for gap year essay its work on questions wuthering heights nuclear weapons, sponsored a resolution at its World Congress in university school of nursing coursework, 1988. The project spread to the World Congress of the International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms (IALANA), and to other states, with the aid of newsletter coverage by the Parliamentarians for Global Action. Using Article 66 of the Charter, which allows other organs, in addition to coursework questions the UN General Assembly, to request World Court advisory opinions, the IPPNW convinced the World Health Organization to adopt a resolution on the subject on May 14, 1993. After the case went to the Court in September 1993, IALANA and IPPNW drafted model submissions, which were used by critical skills, some states. The World Court Registrar received citizen delegations with documents and petitions in 1994 and 1995. Nuclear weapons states and others argued that, not WHO, but the UN General Assembly, was the correct venue for such a question.
The Lawyers' Committee on Nuclear Policy, the US affiliate of IALANA, pushed for the adoption of a resolution by coursework wuthering, the UN General Assembly First Committee. Having achieved the support of the Non-Aligned Movement, the resolution was adopted 18 November 1994. In December 1994 the essay, resolution was adopted by the General Assembly. Within days the case arrived at coursework questions heights, the World Court, who decided to gap year essay consider the WHO and General Assembly questions separately but simultaneously. The World Court delivered its decision on July 8, 1996, finding threat or use of nuclear weapons contrary to the law of armed conflict, and in particular international humanitarian law, but not concluding in the case of self-defense. In this case NGOs used access through states and through consultative status with ECOSOC, coupled with legal expertise and social movement organizing, to obtain a result from the International Court of Justice that powerful nuclear states had opposed. This pattern was echoed in several other cases outside the realm of economic and social issues. Secretary-General Kofi Annan has repeatedly indicated how important the wuthering heights, role of NGOs has been with respect to the development of the gap year essay, International Criminal Court and coursework questions heights the 1997 land mines treaty.
The International Campaign to Ban Landmines so successfully mobilized both states and other NGOs in its network that the Ottawa Convention was signed in December 1997 by a total of 122 governments. In September 1998, Burkina Faso became the 40th country to ratify the thesis film, Mine Ban Treaty, triggering its entry into questions force in March 1999, record time for an international treaty. The Ottawa Process launched in October 1996 and concluding with the Convention's opening for signature, won Jody Williams and the ICBL the gap year essay, Nobel Peace Prize in 1997. It was a unique cooperation between a core group of wuthering likeminded governments and the ICBL NGOs, developed in a series of meetings in Vienna, Bonn, Brussels and Oslo over the course of 1997, outside the UN system, and relying on voting, rather than consensus. The ICBL participated in on face-to-face citation, discussions and negotiations inside, while outside it worked with the media, and raised public awareness, and networked with other NGOs to wuthering heights lobby governments. The treaty now has 143 states parties to the treaty, 9 additional signatories, and 42 non-state parties, as of September 2004. NGOs continue to about critical encourage signature and ratification of the treaty and coursework wuthering monitor compliance. Critical? Informal dialogues have also become an important mechanism linking NGOs with the UN. Beginning early in 1995 Jim Paul of the questions, Global Policy Forum and others began to organize the NGO Working Group on the Security Council.
This intensified as coordination of humanitarian aid and security questions in complex emergencies led to discussion between Security Council members and certain humanitarian organizations, especially focusing on Africa in 1997. The roughly 30 NGOs representatives form a closed group including six religious NGOs, six human rights NGOs, and a number of humanitarian assistance and development NGOs, as well as two women's groups and about thinking others such as a representative of the International Peace Academy, Lawyer's Committee for Nuclear Policy, the coursework wuthering, Coalition for the International Criminal Court, the UN Foundation, World Federalist Movement, and the Hague Appeal for about critical Peace. They have met increasingly, privately and off-the-record, with members of the Security Council, providing field information to members of the Council from crisis areas, as well as providing a link to the public. Until recently, the elected head of the group was the representative of the Quaker United Nations Office, a very small but effective NGO which facilitates delegates' work at the UN and often holds off-the-record dialogues of its own on questions wuthering heights topics ranging from environmental negotiations to conflicts between divided states. Quakers and Mennonites, both members of the about thinking skills, NGO working group, have also done mediation work for a very long time in intractable conflict areas around the coursework wuthering, world. Many other NGOs have also worked directly in conflict resolution efforts in thesis film, the field. The Pugwash and Dartmouth Conferences have been active over many decades, especially on arms control issues and across Cold War boundaries. Coursework Questions Heights? The Community of Sant'Egidio was important in working in complementary fashion with governments negotiating peace in othello essay, Mozambique. The International Crisis Group has monitored for signs of genocide, among its other activities.
Search for Common Ground has run dialogues, supported women's peace groups in Burundi, funded radio stations to coursework provide a peace voice. International Alert and the Forum on Early Warning and Early Response (FEWER) and many other NGOs worked to develop early warning of conflicts turning violent. Women's groups have also been significant, with the thinking, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom working on disarmament issues at coursework questions wuthering, the UN in Geneva for decades, and in New York being one of the primary groups to work with the Security Council on the development of Resolution 1325 in 2000, on the involvement of women in armed conflict and in peace negotiations. The roles of NGOs in intractable conflict are multiple, from direct conflict resolution, Track Two diplomacy, and mediation in crisis and long-term conflict areas, to assistance in monitoring elections, to delivery of university school of nursing coursework humanitarian assistance and development aid, to advocacy of human rights and justice, to lobbying governments to questions wuthering heights develop the long-term conditions which promote international peace and security. Their roles are often, but not always, positive, but they are not usually the primary players in any of these arenas. But without these NGOs, many of the accomplishments of states and international organizations would not have been possible. Harold K. Jacobson. 1984. Networks of Interdependence: International Organizations and the Global Political System. Second edition. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984), 4-10.  For definition and discussion of these and other social movements see Roger S. Powers and William B. Vogele (eds.), 1997, Protest, Power, and Change: An Encyclopedia of critical skills Nonviolent Action from ACT-UP to Women's Suffrage. New York: Garland Publishing Inc.  Section 3, Chapters 23-32, Strengthening the wuthering, Role of Major Groups, includes women, children and youth, indigenous people, NGOs, local authorities, workers and trade unions, business and industry, the scientific and technological community, and farmers. See United Nations Department of Public Information, Earth Summit Agenda 21: the United Nations Programme of Action from Rio . New York: UN DPI/1344, April 1993, pp. 219-245.  See for example Elise Boulding, 1977, Women in the Twentieth Century World . New York: John Wiley, pp.
165-218, for the argument that NGOs represent the voice of the people in a landscape of money and interaction ritual essays on face-to-face citation power.  Peter Willetts. Coursework Heights? Non-Governmental Organizations, Article 22.214.171.124 in character essay, UNESCO Encyclopedia of coursework wuthering heights Life Sciences.  Report of the Secretary-General: Arrangements and practices for the interaction of non-governmental organizations in gap year essay, all activities of the United Nations system. Wuthering Heights? A/53/170 (10 July 1998)  Paul Lewis, Fixing World Crises Isn't Just a Job for Diplomats, New York Times , April 5, 1992, section 4, p 4.  Compiled by author from Yearbook of International Organizations, 1990-91 . Othello Essay? Table 4, pp. 1665-68.  One of the first major news articles on NGOs at coursework questions wuthering, the UN was Paul Lewis, Fixing World Crises Isn't Just a Job for Diplomats, New York Times , April 5, 1992, section 4, p. 4, which looked at NGOs in the context of the UNCED PrepCom.  Mary Anderson. Interaction Ritual Behavior? Do No Harm: How Aid Can Support Peace - or War. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.  See first text in questions, U.S.
Department of State, Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, 1939-1945, Publication 3580 (February 1950) Appendix 38, pp. 595-606. See second text in gap year essay, Dumbarton Oaks Proposals for wuthering the Establishment of a General International Organization, in U.S. Department of State, Dumbarton Oaks Documents on International Organization, Publication 2257 (1945), pp 5-16. For more detailed discussion of the early stages of NGO consultative status in the UN, see Carolyn M. Stephenson, NGOs and the Principal Organs of the thesis film, United Nations, in Paul Taylor and coursework A.J.R. Groom (eds.), The United Nations at the Millennium: The Principal Organs. (London: Continuum, 2000), 273-276.  ECOSOC Resolution 1993/80, 30 July 1993.  For more detail on the further development of gap year essay UN-NGO relations, see Stephenson, 276-294.  Report of the Secretary-General's Panel of Eminent Persons on questions heights Civil Society and UN Relationships, June 21, 2004.  Global Policy Forum, NGO Working Group on the Security Council Information Statement July 2003. www.globalpolicy.org/security/ngowkgrp/statements/current.htm.  Herding Cats. Use the following to cite this article: Stephenson, Carolyn . Irony? Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs). Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: January 2005 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/role-ngo.
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Wuthering heights themes essays
Inductive Bible Study: Observation. THE THREE COMPONENTS OF INDUCTIVE BIBLE STUDY. What does it say? A WORD BEFORE YOU BEGIN - You will receive the greatest benefit from these notes if you are aware of the questions wuthering heights, desired goals/objectives -- These notes will be of little benefit to you if you are solely seeking passive receipt of more information. Instead, you need to come with a humble childlike attitude (cp Jesus' words Mt 18:2 3 4 Jas 1:21), and university school of nursing coursework a desire for coursework questions energetic engagement and true transformation.
To help facilitate this goal of knowing God better (John 17:3) and growing more like his Son (2Peter 3:18-note), be alert for the periodic pit stops which we call Practice it! - these junctures will give you an opportunity to practice what you are reading and gap year essay this in turn will help you to internalize what you are reading and will increase your retention and your confidence to apply these techniques in questions your daily time with God in His Word. As you become more comfortable with these techniques, you will increasingly experience the joy of self discovery of precious nuggets of Truth. Remember, that each time before you take a pause to Practice it! , also take a moment to beg your Teacher, the Spirit of Truth, to othello essay, open the eyes of your heart so that it might not be just an intellectual exercise and you might be enabled to see the wonderful supernatural truths in His Word. You will also be pleasantly surprised to discover that observation in many of wuthering, these practice exercises flows smoothly into interpretation and about thinking application, as the Spirit pricks your heart to believe and obey the questions heights, truth He has just illuminated. Observation describes the act of taking notice, fixing the gap year essay, mind upon, beholding with attention and as used in questions heights science includes the university of maryland of nursing only, idea of making and questions recording one's findings, a skill certainly applicable to fruitful inductive study of the Scriptures. Observation is not just seeing but perceiving what one sees, so that one becomes mentally aware of gap year essay, what one observes. We live in a fast paced society and honing the coursework wuthering, vital skill of observation is ritual essays behavior citation not the wuthering heights, natural inclination for most of us. We want answers fast (How many times have you heard someone say Just Google it?) and are loathe to linger too long observing a section of Scripture. But frankly, what better object to linger upon lovingly and long, than the eternal Word of thesis film, Truth, the very revelation from the Creator to His creatures!
We dare not let His precious Word bore us! And so we need to learn and practice the art of coursework questions heights, observation for as Yogi Berra once said. You can see a lot. just by thesis film looking. Dr H T Kuist would agree with Yogi for he defined observation as the art of seeing things as they really are. Kuist goes on to add that observation entails seeing impartially, intensely and fearlessly.
Robert Traina rightly concludes that the goal of questions, observation is to ritual, enable one to become saturated with ( Ed : filled completely with so that it permeates or pervades one's entire being) the particulars of a passage so that one is thoroughly conscious of the (object being observed). Coursework Heights! Observation is the means by which the data ( Ed : Don't let that word data discourage you - observation should never become a mechanical, pedantic exercise, but should always be like a much anticipated journey which eventually leads to othello irony essay, the matchless joy of discovering for coursework wuthering heights yourself what God has said in university school of nursing only a particular passage of the Bible) of a passage becomes part of the mentality of the student. It supplies the raw materials upon which the mind may operate in the interpretative process ( Ed : As led by the Holy Spirit - Jn 16:13, 1Jn 2:27). Coursework Wuthering Heights! (Methodical Bible Study. 2002. Zondervan) You may be surprised and maybe even a bit insulted by the suggestion that most of us have never really been taught how to read a book, much less a divinely inspired book. School Of Nursing! (Mortimer Adler's How to Read a Book is wuthering a recommended secular work and about critical skills makes for fascinating reading on this topic).
Most of us really don't know what to look for in order to effectively and efficiently carry out the observation of a specific book of the coursework questions wuthering heights, Bible because we've never been instructed. To take an analogy from life, it's hard to go fishing unless you've got the proper gear. About Thinking Skills! The goal of this section is to present some general guidelines on how to read the 'Best Book' but you will find the wuthering, principles applicable to anything you are reading. The Bible is unlike any other book for it is essentially a love letter from God to mankind. Stop for a moment and university of nursing ponder this awesome truth.
You have probably received a letter from your sweetheart when you were dating or courting. Coursework Questions! Do you remember how you responded when you received that letter? First, you were eagerly anticipating it. You couldn't wait for it to arrive in thesis film the mail. Questions Wuthering Heights! You kept checking the mailbox to see if the mail had arrived. And when it did come, you blocked out everything, opened the envelope and thesis film devoured every word, every nuance, every innuendo, as you read the letter from questions your beloved. and thesis film you read it not just once but over and over wuthering and over. You permitted nothing to interfere with reading the letter from beginning to end. The phone might have rung, but you paid little attention to university of maryland school of nursing only, the ringing.
You were far more focused on observing and interpreting what the questions wuthering heights, the love of your life had written. Is not this the approach we should take to interaction ritual behavior, the letter called the questions heights, Bible written by the One Who demonstrates His own love toward us, in othello irony that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us (Ro 5:8-note)? Is this how you approach His word? Or have you left your first love (Re 2:4-note)? Jesus speaking to the saints at Ephesus told them to Remember (present imperative = command to keep on remembering - it's a good preventative for drifting) therefore from where you have fallen, and repent (aorist imperative = command calling for urgent action) and do (aorist imperative) the deeds you did at first or else I am coming to you, and coursework questions heights will remove your lampstand out of its place-- unless you repent. (Re 2:4-note; Re 2:5-note) TWO PREREQUISITES - For Productive Inductive Bible Study.
(1) Willingness to slow down. (2) Desire to carefully observe what the passage is literally saying unbiased by thinking skills prior experience. Martin Luther whom God used to return His church to coursework questions wuthering, a Sola Scriptura approach (only the university of maryland of nursing coursework, Scriptures) which birthed the coursework questions heights, Reformation, described what in essence is an inductive approach to Bible study when he said. I study my Bible as I gather apples. First, I shake the whole tree that the ripest might fall . Then I shake each limb, and when I have shaken each limb, I shake each branch and every twig.
Then I look under every leaf . I shake the Bible as a whole , like shaking the whole tree ( Context ). Then I shake every limbstudy book after book ( Overview of Book ). Then I shake every branch, giving attention to the chapters when they do not break the sense ( Observation of Chapters ). Then I shake every twig, or a careful study of the paragraphs and sentences and words and their meanings ( Greek/Hebrew Word Studies ). Irony Essay! ( Ed note : my comments in green ) A T Pierson a well known 19th century preacher once wrote this comment regarding a passage he was studying. When I read this passage for the 100th time, the following idea came to me. ( Regarding Context, Pierson said ) As in any organism, no member or part, however minute, can be fully understood aside from its relation to the whole; so, in Scripture, every paragraph and questions sentence is about thinking skills part of its totality, and must be studied in relation to all the rest. The text will be illumined by the context, or scripture immediately preceding and following. Every occurrence and heights utterance should be studied in its surroundings. How, why, when a word was spoken or an act done, helps to thesis film, explain it, is its local coloring. Coursework Wuthering! Hidden relationships must be traced like underground roots and subterranean channels. So here we see this great seasoned student of the Scripture saying I've got to read it repeatedly and the more I read it the more I observe.
That's the genius of the Word of God and why it is unlike any other book. F B Meyer has an interesting suggestion if your appetite for the Word is at interaction on face-to-face, low tide. Do not always read your Bible because you like to do so, or desire it, but because it is right to do it, and as a matter of simple duty to your own life. Study the Word under the light of the Holy Spirit, as the ancient saint, when blindness was setting in, was wont to carry his Bible to the window, and place the questions wuthering heights, open page in character the full beams of the western sun. And slowly the coursework questions wuthering heights, appetite will re-assert itself, and you will come to character essay, esteem the Word of God more than your necessary food (Job 23:12-note) . Wuthering! (Tried by thesis film Fire - Exposition of 1 Peter - Long for the Pure Milk) BEGIN WITH PRAYER. Begin with and maintain an attitude of wuthering, prayer. Go to the Author of the Book before you go to oedipus character essay, the Book. And think about this - How many books have you ever read where you had the coursework wuthering, benefit of the irony essay, author's presence to help you discern his original intent? ! The Bible is not men's truth but God's special revelation of heights, Truth. We must always begin by conversing with the Author, beseeching Him to open the eyes of our heart to gap year essay, see, understand (put together the questions, pieces so to speak) and illuminate His supernatural love letter to us (see Col 1:9, 10, 11f-notes, Ps 119:105-note, Ep 1:17- note; Ep 1:18, 19-note). The psalmist recognized his dependence on the God of the Word for illumination of the about, Word of God and cried out.
Open my eyes, (Remember to ask 5W's? Why? How important? When?) that I may behold wonderful things from Thy law. (Ps 119:18-Spurgeon note) George Sweeting once said Prayer is the open sesame to coursework heights, the Bible. Always begin your Bible reading with prayer for divine guidance. All of us in thesis film reading some current book have wished the author were present to answer and explain some things, but this is rarely possible. Coursework Questions Wuthering! Amazing as it seems, this is possible when reading the oedipus, Bible.
Spurgeon comments : Open thou mine eyes . This is coursework a part of the bountiful dealing which he has asked for; no bounty is greater than that which benefits our person, our soul, our mind, and benefits it in so important an organ as the eye. It is far better to have the eyes opened than to be placed in the midst of the noblest prospects and thesis film remain blind to their beauty. That l may behold wondrous things out of coursework questions heights, thy law . Some men can perceive no wonders in the Gospel, but the interaction essays behavior, psalmist felt sure that there were glorious things in the law: he had not half the Bible, but he prized it more than some men prize the whole. He felt that God had laid up great bounties in His word, and he begs for power to perceive, appreciate and enjoy the same. We need not so much that God should give us more benefits, as the ability to see what he has given. The prayer implies a conscious darkness, a dimness of spiritual vision, a powerlessness to remove that defect, and a full assurance that God can remove it. It shows also that the writer knew that there were vast treasures in the Word which he had not yet fully seen, marvels which he had not yet beheld, mysteries which he had scarcely believed. The Scriptures teem with marvels; the coursework wuthering heights, Bible is a wonder land. It not only relates miracles, but it is itself a world of wonders.
Yet what are these to closed eyes? And what man can open his own eyes, since he is born blind? God Himself must reveal revelation to each heart. Scripture needs opening, but not one half so much as our eyes do: the othello, veil is not on the book, but on our hearts. What perfect precepts, what precious promises, what priceless privileges are neglected by us because we wander among them like blind men among the coursework questions wuthering heights, beauties of nature, and they are to us as a landscape shrouded in darkness! The Psalmist had a measure of spiritual perception, or he would never have known that there were wondrous things to be seen, nor would he have prayed, open Thou mine eyes but what he had seen made him long for a clearer and wider sight. This longing proved the genuineness of what he possessed, for it is a test mark of the true knowledge of God that it causes its possessor to thirst for deeper knowledge.
In sum, the psalmist was asking God to take the veil off of his eyes so that he might see spiritual truth revealed by the Spirit. He was acknowledging his inability to observe spiritual truth without the Spirit's illumination (cp 1Co 2:14, Acts 26:18, Jn 14:26, Lk 24:45). Skip Heitzig commenting on Psalm 119:18 as it relates to of nursing only, inductive Bible study suggests that we might consider beginning our study with a prayer something like this. Lord, I submit myself to coursework wuthering heights, You as Your servant (Ro 12:1-note). I pray that You would speak to me personally as I now open Your Word. Interaction Ritual On Face-to-face Behavior! Sharpen my powers of observation and open my eyes to what the text is saying. Give me wisdom and insight as I seek to interpret what the wuthering, text means.
And help me to apply Your truth to the specific areas in my life that need Your touch. Gently convict me of othello, any issues I'm neglecting or trying to questions wuthering heights, hide. Lord, I give You complete permission to university of maryland only, search my heart to see if there is anything in me that is contrary to Your will (Ps 139:23, 24-note). Challenge me with Your holiness and comfort me with Your promises, in Jesus' name. Amen. Coursework Questions Wuthering! (How to about skills, Study the Bible and Enjoy It) R. W. Dale quipped that Study without prayer is atheism, and prayer without study is presumption. Luke teaches that after His resurrection Jesus opened (open thoroughly what had been closed) [His disciples'] minds to understand (suniemi- see also related noun form sunesis) the Scriptures. (Lk 24:45, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, cp Ex 4:11) Here Luke uses the Greek word for understand which describes the assembling of individual facts into an organized whole, as collecting the coursework, pieces of a puzzle and putting them together. Martin Luther wrote the following on our desperate need for prayer when we study God's Word - You should completely despair of your own sense and reason, for by these you will not attain the gap year essay, goal. Wuthering! Rather kneel down in your private little room and with sincere humility and earnestness pray God through His dear Son, graciously to grant you His Holy Spirit to enlighten and guide you and give you understanding . Since the Holy Writ wants to be dealt with in fear and humility and penetrated more by gap year essay studying with pious prayer than with keenness of wuthering heights, intellect, therefore it is impossible for essay those who rely only on their intellect and rush into Scripture with dirty feet, like pigs, as though Scripture were merely a sort of human knowledge not to coursework wuthering heights, harm themselves and others whom they instruct. As you begin your inductive adventure through the Bible, may a determined effort to stick close to the Author with an othello irony essay attitude of prayer.
Blessed book, God's Living Book, Through its pages help me look; May I behold from day to day. New light to coursework questions wuthering heights, guide me in the way. ESTABLISH THE CONTEXT. Begin your study by careful observation with the character essay, goal being to establish the coursework questions wuthering heights, context which will lay the foundation for accurate interpretation . Accurate interpretation is almost certain to be compromised if one fails to carry out careful (accurate) observation ( see example of misinterpretation of a well known verse ). The English word context is gap year essay derived from two words, con = with and texo = to weave. Thus even the derivation gives us a picture of the wuthering heights, value of context in accurate interpretation -- it weaves the text together in an orderly, logical flow, a flow inspired by God intended to gap year essay, convey His message. Context is the setting in which a passage occurs or simply what precedes and wuthering what follows the text you are studying. Thus context includes those verses immediately before and after the passage, then the paragraph and book in thesis film which the passage appears, then other books by this author, as well as the overall message of the entire Bible. Picture a set of concentric circles with the text you are observing in the center and questions wuthering surrounded by coursework the next circle which is the paragraph or subdivision in which that text lives.
Next, you encounter the circle of the book in which that text is coursework questions heights found and finally the circle of the entire Bible. Never observe a passage without looking at the circles, especially the immediate paragraph, which means you need to thesis film, not rush, but be willing to take a moment and do some more reading. Wuthering Heights! (see Interpretation). Establishing the context forces the reader to examine the biblical writer's overall flow of thought. Othello Essay! The meaning of any passage is nearly always determined, controlled, or limited by what appears immediately beforehand and afterward in the text. Context is king in interpretation. Since context always rules in interpretation and Scripture must always be interpreted in light of its context, the first step in the study of any book of the Bible is to get an OVERVIEW of the book you are studying. Why? Because when you get an overview of the entire book, it will help you discover the coursework questions wuthering, context . D Martyn Lloyd-Jones wrote that.
While there may be a certain value in hanging up texts on gap year essay the walls of our homes or reading a collection of texts in a book like Daily Light, let us never forget that such practices can be dangerous, because there is a balance in Scripture, and the context of each and every verse is always important. It is the simple truth to say that most of the heresies that have troubled the Church throughout her long history have arisen because men and women have forgotten this simple principle. They have taken a text out of its context , and coursework questions wuthering heights have formulated a doctrine out of it. If they had but taken it in its context they would have been saved from the oedipus, error they have embraced. (Christian Unity - Studies in questions Ephesians) Irving Jensen writes. While observing a passage of university, Scripture, you should lay the wuthering heights, passage before you in temporary isolation and approach it impartially and fearlessly. You should scrutinize it with what Ruskin calls the thesis film, innocence of the eyeas if you had never seen it before. As you weigh each part, there should be calmness, deliberateness, and extreme care in concentration.
You breathe the air of wuthering heights, expectancy and irony cherish your eye as an honest servant of the mind. What you should desire above all else, in a true scientific approach, is to see things as they really are. (Irving Jensen. Independent Bible Study) Everything in questions wuthering heights a given book must be considered and analyzed within its setting, which means we can never isolate one verse or portion of the book from the rest of what is written. Setting is context and context is central if you are to arrive at a correct understanding of the text. Two other sources of context to always consider and which may shed significant light on thesis film the understanding of a passage are the cultural environment when the coursework wuthering heights, passage was written and interaction ritual essays citation the historical when the passage was written (e.g., what does the text teach about what it was like to be a believer in that specific culture and how does that influence what the author is writing in a specific book). As discussed in the section on Interpretation, context is king and vital for accurate interpretation. Most misinterpretation (and subsequently misapplication) of Scripture is the result of taking the heights, text out of its proper context. So the gap year essay, first task is to carefully observe the passage to establish the context. The natural tendency for coursework questions most of us is to take a verse or verses out of context in order to support some point of view that we espouse or favor.
This is called proof-texting and represents our attempt to make the Bible say what we want it to say or what we want to hear, rather than letting the Scripture say what God intended the passage to communicate. It is probably not an exaggeration to say that the most common failure in interpretation is to violate basic principle of allowing context to control how the passage is ritual on face-to-face citation interpreted. If context is so important, how does a lay person proceed to establish the context ? The simple answer is that one needs to read, re-read and carefully observe the text for wuthering repeated facts and truths. As one observes what is said, giving special attention to irony essay, repeated words, phrases, or ideas, he or she should begin to coursework wuthering, understand the context. It sounds easy doesn't it ? But careful observation is easier said than done for we live in a society which continually promulgates instant gratification and of maryland school of nursing coursework only the natural approach to studying Scripture is to want to coursework questions heights, know immediately What is in it for me? or How can this passage benefit me? That's why one of the othello, main prerequisites to productive inductive study is a willingness to slow down and to observe carefully. Since most of us don't really know the basic principles of observation, we may read through the chapter or book without truly observing the text. How many times have you read a chapter in the morning and by noon you can barely remember what you read? The Bible is meant to coursework, be bread for university of nursing coursework daily use, not cake for special occasions.
When you study the Bible hit or miss, you MISS more than you HIT. We must approach God's Word as if our lives depended on it--because they do (cp Deut 32:46, 46, Job 23:10, 11, 12-Job 23:10, Joshua 1:8-note). However, left to heights, our human nature, we all tend to read the othello irony essay, Bible more like Dr. Questions Heights! Watson than like Sherlock Holmes (Click here for oedipus illustration). To effectively establish context, you need to learn to read like Holmes rather than Watson. Be encouraged beloved for you will find that if you persevere in this critical stage of inductive study, the passage will begin to open up to you as never before. So from a practical standpoint, how should you begin to establish the context? Simply reading and re-reading a text could become very boring and non-productive. So let's look at some basic principles that will help us achieve our goal of determining the context. First, read the text with the goal of looking for the things that are OBVIOUS.
PEOPLE, PLACES, and EVENTS are the most obvious facts. In the epistles observation of the facts about the author and the recipients is a good place to begin to questions, establish context. Have you ever put together a jigsaw puzzle? How do you usually begin? Which pieces do you try to find first? Don't you look carefully for oedipus essay the most obvious pieces (F.O.T.O), the corner pieces. Which pieces do you try to identify next? The next most obvious pieces are those with straight edges. Can you see how this analogy relates to the study of a book of the Bible? Once you have connected all these puzzle pieces together, you have a framework or context in questions wuthering which to place (understand) the less obvious pieces of the puzzle. You will find that by beginning to observe the obvious, then the things within a book that are not easy to see or understand will eventually become clearer, rising to the surface even as you focus on oedipus those things that are obvious.
And as you begin to questions, grasp the oedipus character, context of the book, it will help you in your interpretation of the difficult, unclear or obscure parts of the questions wuthering, book. But even as you have to invest some time to find the obvious pieces to establish the context of the ritual essays behavior, puzzle, so too you will usually need to read a book (chapter) several times in order to begin to see the context and to begin to coursework questions heights, understand what the author is repeating or emphasizing (see key words below). So remember, in your initial study of gap year essay, a passage, chapter or book. Read through the book (chapter) you are studying, observing for the obvious facts, details, events or ideas, those things which are usually repeated. Coursework Heights! As already stated, the three things that are usually most obvious and oedipus character easiest to see are people , places and coursework questions wuthering heights events . Please do not be distracted by university of maryland school minute details, by verses you do not understand or by your favorite passage.
Remember that you are attempting to establish the context and coursework you do so by observing and marking the thesis film, most obvious facts. Let the acronym F.O.T.O. be your watchword as you begin to study any passage, chapter or book. Resist the temptation to look at the study notes of questions heights, you Bible, especially if the passage is unclear. You do not want to spoil the priceless joy of self-discovery. William Barclay once commented. It is only when truth is discovered that it is appropriated . When a man is simply told the truth, it remains external to interaction essays behavior citation, him and he can quite easily forget it. When he is led to discover the truth himself it becomes an integral part of him and he never forgets.
Remember that once you begin to observe and coursework questions wuthering heights identify the OBVIOUS facts, then those facts and truths that are not as easy to thesis film, see or understand will begin to wuthering, become clearer, rising to the surface so to othello essay, speak. Please do not be discouraged or frustrated, for if you persevere in reading and re-reading the text with a specific purpose (e.g. What does this section say about the author?), you are in the process of coursework heights, establishing the CONTEXT and this background will aid and guide your interpretation of the difficult, unclear or obscure passages. As you begin your journey in inductive Bible study, seek to have the mindset of an essay explorer searching diligently for questions wuthering heights priceless, hidden treasures (Ps 119:72-Spurgeon's note, Ps 119:127-note, Ps 19:10-note). Avoid reading the passage with the attitude of a tourist who is on a leisurely holiday for as Michael Green explains. There is a basic difference between and explorer and a tourist. The tourist travels quickly, stopping only to observe the highly noticeable or publicized points of interest. The explorer. takes his time to irony, search out all that he can find.
Too many of coursework questions wuthering heights, us read the Bible like a tourist and then complain that our devotional times are fruitless. School! It is necessary that we take time to explore the Bible. Notable nooks and crannies will appear as we get beneath the surface. If we do not carefully observe the Bible noting what it says, taking time to coursework wuthering, carefully establish the context, we may misunderstand what it really means and worst of othello irony, all we may misapply our misunderstanding with potentially calamitous results (see the coursework heights, following anecdotal story for the danger of Incorrect Interpretation). Robertson McQuilkin writes that. It is a shameful thing to thesis film, carelessly ignore the context. To deliberately violate the context is more than shameful; it is sinful, for it is a deliberate substitution of one's own words for heights the Word of God. The student of Scripture, though he may not understand the original languages, nevertheless has at his command the interaction ritual essays on face-to-face, single most important tool -- the context.
Let him use it diligently! (Understanding and wuthering heights Applying the Bible, page 163 - Highly Recommended Resource ) In his sermon on Hebrews 13:8 C H Spurgeon emphasizes the importance of context . LET me read to you the thesis film, verse that comes before our text (Hebrews 13:8-note). It is always a good habit to look at texts in their connection. Coursework Questions Heights! It is wrong, I think, to lay hold of small portions of interaction ritual on face-to-face behavior, Gods Word and take them out of their connection as you might pluck feathers from a bird. It is an injury to the Word of God and, sometimes, a passage of Scripture loses much of its beauty, its true teaching and its real meaning, by being taken from the context. Nobody would think of mutilating Miltons poems by heights taking a few lines out of Paradise Lost, and gap year essay then imagining that he could really get at the heart of the poets power. So, always look at texts in the connection in which they stand. (The Unchangeable Christ)
C H Spurgeon in another message emphasizes the vital importance of context . We are not to treat the verses of the Bible as pigeons might treat a bushel of peaspicking out coursework questions wuthering, one here and another there, without any thought of the surroundings of that particular passage! No, this blessed Book was written for othello irony men to coursework, read right throughand if they are to understand the meaning of it, they must read each sentence in the connection in which it is found. (Christs Yoke and Burden) John Piper is undoubtedly one of the most gifted and influential preachers of the 20-21st Centuries, and thus it is not surprising to hear him frequently allude to the importance of oedipus character, context in his sermons (Google search of Desiringgod.org retrieves 173,000 hits for context , albeit undoubtedly not every occurrence uses context with the questions heights, meaning we are discussing). Here are a few quotes from a variety of Piper's sermons (and since we are discussing the importance of context links to entire message are included to see the full and proper context ). My approach is to assume that the New Testament writers built on the Old Testament meaning of the psalms (and other books) unless something in the context forces me to think otherwise. (From Who Rules the World to Come- - Desiring God) If you try to character, skip the Old Testament and interpret Jesus within your own context first without the Biblical-historical context and categories, you may make him a coach or a therapist or a good example or a guru or a mentor or a hero or a trailblazer. Coursework Questions Wuthering! And there may be some truth in each of these. Gap Year Essay! But they will not be as true and deep and authoritative and helpful as the categories that the Bible itself uses. (From Draw Near to the Throne of Grace with Confidence) In understanding what this verse (sermon discussing Heb 10:14) is teaching.
So lets step back now and put the whole verse before us again in its context . Questions! (From Perfected for All Time by a Single Offering) But in of maryland of nursing the context, the kind of coming together in view seems to be one where the members encourage one another. Verse 25 is explicit: come together and encourage one another. The one another implies that there is something mutual going on. One is encouraging another and another is encouraging one. Each is doing or saying something that encourages. But now think what this means in context. (From Magnifying God with Money)
So it is clear that for this young minister of the heights, Word (see 2Ti 2:15), preaching was to be a prominent activity. And the context of 2Ti 3:1617 seems to about critical thinking, imply that preaching is not just for evangelism on wuthering heights the street corner or in the synagogue, but for the saints who need (as 2Ti 4:2 says) reproof, rebuke, exhortation, patience and instruction. (From The Place of Preaching in of maryland school only Worship) Robert Girdlestone has a topic entitled Read Each Book in the Light of the Context. In order to ascertain the questions wuthering, meaning of any written statement, whether secular or sacred, we must read each sentence in the light of its contexti.e., of the neighboring sentences. In the Bible we ought to study passages rather than verses . The length of a 'passage' varies according to circumstances, and it may not be always easy to say where one passage ends and another begins. The sectional marks in some Bibles may help us, and the division into paragraphs and of maryland school coursework only sub-paragraphs ought to make the coursework questions, matter clear, and where this is not the case, practice and the use of gap year essay, our common-sense will generally enable us to decide. Questions Wuthering Heights! The advantages of this method of study are manifold. First , it usually enables us to see clearly who is the speaker or actor in each passage. It may be God, or it may be a prophet, or it may be an ordinary man; the view expressed may be inspired, or it may simply be the belief at the period. One of the first questions we ask concerning any statement recorded in the Bible is, Who makes it? Its influence on our life will vary according to the answer.
Again , the ritual essays on face-to-face citation, studying of the wuthering heights, context enables us to oedipus character essay, see whether the statement contained in a verse or fragment of a verse is conditional or unconditional , or whether it needs to be qualified by coursework questions wuthering heights the circumstances under which it is uttered. No text is more familiar, and few have been more blessed than that which we read in 1John 1:7, which is usually quoted thus :The blood of Jesus Christ cleanses from all sin.' But, on turning to the passage, we find the little word IF introduced. It runs thus: 'If we walk in about thinking skills the light. the blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanses us from coursework all sin.' It implies that we have already come to the light, and are walking in the light, so that we are like the othello, man who has bathed and needs only to wash his feet (Jn 13:10). Again , the study of the context will keep us from misapplying a text or throwing its force into questions wuthering, the wrong direction . Thus, in Phil 2:12, there is an about thinking skills oft-quoted sentence: 'Work out your salvation in coursework wuthering fear and trembling, for gap year essay it is coursework wuthering heights God Who works in you both to will and to work for His good pleasure.' Preachers are in the habit of dwelling on the apparent inconsistency between the interaction on face-to-face, two halves of the passage, and coursework questions heights they argue from it that we cannot reconcile the doctrine of character essay, free will with Divine influence. But take a step further back, and the passage reads thus: 'So then, my beloved, just as you have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your salvation, for. in other words, 'Depend not on coursework wuthering heights me (Paul), but on othello essay God; I cannot do for you (whether present or absent) what He can.' (Robert Girdlestone - Page 39 -How to wuthering heights, Study the English Bible) You might also read Girdlestone on the topic Examine the Meaning of Words which begins this way Words are little things, but they are not to be despised. A little key opens a precious casket, and a little coin will purchase what may save a life; and so, a little word may suggest a world of meaning, or become the turning-point of a destiny. It has been said that words are finite, whilst the things which they represent are infinite. That is true; but we cannot get at the infinite truth except through finite words. Bible words need to be carefully studied and well weighed; their usage must be mastered, and we must be prepared to give 'small change' for them, that is, to translate them into the language of our present daily life. ( Page 41 - How to Study the thesis film, English Bible ) Irving Jensen . Coursework Wuthering! repeatedly alludes to the importance of context in his modern classic Independent Bible Study.
A Christian who studies a book of the gap year essay, Bible with serious intentions must learn its facts by way of its form, or, stated another way, he must learn its teaching by way of its structural context . He shouldn't study some parts and overlook others as though he were selecting the most lustrous jewels from the store counter and rejecting others. Rather, he will consider the coursework, total message of the book as likened to a beautiful plant, with a stream of life flowing through all its parts. Merrill C. Tenney, in writing of the genius of the Gospels, asserts that the basic presupposition of his approach is that the content, form, and about skills doctrine of the coursework questions wuthering heights, Gospels are the product of the Holy Spirit, to Whom they owe their vital power.. When you, the interaction ritual essays on face-to-face behavior, studentface to face with the minute parts of Scripture including even the punctuationwrestle to know its intent in its context , you are engaging in the study process known as analysis. Coursework Questions! Analysis is distinguished by its exactness, minuteness, and comprehensiveness. Gap Year Essay! Tenney makes a high appraisal of the analytical method when he says, In order to ascertain exactly what a given body of text says one should employ the wuthering, analytical method.. Context is one of the best indicators of the author's primary message. (The) process of using Scripture to interpret Scripture has been one of the soundest maxims in exegesis. But for segment studies, it is thesis film best first to concentrate your study on coursework questions heights the words and irony thoughts in their immediate context and use, cross-reference study later as a supplementary guide.
If an ambiguous word or phrase occurs in a segment of study, you will not be satisfied until the context sheds some light on questions wuthering its meaning. Gap Year Essay! For example, the word shepherd could in a certain context emphasize the lowly aspect of such a man's occupation. Coursework Questions Heights! However, for othello the phrase The Lord is my shepherd , (Ps 23:1) the context of the Twenty-third Psalm indicates that the guidance, protection, and provision aspects of shepherding are being taught. Common sense and context , then, are two key helpmates in identifying the coursework heights, Bible author's intentions in his use of literal and figurative language. Among the various maxims for thesis film interpreting parables, the rule of surrounding context offers us the most light for coursework questions heights our interpretation. Any context that answers the irony, following two questions is coursework questions wuthering heights gold to the interpreter: (1) What brought on the parable? (2) What effect did the parable have on irony the hearers? Because parables speak of daily life, an coursework questions heights understanding of the items in the parable relating to custom, culture, and geography of the biblical days is thesis film also essential to a full appreciation of the coursework, intent of the parable. The Bible is its best interpreter, and university of maryland school coursework only such self-interpretation involves cross-reference study, distant context reference, and, of greatest aid, the immediate or surrounding context . Since the inductive method of wuthering heights, study that is being urged in these pages emphasizes this immediate context study, involving terms as well as structure, a devotion to the disciplines of this method is sure to thesis film, aid the Bible student in arriving at questions wuthering heights, the true interpretation. You will find that the Bible passage explains much of oedipus essay, itself by its own context . (Remember that) No Bible statement is without context . How important is context?
I would propose that context played a vital role in the initiation of the Reformation! Why so? Read Martin Luther's own words regarding the importance of context. Thus I raged with a fierce and coursework questions troubled conscience. Nevertheless, I beat importunately upon Paul at [Romans 1:17], most ardently desiring to know what St. Paul wanted.
At last, by the mercy of God, meditating day and night, I gave heed to thesis film, the context of the words , namely, In it the righteousness of God is revealed, as it is written, He who through faith is righteous shall live. There I began to heights, understand [that] the righteousness of God is righteousness with which [the] merciful God justifies us by faith. Here I felt that I was altogether born again and had entered paradise itself through open gates. (The Reformation Journal = Martin Luthers Account of irony, His Own Conversion) Another illustration of importance of context - Vance Havner wisely says It is coursework heights never wise to use as a sermon text a verse that begins with And . If we confine ourselves to irony essay, that text, we have not said all that God meant to wuthering, say in that connection. For instance, we often hear sermons from the verse . . . Ye shall know the university school only, truth and the truth shall make you free (John 8:32). But the wuthering heights, first word in the verse is And which indicates that something has gone before. The preceding verse says, . About Thinking Skills! . . Coursework Wuthering! If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed. (John 8:31) Then follows, And ye shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free. Likewise, we hear sermons from Romans 12:2 about being not conformed to the world, but the preceding verse bids us present our bodies as living sacrifices (Ro 12:1). Thesis Film! First, the positive, then the coursework wuthering heights, negative nonconformity to the world, and finally the positive again, Be ye transformed.
We must have the whole passage-to give a complete message . Torn out of context, one verse does not say all that God has said on that matter. We must preach not only the truth and nothing but the truth, but the thinking skills, whole truth in a given passage. PUT IT INTO PRACTICE: Click for an exercise on establishing context on 1Thessalonians 1. KEY WORDS KEY PHRASES. What are key words or key phrases ? Think about the keys to your car or house. What is coursework wuthering their purpose? What happens when you misplace them? By analogy, in simple terms key words or phrases function like keys to critical, help the reader unlock the meaning of a passage, a paragraph, a chapter or a book.
How do we go about identifying these crucial words and phrases ? First, we need to understand a few more details about the coursework questions wuthering, keys and then we can take action. Are usually identified by the fact that they are repeated. Are vital to the understanding of the text and of maryland of nursing coursework cannot be removed without leaving the passage devoid of meaning. May include pronouns, synonyms, closely related phrases. May be key only in a paragraph, in a chapter or throughout the entire book. Why are we doing all this work on key words and key phrases? Similar or recurring ideas and questions wuthering heights words will guide you to the author's main idea.
The study of thesis film, key words and phrases will help you discover the author's logic and flow of ideas. In other words, as you observe key words/phrases you will begin to understand the author's intended message or purpose (and how he will accomplish his purpose.) Don't become frustrated at questions wuthering, this point. Remember that you are reading and re-reading in order to establish the gap year essay, context (which is crucial for arriving at an accurate interpretation). The process of identifying, marking and interrogating the wuthering heights, key words/phrases is vital in order for thesis film you to firmly grasp the context. After several readings of a section focusing on author, recipient (these first two are only found in epistles), key words and key phrases, you will begin to understand what the main subject(s) are, which in turn will reveal the theme (unifying idea repeated or developed throughout a work) of the questions wuthering, chapter or book you are observing. To reiterate, as you read the Scriptural text, be alert for key words and phrases which help to establish the character essay, context, the overall theme, and the author's specific purpose for writing the book. Each encounter with a key word or phrase should prompt you to pause and mark it (see next section) as well as to ask one or more of the 5W/H questions.
PUT IT INTO PRACTICE: Click simple exercise on coursework wuthering heights identifying, marking questioning the key word God in 2Timothy 1. Click if you would like to thesis film, more practice establishing context using 1Thessalonians chapter 1. MARKING KEY WORDS. Mark each key word in coursework wuthering heights a distinctive way, using symbols and/or color coding . Othello Irony! Once you determine a symbol for the key word or phrase, it will be helpful to use this marking system throughout your Bible to facilitate quick recognition. Here are some examples of how you might mark some common key words (place symbol over the key word): (LORD or Jehovah in the OT) (Including references to Messiah in OT) **HINT : The symbols in the table are available in Microsoft Word's fonts - scroll down to webdings and wingdings (1-3). If you do not have Microsoft Word on your computer, these symbols will not be accurately displayed but you should still be able to coursework questions wuthering, understand the gap year essay, idea from the description of the symbol. Precept Ministries has an inexpensive bookmark entitled How to coursework wuthering heights, Mark Key Words in Your Bible with a number of examples for common Biblical words (call 1-800-763-8280 to order)
Remember that although God, Jesus and the Holy Spirit are always key words , they may occur many times in a given chapter or paragraph. In these situations, you may elect not to mark every occurrence lest you end up with so many marks that you can barely read the actual Scriptures! Use common sense about when to mark and gap year essay when not to mark. Don't forget to mark synonyms of the key word/phrase. A synonym is coursework wuthering a word that has the same meaning as another word within a particular context and is used in about critical thinking skills place of the word. A synonym is like saying the coursework questions heights, same thing with a different word.
For practice, read through 1 Thessalonians 1 (Click) and make note of the key word gospel . If you have time print this chapter off (as an Observation Worksheet) so you can mark the gap year essay, text. How would you mark gospel ? What do you learn about the gospel? What other 5W's and H questions can you ask of this key word? Now read through 1 Thessalonians 1 a second time, but this time read with the purpose of observing for any synonyms (including phrases) for gospel . Did you see any words or phrases that refer to the gospel? If you didn't see them, read it through a third time and you will probably see the two phrases that refer to the gospel. After reading through this chapter two or three times, you have begun to understand the context. You have also begun to understand how removal of coursework questions wuthering heights, gospel and its synonyms leaves the passage virtually devoid of meaning and on the other hand how an understanding of the key words/phrases helps you begin to discern the theme of this chapter. Click for oedipus character more complete instructions on how to practice the inductive technique on 1 Thessalonians 1. AND/OR COLOR THE TEXT?
Marking helps make the Scriptures your own because it helps remember the text. As discussed elsewhere, as a general rule we recall 10% of what we read, 20% of what we hear and coursework heights 50% of what we read, hear and of nursing coursework see (Click table). Questions Wuthering! In addition (as with all of the Inductive techniques) marking the text tends to slow us down, which is our desperate need. Marking in a sense helps us be still (Ps 46:10KJV) so that we might hear the still, small voice of the Spirit of the character, Lord speaking to coursework wuthering heights, us personally through the Holy Scriptures (1Ki 19:12KJV). Marking allows one to quickly scan the page and see the key words that are emphasized in that section.
Use the same symbols for key words from Genesis to Revelation as this will facilitate recognition throughout the Scriptures. Lamberski and Dwyer studied color coding and concluding that color-coding techniques improved attention, increased learner motivation and aided remembrance. Avoid the temptation to speed read a passage and seeking to mechanically mark each occurrence of a key word (or reference to thesis film, Author or Recipient if you are reading an epistle). And don't forget that each encounter with a key word (fact about author or recipient) should stimulate a 5W's and H question. Why is this used here? How does it impact the flow of thought? Who does this relate to? When did this occur?, etc. The more you practice this valuable skill, the coursework, more sophisticated your questions will become and irony the more profound will be the coursework wuthering heights, insights that the Spirit illuminates. And don't worry, for you can never run out of questions for the Word of God because it is a living Word! As you seek to establish the context of the chapter or book, continually reading with a marking, interrogating mindset, you will find yourself engaging more and more in active (versus passive) reading.
Active reading not only stimulates your thinking and interaction with the text, it also slows you down. Active reading engages you in conversation with the university of maryland of nursing only, Author. In a sense, by reading actively you are practicing the essence of the all but lost art of questions heights, meditation on the Scriptures. Yes, marking and interrogating will slow you down somewhat, but you will gain so much more from the passage than if you had simply read through it in irony obedience to your read through the Bible in questions a year schedule. Mark it down: Marking a book is not an act mutilation but of love. You may own the book but you've not really made it your own. Someone has well said that a Bible that is falling apart usually belongs to someone who is not!
Don't try to gap year essay, identify, mark and interrogate every key word in the first reading of a paragraph, chapter or book. A recommended approach is to read through a section (e.g., 2 Timothy 1) marking and interrogating a single key word . Then read through the same chapter again and mark another key word. Coursework Questions Heights! To reiterate, God, Jesus, Christ, Lord and oedipus character essay Spirit are always key words and therefore should generally always be marked, unless they are so concentrated that marking them would make it difficult to see other key words in the text. As you read and reread a chapter making observations on the key words, you will notice that you are beginning to questions wuthering, understand and thesis film establish the questions wuthering heights, context , which as king in the interpretation. MARK THE SCRIPTURE:Are You Spoiling Your Beautiful Bible?
One day in St. Louis, Missouri, a young convert named C. I. Scofield walked into the office of a friend. He found him with a new copy of the Scriptures on character his desk and a pencil in his hand. Why, man, youre spoiling that beautiful Bible! exclaimed the young Christian. His older friend pointed him to Acts 8, where he had underscored the fifth verse, Philip went down to the city of Samaria and began proclaiming Christ to wuthering heights, them. (Acts 8:5) Then he had connected by a line to Acts 8:8 which reads, So there was much rejoicing in that city. Years afterward, Scofield frequently introduced his friend C. E. Paxson as the man who first taught me to mark my Bible. The inspiration and instruction that Paxson gave him led to the preparation of the now-famous Scofield Reference Bible with its helpful footnotes and thinking cross-references. Remember that while it is good to mark your Bible, it is better to questions heights, let your Bible mark you because the value of the Bible is character essay not in just knowing it, but in obeying it. What kind of pen do I use to mark my Bible? One of the best pens for marking thin Bible pages is the coursework wuthering heights, Sakura Pigma Micron which comes in several colors, is thesis film long lasting, does not bleed through the page and comes in a variety of point widths (Micron 01 = 0.25mm is recommended - the 001 is superfine but can be easily bent). Note this link is questions wuthering heights provided as a starting point so that you can see what Pigma Micron pens look like and their price range. Irony! I have never ordered from wuthering heights this link and behavior citation so appropriate caution and shopping around are recommended.
How to Read the coursework, Bible. It shall greatly helpe ye to understande Scripture. Not only what is ritual essays behavior citation spoken or wrytten, With what words. With what circumstances, Considering what goeth before. And what followeth. WITH 5W'S H QUESTIONS. Webster: interrogate transitive verb: to question formally and systematically. The best investigative reporters are the best interrogators - I think this truth applies to coursework wuthering heights, getting the most out of one's time in the Word of God, as long as one does not become too mechanical or pedantic. Mortimer Adler in his excellent book How to Read a Book writes.
If you ask a living teacher a question, he may really answer you. Interaction Essays Behavior Citation! If you are puzzled by what he says, you may save yourself the trouble of thinking by asking him what he means. If, however, you ask a book a question, you must answer it yourself. In this respect a book is like nature. When you speak to it, it answers you only to the extent that you do the work of thinking and analysis yourself. The Bible of course is not like nature, nor is it like any other book, for coursework wuthering heights as believers we possess within ourselves (1Cor 3:16, 1Cor 6:19-note) the Holly Spirit, the character, Author of the Book.
And thus as we prayerfully, humbly, thoughtfully, meditatively, yea even as a little child interrogate the living and active (Heb 4:12-note) Word of Truth (Ps 119:43-note, 2Co 6:7, Col 1:5-note, 2Ti 2:15-note, Jas 1:18-note, see also Jn 8:31,32, 17:17), our Teacher, the Spirit, in wuthering some very real (albeit to othello essay, me still mysterious) way interacts with us, illuminating the inspired Word and heights leading us into behavior citation, all Truth, even as Jesus promised (John 16:13, cp Jn 14:16, 26, 15:26, 16:7 1Jn 2:20,27). In his last letter to Timothy Paul wrote to this young disciple of coursework questions, Christ Consider (command) what I say, for (term of explanation) the Lord will give you understanding in everything. Thesis Film! (2Ti 2:7-note) John Piper paraphrases Paul's instructions explaining to Timothy that Thinking and asking questions (cp 5W/H questions) is the only way you will ever understand what I want to communicate in my letters. And either you do it poorly, or you do it well. (Ref) To understand the Word of God, Rely on wuthering the Spirit of God. And so as you observe carefully for the author's use of key words and key phrases fight the urge to read passively by on face-to-face citation simply skimming over coursework questions wuthering heights the text without engaging your mind. (You might search for thesis film the phrase active reading [6 hits] in coursework wuthering How to Read a Book for Adler's comments on active reading) If you mark the text, you also need to fight the school coursework, tendency to mark mechanically without thinking about what you just marked (I still fall into this trap even after years of practicing inductive Bible study). To counter these tendencies, we must make a definite choice to coursework, pause and prayerfully ponder and interrogate the othello irony, inspired Word, asking and answering as many of the following leading questions as the text allows. THE 5W/H QUESTIONS: As an aside, questioning the text does not mean that one questions the inerrancy, plenary inspiration or authority of God's Holy Word!
The more you practice interrogating the text, the more the text will be opened to coursework wuthering, you by the illuminating ministry of the essay, Spirit. Below are some suggestive questions, but remember to allow the text (and especially the context) to guide your specific questions. Who is speaking? To whom and/or about whom is he speaking? Who are the questions heights, main characters? Who is mentioned in the book (Why?
What do we learn about them?) (In the epistles ask) Who is writing (author)? Who receiving? Where did (or will) this happen (Why? When?)? Where was this said/written (where is the of maryland school, author) (Why?)? Why was this written (What purpose?)?
Why is this said? Why is wuthering he there? When is this written (When in Biblical history - where on the timeline? When in the author's life)? When did/will this happen? When did he say/do it? What is the author doing? What are the main events? What are the circumstances? What is the historical/cultural setting (as determined from the text)?
What is the main subject of the chapter/book? How will/did something happen? How is the ritual essays behavior citation, truth illustrated? Do not panic if you cannot ask every 5W/H question. And remember that these questions should be asked not only wuthering, when you encounter key words or key phrases, but every time you identify one of the other Observation code words -- C ontrast , C onclusion (and terms of explanation such as for ), C omparison , C hronology (time phrase), etc. Gap Year Essay! Every encounter with one of these code words is an opportunity to hone (sharpen) your skills of observation. Yes, it does take time and practice to coursework, train yourself to oedipus essay, employ this questioning mindset. (As an aside, questioning the text does not mean that one questions the inerrancy, plenary inspiration or authority of God's Holy Word!) As you train your eye to observe the heights, Scriptures (this training takes some time), your enhanced ability to keenly observe and intelligently interrogate will also make you a better reader of thinking, everything you read for the rest of your life. Learning to interrogate the Scripture with the questions, 5W/H questions yields a number of thesis film, dividends such as. (1) It will force you to slow down and will counteract the tendency to speed read the wuthering, Bible. Interaction On Face-to-face Citation! This travesty is coursework questions heights especially common when one falls behind schedule on thinking skills their Through the Bible in coursework wuthering a Year reading program! Here is a little test you can perform today.
Assuming you began today with the breakfast of champions, the pure milk of God's Word (1Pe 2:2-note), ask yourself several times during the day, What did I read this morning? What did it teach me about God? What did it say about me? How have I applied this Truth? I fear too many of us have trouble recalling specific details of our time with God in gap year essay His Word as the day draws nigh.
I submit that if you pause and coursework heights prayerfully ponder the about critical thinking skills, pages of Holy Writ, your Teacher, the Spirit, will bring those passages to heights, your remembrance during the thesis film, day, giving you wisdom for living life to questions wuthering, the full (John 10:10b)! On the other hand if it is the irony essay, middle of the wuthering, afternoon and you cannot even remember the book or chapter you read this morning, you have most likely read too fast and too passively. It is better to let one verse read you then to university school of nursing only, read a hundred verses that you cannot recall. Beloved, God's desire is that His book be our real time instruction manual for living, whether we are at home, at school or at questions, work! (2) It will engage your heart and mind with the text (and especially the Author of the text), forcing you to to read actively , more like an explorer , rather than passively like a tourist . The old adage Stop and smell the roses surely applies to acquisitively taking in the beauty of all of our Father's good words (Joshua 23:14, 21:45). (3) It will create a meditative mindset, as you pause and ponder the passages, chewing them like a cow chews cud , mulling them over in your mind, constantly seeking to ask the probing 5W/H questions. You will begin to gain insights into the Scriptures that you simply could not have been gleaned from thesis film a superficial, passive, unengaged reading of the Holy Word. Coursework Heights! You will begin to experience the character, joy of self discovery as your Teacher, the Spirit, illuminates and applies God's Truth to your life. In a very real sense, you will be learning how to meditate on the Holy Scriptures, a discipline which God promises to greatly bless (Read His promises which are applicable to coursework wuthering, you in Psalm 1:1-note, Psalm 1:2-note, Psalm 1:3-note and Joshua 1:8-note). We interpret the Bible properly when we learn to ask the thesis film, right questions of the text.
The problem is that many people do not know the right questions to ask or are either too lazy or too rushed to practice them! Imagine if God were to coursework wuthering heights, beckon you to irony essay, come into His presence. Would you want to leave or would you linger? In His living and abiding Word, the Father has called us into His very presence, into communion with Himself, through the coursework, ministry of His Spirit and thesis film His Son, our Great High Priest, the Incarnate Word. May this transcendent truth motivate in all of us a continual Mary like attitude, so that we too would sit quietly at our Master's feet, lingering, listening, and learning the one thing that is really necessary (Lk 10:38 39 40 41 42)! A W Pink wrote that No verse of Scripture yields its meaning to lazy people. It therefore behooves us to coursework questions, gird the loins of our mind for action (1Peter 1:13-note), so that we might diligently practice interrogating the Scriptures with the university school coursework, 5W/H's. As someone once pithily put it God feeds the birds, but He doesn't throw the food into their nests! Learning to ask the right questions, to discern the answers and to carefully observe the text demands discipline, diligence and doing (Just do it!). Most amateur sleuths have never been trained in the Sherlock Holmes Approach to Scripture.
If I were the questions, Devil, that one who does not stand in the Truth (Jn 8:44), I would do everything I could to discourage the saints from interaction on face-to-face behavior learning now to carefully observe the coursework wuthering heights, Word of Truth for themselves, for fear that they might become equipped to fend off the fiery missiles of deceit filled lies leading to doubt, discouragement and despair. Had Eve been a better inductive student, one wonders how events would have progressed on that fateful day in the Garden when our Adversary hissed those words calculated to generate doubt Yea, hath God said. ? (Ge 3:1). So dear saint, let me encourage you to of maryland, persevere in practicing the principles of Inductive Bible Study, for coursework questions wuthering the reward you will experience in oedipus character essay personal discovery and coursework wuthering heights penetrating understanding of the Word of Life will eternally far outweigh your investment of time today (Ep 5:16KJV-note, 1Ti 4:7, 8-note)! In short, the importance of essay, a questioning mindset cannot be overemphasized as the answers to the 5W/H questions form the basis for questions wuthering every aspect of Inductive Bible Study - astute observation, accurate interpretation and appropriate application. Although Rudyard Kipling was not referring to university school of nursing coursework only, Inductive Bible Study when he wrote his poem Six Honest Serving-Men , you can still observe the heights, parallel principle poetically phrased.
I keep six honest serving-men. (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When. I send them over land and oedipus essay sea, I send them east and west; But after they have worked for me,
I give them all a rest. Kipling gives sound Biblical advice, except for his last line. Beloved, make it the goal of wuthering heights, your life to never give them all a rest but instead daily Be diligent (aorist imperative = Don't Delay! Just Do It! = a command we can obey only as we are enabled by the indwelling Spirit Who is continually energizing us Php 2:13NLT-note! So Stay filled!
Eph 5:18-note! And daily walk by the Spirit Gal 5:16-note, not grieving Him - Eph 4:30-note nor quenching Him-1Th 5:19-note) to critical thinking, present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, handling accurately the wuthering, Word of Truth. (2 Timothy 2:15-note) Most students of Scripture do not see the gold nuggets of truth in passages and paragraphs, because they do not know what to look for . One way you will learn what to look for is by asking the right questions . Interaction Essays On Face-to-face Behavior Citation! Questions will bring details to our attention. The following story from the secular classroom setting illustrates this point. George Wood applies an coursework heights interesting technique when he prepares and preaches a sermon on thesis film a particular text. As we read this particular text today, we want to heights, do what we always do when we come to the Scripture, and ask two questions: What DID the Scripture say ? And, What DOES it say ? Answering What did it say ? helps us understand the Bible as it was written, and keeps us from error ( Ed : Our Observation). But answering the question, What does the oedipus, Bible say ? allows us to heights, apply the Scripture now and oedipus personalize it in our life. Wuthering! ( Ed : He combines interpretation and application) INDUCTIVE TEACHING STYLE.
The essence of the inductive method was aptly illustrated by the experience of a student at Harvard who took a zoology course under professor Louis Agassiz, the ritual essays on face-to-face citation, renowned nineteenth-century naturalist. Coursework Questions Wuthering Heights! For the assignment Agassiz gave the about skills, student a pickled fish, a haemulon, which was to be the sole source of his observations over the next several days. (Click to read entire story) For three full days the student observed the questions wuthering, Haemulon in order to gain a thorough understanding of the fish. Essay! And what did Professor Agassiz's advise him to do? LOOK! LOOK! LOOK! How else would the student master his subject? ( Ed : Ask! Ask! Ask! ) He was also instructed to draw out what he saw ( Ed : Compare with Marking the wuthering heights, Text, Making Lists, Recording your observations ) for as Agassiz reminded him that the pencil is one of the thesis film, best eyes!
Finally, he was instructed to recognize the coursework wuthering heights, parts of the haemulon in their orderly arrangement and essay relations to each other, for facts are stupid things until brought into coursework questions heights, connection with some general law . ( Ed : Think of passages of Scripture removed from their natural [supernatural] environment [context]! ) Was Agassiz's inductive method successfully inculcated into his student? By the thesis film, student's own testimony To this day, if I attempt [to draw] a fish I can draw nothing but haemulons. ( Ed : The Bible in your memory is better than the Bible on your bookshelf! ) Louis Agassiz was once asked What was your greatest contribution, scientifically ? to which he replied I have taught men and women to observe. The ability to correctly observe is wuthering heights a skill which must be perfected by university school of nursing only practice and perseverance as illustrated in questions this true fish story. THE RESULTS CAN BE. As an interesting aside , this renowned Harvard scientist steadfastly (his entire life) resisted the propagation of Charles Darwin's theories on evolution! May his tribe increase.
Amen! (Louis Agassiz - Short Biography). Warren Wiersbe phrased it this way If we speak to the Lord about the Word, the Word will speak to us about the Lord! If you dont talk to your Bible, your Bible isnt likely to critical thinking skills, talk to you! John Piper alludes to another value of interrogating the text with questions. So meditating on the Word of God day and night means to speak to yourself the Word of wuthering, God day and night and to speak to yourself about itto mull it over, to ask questions about it and answer them from the Scripture itself, to ask yourself how this might apply to you and others, and to ponder its implications for life and church and citation culture and missions. (When I Don't Desire God How to Fight for coursework questions wuthering heights Joy - Online and free to Download) (Related Resources: Primer On Biblical Meditation; Mediation - Application of Inductive Bible Study) You can learn more from a book if you stop and ask it questions than if you just read it passively. That includes the Bible too. Gap Year Essay! One of the great problems in questions wuthering heights Bible reading is gap year essay that we move our eyes over the words and come to the end of a column and don't know what we've read; we don't feel our minds or spirits expanded because we saw nothing fresh.
It was purely mechanical. There was no discovery, no life, no breakthroughs to new insight. One of the best ways to change that is to coursework questions, train yourself to ask questions of the text. Often the posing of the question itself will already carry its answer with it and university of nursing only will open your mind to new things. Coursework Questions Wuthering Heights! This fairly prosaic, historical text in Luke 3:2138 gives me an opportunity to show you what I mean. I'll simply take you with me through this text, pointing out the questions I asked and character essay the answers I came up with. Coursework! My guess is that as you follow me, questions of your own will arise. Good questions usually beget other questions, and that's how insight grows and grows. ( Introductory comments to his sermon on The Baptism and the Genealogy of Jesus)
Editorial comment - Now click this link to see examples of questions Dr Piper asked to preach this text! Begin to incorporate this discipline of an interrogative mindset into your Bible reading. Beware of the essay, danger of the through the Bible in a year reading program -- it is tempting to just get through the daily reading, but come to the end of the day and not even remember what you have read. That's passive reading. Interrogation of the text is active reading--your Teacher God's Spirit will richly reward you for your labor of coursework wuthering, love! In Brothers, we are not professionals Dr Piper comments has more comments on querying the othello irony, text. Several strong forces oppose our relentless and systematic interrogating of Biblical texts. (1) One is that it consumes a great deal of coursework, time and gap year essay energy on one small portion of questions wuthering heights, Scripture.
We have been schooled (quite erroneously) that there is a direct correlation between reading a lot and gaining insight. But, in fact, there is no positive correlation at thesis film, all between the heights, quantity of pages read and the quality of insight gained. Just the reverse for most of us. Thesis Film! Insight diminishes as we try to read more and more. Insight or understanding is the product of intensive, headache-producing meditation on two or three propositions and questions heights how they fit together. This kind of reflection and rumination is provoked by asking questions of the text. And you cannot do it if you hurry. Therefore, we must resist the deceptive urge to carve notches in our bibliographic gun. Take two hours to ask ten questions of Galatians 2:20, and you will gain one hundred times the insight you would have attained by quickly reading thirty pages of the New Testament or any other book. Thesis Film! Slow down. Heights! Query.
Ponder. Othello Irony Essay! Chew. It is impossible to respect the Bible too highly, but it is possible to coursework questions wuthering heights, respect it wrongly. If we do not ask seriously how differing texts fit together, then we are either superhuman (and see all truth at oedipus character essay, a glance) or indifferent (and dont care about seeing the coherence of coursework questions heights, truth). But I dont see how anyone who is indifferent or superhuman can have a proper respect for the Bible. Therefore reverence for Gods Word demands that we ask questions and pose problems and that we believe that there are answers and about critical solutions which will reward our labor with treasures new and coursework wuthering heights old (Matt. 13:52). We must train our people that it is not irreverent to see difficulties in the Biblical text and to think hard about how they can be resolved. Preaching should model this for them week after week.
I already quoted 2 Timothy 2:7-note. Othello Irony Essay! But I close now by pointing out the relationship between the coursework, two halves of this verse. University Of Maryland School Of Nursing! There is a command and coursework a promise. Paul commanded, Think ( Ed : Command to thesis film, do this continually) over wuthering heights what I say . And then he promised, God will give you understanding in everything . Some people see tension between cogitation and illumination. Not Paul. He commands cogitation.
And he promises illumination. Critical! How do the command and promise fit together? The little connecting word for coursework questions wuthering heights gives the answer ( Ed : See term of explanation) Think because God will reward you with understanding . A text like this explains why Benjamin Warfield reacted with dismay at those who elevated prayer for ritual citation divine illumination above rigorous observation of Gods written Word and serious intellectual reflection on what it says. This is why the Bible has so many appeals to us that we should both meditate on the written Word of God with our minds and wuthering heights pray that God do His revelatory work in our hearts.
To all the essay, commands to meditate and think about coursework questions heights Gods Word, the Bible adds the promise, The Lord will give you understanding. The gift of illumination does not replace meditation . It comes through meditation. Ritual On Face-to-face Behavior Citation! The promise of divine light is coursework wuthering not made to all. About Thinking! It is made to those who think. Think over what I say, for God will give you understanding in everything. And we do not think until we are confronted with a problem. Therefore, brothers, let us query the text. ( Brothers, we are not professionals - free online Pdf ) In his short biography of coursework wuthering heights, Jonathan Edwards Piper writes. Edwards was not a passive reader . Oedipus Essay! He read with a view to solving problems.
Most of us are cursed with a penchant toward passive reading. We read the way people watch TV. We don't ask questions as we read. We don't ask, Why does this sentence follow that sentence? ( Ed : Cp observing for terms of explanation, terms of conclusion and terms of purpose or result) How does this paragraph relate to questions heights, that one three pages earlier? ( Ed : cp context and Keep Context King) We don't ferret out the interaction ritual on face-to-face citation, order of thought or ponder the meaning of terms ( Ed : How to Perform a Greek Word Study, Greek Word Studies and Hebrew Word Studies ). And if we see a problem, we are habituated to coursework wuthering, leave that for thesis film the experts and seldom do we tackle a solution then and questions wuthering there the way Edwards said he was committed to do if time allowed. But Edwards calls us to be active in our minds when we read . University School Of Nursing Only! A pastor will not be able to feed his flock rich and challenging insight into God's word unless he becomes a disciplined thinker. Coursework Wuthering Heights! But almost none of us does this by nature. Gap Year Essay! We must train ourselves to coursework, do it. And one of the best ways to critical, train ourselves to think about questions heights what we read is to read with pen in hand ( Ed : cp marking key words ) and to write down a train of thought that comes to mind. Without this, we simply cannot sustain a sequence of questions and answers long enough to come to penetrating conclusions.
This was the simple method that caused Edwards' native genius to produce immense and lasting results. (The Pastor as Theologian) Related Resource on Active Reading: Search Mortimer Adler's comments on active reading in his modern day classic - How to Read a Book - enter active reading in the Pdf search. OBSERVE CONNECTING WORDS: TERMS OF CONCLUSION, EXPLANATION, PURPOSE/RESULT. Small words, big blessings!
Connecting words (conjunctions) join clauses, passages, paragraphs and chapters, linking the writer's train of thought into a cohesive unit. Someone has said that conjunctions are important gap-fillers, the cartilage at essays on face-to-face behavior, the joints of speech. These small but vital connectors include words and phrases such as therefore, for, because, since, as a result, so, so that, at that time, then, now, when, for this reason, etc. Although these connecting words/phrases are common, it is probably because they are so common that they are easy to overlook. However, once your eye is trained to coursework questions wuthering, recognize them, they function like keys which serve to unlock and university of maryland of nursing only shed light on the meaning of a passage, paragraph or chapter. Proper utilization of questions heights, most of these connecting words will force you to examine the context , which is gap year essay always valuable to enhance the accuracy of one's interpretation! I would be so bold as to coursework questions, say that if you learned to observe and interrogate even just one term (e.g., the conjunction for university of maryland of nursing only ), it would radically change the way you read ALL of coursework questions heights, God's Word (because there are over 9000 uses of for throughout the Bible)! While there can be overlap in the meaning of these three terms , below are the general descriptions of each group, with a Scriptural example and a sample question prompted by oedipus character use of that term. Before you look at the sample question , practice interrogating the passage yourself (your question may be much better than the one recorded!) As an aside, while we will not discuss the conjunction and (Hebrew = waw; Greek = kai) in detail, the careful student should always take note of this frequent conjunction (20,000x), which serves to coursework questions, connect or join sentences, words or ideas.
The 1828 Webster's Dictionary says and signifies that a word or part of a sentence is to be added to what precedes. Henry Morris in thesis film commenting on the presence of and (Heb = waw) Genesis 1 comments It is significant that every verse in the first chapter of Genesis (except Ge 1:1) begins with the coursework wuthering heights, conjunction And (Hebrew waw). This structure clearly means that each statement is sequentially and chronologically connected to othello irony, the verses before and after. Each action follows directly upon the action described in wuthering the verse preceding it. (Genesis Record) It follows that we should. (1) Terms of conclusion ( inference ) = Synonyms = Therefore, So, For this reason, So then , etc. (a) Identifies a logical consequence or conclusion.
(b) Identifies a statement which summarizes what was previously stated. (c) Identifies a deduction from (usually previously stated) facts, propositions, experience, reasoning, etc. (d) Sums up a preceding argument. Ex : Therefore do not let sin reign in gap year essay your mortal body so that you obey its lusts. (Ro 6:12). Question : Why does Paul conclude that one should not let sin reign in their mortal body? To answer you will be forced to review the prior verse Ro 6:11 and even the prior section Ro 6:1-10 (the foundational facts that allow Paul to issue the heights, command in irony essay Ro 6:11) (2) Terms of coursework questions, explanation = For, Because (for the reason explained next) , some uses of since (e.g., Dt 15:4, 16, Heb 13:3) (a) Give the reason for something, making it plain or understandable. (b) Give reasons why it is true or why it occurred. (c) Used to express cause, to explain (to give the reason for or cause of) (d) Simply adds additional information. (e) HINT -- A rule of thumb is that if you can substitute the word because in place of a for , that is good support that the for is functioning as a term of explanation . Ex : For I am not ashamed of the thesis film, Gospel, for it is the power of questions wuthering heights, God for university school of nursing only (notice this for is used as a preposition, not a conjunction and thus not a term of coursework heights, explanation) salvation to everyone who believes, to university of maryland, the Jew first and also to the Greek. (Ro 1:16)
Question : What is Paul explaining? Why is Paul not ashamed of the Gospel? What effect does this have on Paul? How does this impact Paul's boldness to proclaim the Gospel? (See Ro 1:15). Ex : For God knows that in the day you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and questions wuthering heights you will be like God, knowing good and evil. (Genesis 3:5) Question : Who is speaking? To whom is he speaking? What is he explaining? What is he arguing? What is his goal? Is his explanation truthful?
Comment : Notice how focusing on only one for oedipus character essay prompts a veritable barrage of questions and questions wuthering heights greatly increases our insight into this important passage! (3) Terms of purpose/result = So that, In order that, That (Not all uses of that but often those at the beginning of a sentence or clause) (a) Indicates the school of nursing coursework, intended goal of an idea or action. (b) Indicates the end; effect; aim; design; consequence, good or bad. (c) The reason for which something is coursework wuthering done. (d) So that = for the purpose of (1Cor 10:33) Ex : For (term of explanation) I long to see you so that I may impart some spiritual gift to you, that you may be established. (Ro 1:11)
See Video from John Piper (Ro 8:3-4, Ro 7:4-6) - He writes Purpose clauses (in order that) tell us why God does what He does. While he does not go into detailed discussion of purpose clauses in his 9 minute video What the Law Could Not Do, he does highlight Paul's two uses of in order that and one use of so that emphasizing their crucial importance in Paul's argument. If you struggle with legalism, this video could be a powerful antidote for thesis film that ism which always counters grace and weakens our spiritual walk in the Spirit. So pray, set aside 30 minutes and coursework wuthering heights follow along with Dr Piper. Then memorize the passages discussed, asking the Spirit to use them to renew your mind and transform your thinking about the law IN ORDER THAT you might be enabled to walk according to the Spirit! Question : What is the purpose of Paul's longing to character essay, see the coursework heights, saints in critical skills Rome? What is the purpose of his imparting a spiritual gift to them? PURPOSE OR RESULT.
* Number of uses in the 1995 New American Standard translation. ** Not every use is term of conclusion or term of explanation - check the coursework questions wuthering, context. When found at the beginning of a verse the irony essay, term is usually a term of questions wuthering heights, explanation. Note : All words in BLUE are links to the uses of the word or phrase. Train your eye to observe the text carefully for these strategic words. Consider marking them in some distinctive manner (underlining, boxing, using a symbol). From the table above, what is the likelihood of encountering one of these terms in a chapter or paragraph? If you have ever rock climbed, you know that you are observing carefully for a ledge, outcropping, crack or crevice which you can grasp or in thesis film which you can plant your foot.
The goal is to keep moving upward. How careful do you think you would be if you were several stories high on coursework wuthering heights a large rock? The answer is obvious. very careful! While the analogy is othello essay imperfect, the coursework wuthering heights, rock climber's observations clearly determine the outcome of the outing (going up or down!). What would happen to our observation skills in reading the Scripture, if we approached the text like rock climbers, observing carefully for critical these strategic terms (conclusion, explanation, purpose/result)? Clearly each encounter could increase our level of coursework questions, understanding, firmly grounding us on the truth. Thesis Film! And as we train our eyes to questions, spot these strategic terms, we also begin to train our minds to ask as many of the gap year essay, 5W/H type questions as we can muster. The more skilled rock climbers becomes at identifying strategic rocks, cracks and crevices, the higher they are able to ascend.
In the same way, as we practice and become proficient at observing and questioning these strategic Scriptural terms (of conclusion, explanation, purpose/result), we will be enabled (by our ever present Teacher the Spirit of course) to probe deeper into the meaning of coursework heights, a passage, paragraph, chapter or book. And over essay time observation for these terms will become our reflex response. Given the importance of wuthering, these small, easily overlooked words and phrases, let's take another look at them. TERMS OF CONCLUSION. Therefore - Every time you see a therefore always ask the othello irony essay, question What's it there for? The English dictionary defines therefore as follows - For this reason, referring to something previously stated (Stop and observe what has just been stated).
Therefore is used to mark an inference (truth or proposition drawn from another truth) on wuthering the speakers part: those people have their umbrellas up; therefore , it must be raining . Webster's 1828 Dictionary explains that Inferences result from reasoning, as when the mind perceives such a connection between ideas, as that, if certain propositions called premises are true, the university of nursing coursework only, conclusions or propositions deduced from questions heights them must also be true. Thesis Film! Webster's 1996 Dictionary adds that inference is the act of passing from heights one proposition, statement, or judgment considered as true to another whose truth is believed to follow from that of the former. Please understand that this classification of connecting words is gap year essay somewhat arbitrary as many of the words/phrases overlap in meaning. Questions Heights! For example, therefore in Ps 1:5 (NAS, ESV) is translated for this reason in the NET Bible. Practice It! - Read Ge 3:23 therefore the LORD God sent him out from the garden of Eden, to cultivate the ground from which he was taken.
What is the 5W/H question? Why did the LORD God send him (Adam) from the garden? How would you determine the answer? Examination of the othello irony, preceding context (Ge 3:22) provides the answer. So - in order that, because the preceding is true or this being the questions wuthering, case.
So introduces clauses both of purpose ( We ordered our tickets early so that we could get good seats ) and thesis film of result ( The river had frozen during the coursework heights, night so people walked across it all the next day ). So is essays frequently found at the beginning of verses and when used as a term of conclusion should prompt you to ask Why ? which should draw your attention to preceding context to wuthering heights, answer the thesis film, question. Practice It! - Read Ge 2:21 . Coursework Questions Heights! So the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh at character, that place. What question does so prompt in coursework this passage? How do you answer the question?
Clearly you are forced to check the gap year essay, immediate context ( Ge 2:20 ) to answer the simple question Why is so used ? or more to the point, Why did the Lord God cause a deep sleep to fall on Adam ? Do you see how this simple technique serves to slow you down and to encourage you to actively (rather than passively) engage and interact with the passage and the Author of the coursework wuthering, passage?! Your observations in turn will lead you to an accurate interpretation of the passage. For this reason - This phrase is used 68x in NAS but only 14 in ESV (which usually substitutes therefore). On Face-to-face Citation! For this reason is relatively easy to interrogate because it always begs at least one simple question -- For what reason ?. Remember when practicing interrogation of for this reason (and for that matter, all of the connecting words), some passages will be easier to evaluate and yield more insights than other passages, so don't be frustrated if observation of some connecting words is not fruitful. Keep practicing! You will always receive one benefit in that you are slowing down and forcing yourself to focus more directly on a particular text, in essence meditating on the passage, rather than speed reading it!
And as you slow down and coursework questions meditatively interrogate a passage, you will give your Teacher, the Spirit, greater opportunity to speak to you (cp the still small voice that Elijah heard - 1Ki 19:12KJV). Here are a few sample uses of for this reason (NAS) to oedipus, study - Ge 2:24, Mt 27:8, Lk 7:7, Jn 5:16, Jn 9:23, Phil 2:9, 2Ti 1:12, 1Jn 3:1, Jn 13:11, Ro 1:26, 1Cor 11:30. John Piper on the edifying value of learning to observe and wuthering query the therefore's of Scripture. Another way the Scriptures show us that ideas have consequences is by using the word therefore (1,039 times in the NASB). For example, Therefore , having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ (Romans 5:1). Therefore , there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus (Romans 8:1). Therefore , do not be anxious for tomorrow (Matthew 6:34). Therefore , do not fear; you are of gap year essay, more value than many sparrows (Matthew 10:31). Therefore , treat people the same way you want them to treat you (Matthew 7:12). Therefore let us not judge one another anymore (Romans 14:13). Therefore do not let sin reign in your mortal body (Romans 6:12). Therefore glorify God in questions wuthering heights your body (1 Corinthians 6:20). Oedipus Character! Therefore whether we live or die, we are the coursework questions wuthering heights, Lords (Romans 14:8). Every one of these great therefores flows from a view of reality.
If we want to live in the power of essay, these great practical therefores, we must be gripped by the ideasthe views of coursework wuthering heights, realitythat go before them and support them. One of the most important ideas in the universe is found in othello irony essay 1 Corinthians 15:5158the resurrection and a precious therefore that flows from it: Behold, I tell you a mystery, we will not all sleep, but we will all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an coursework eye, at the last trumpet. O death, where is your victory? O death, where is ritual on face-to-face your sting? The sting of death is sin, and coursework the power of sin is the law; but thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore , my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your toil is not in vain in the Lord. (Piper, J. Thesis Film! A Godward life : Savoring the supremacy of questions wuthering heights, God in all life). TERMS OF EXPLANATION: For and because are small words that is often overlooked, but which are frequently used in gap year essay Scripture at questions wuthering, the beginning of a passage (e.g, Php 2:12-13) or in gap year essay the middle of a passage. Although listed under the coursework wuthering, category Terms of Conclusion , these words are more accurately classified as terms of explanation . In these occurrences for (because) often functions as a connective word which seeks to make something clear and/or understandable. In other words, for ( because ) functions like a marker which shows the cause or reason for essay something, specifically expressing the reason for what has been stated before. thus the heights, logic for designating them as a term of explanation.
Be aware that for may sometimes be used to introduce a detailed description of something as alluded to earlier, so you will always need to thesis film, examine the context to coursework heights, determine if it is interaction behavior being used as a term of explanation. In many (if not most) of the uses of for as a conjunction one can substitute the questions, synonym because which in gap year essay my opinion is somewhat easier to understand. And because there as so many occurrences of for in the Bible, the questions wuthering heights, diligent inductive student will have many opportunities to university of maryland of nursing, pause and ponder passages . Here is an example of interrogating for coursework wuthering heights in Mark who records that as Jesus taught in the synagogue at Capernaum on the Sabbath, they were amazed at His teaching; for character essay (substitute because ) He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. (Mk 1:22; see also Mt 7:28, 29-note) What does for explain in coursework questions this verse? Why were they amazed? How did the teaching of Jesus in the synagogue compare to the teaching the Jews normally heard? etc, etc. In sum, when you encounter for thesis film or because , stop and coursework wuthering interrogate the text asking why the for/because is there, what is being explained, etc. it will not be a waste of time. Note also the caveat that this discussion relates to for as it is used as a conjunction, and not when for about critical thinking is used as a preposition (placed before another word or phrase to express some relation or quality, action or motion to or from the thing specified - God made garments of skin for wuthering Adam and his wife). P ractice it! - Read Ezra 7:10 What is the connective in this passage? What is the 5W/H question you would ask? ( Stop! Ask a Question ) What does Ezra setting his heart, etc, explain?
Where does this question force you to go in order to answer the question? Clearly, it calls us to go to the preceding passage, so let's read Ezra 7:9 for essay the context which is the questions wuthering, key to accurate interpretation. Skills! Now, what does the for explain? ( Stop! Answer the Question ) For explains why the good hand of wuthering, his God was upon Ezra. Observe another connective ( because ) in thesis film Ezra 7:9 , which begs the question, what does the good hand of his God upon him explain? As an aside, what is a simple list in Ezra 7:10 ? Don't forget to include set his heart which is like the headwater (What truth does this simile convey?) of this spiritual river = set study practice teach. Do you see a progression in questions heights the list?
What's another word for practiced it? What relation does obedience to a text have to do with teaching that text? After you have arrived at your conclusions, you are now better prepared to go to the commentary on Ezra 7:10 (see commentary) . TERMS OF PURPOSE OR RESULT: SO THAT, IN ORDER THAT, AS A RESULT. So that (so, that, in order that) is gap year essay used to introduce a subordinate clause which shows purpose or reason or gives an explanation. When a term of purpose or result is encountered, it behooves the reader to questions, always ask at least - What is oedipus character essay purpose (or result or effect)? For example prayerfully read Mt 6:2 - So when you give to questions heights, the poor, do not sound a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, so that they may be honored by men. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full . For example, here you might ask Why are men honored by men? This simple discipline will slow you down and of maryland school only force you to answer the question, and coursework heights as you pause to ponder the text, you will give your Teacher, the thesis film, Holy Spirit, more opportunity to illuminate the passage regarding what it means or how it applies to your life.
Notice also that in this passage so that is used to show an action (sounding a trumpet when giving) which produces an intended result (honor from men). Stated another way so that can link an effect (showing honor) with the cause (trumpet sounding). Now prayerfully read Phil 3:12 Not that I have already obtained it or have already become perfect, but I press on so that I may lay hold of that for which also I was laid hold of by Christ Jesus. Coursework! You could ask questions like - Why does Paul press on? What is the effect of him pressing on?
What is the gap year essay, cause of his laying hold of that for which he was laid hold of by Christ? The point is coursework heights not to make your Bible reading more work, but more of oedipus essay, a joy, for coursework heights the more you read it (with careful observation), the more you love it. The more you love it, the more you will desire to read it. As someone has well said Bible study demands pondering deeply on a short passage, like a cow chewing cud. It is better to read a little and ponder a lot than to read a lot and ponder a little.
Chrysostom adds To get the full flavor of an herb, it must be pressed between the fingers, so it is the same with the Scriptures; the more familiar they become, the more they reveal their hidden treasures and yield their indescribable riches. Here is one more example on which you can practice. Prayerfully read Matthew 13:54 And coming to His hometown He (Jesus) taught them in their synagogue, so that they were astonished, and said, Where did this man get this wisdom and thesis film these mighty works? What is the term of purpose/result in this passage? What question(s) does it stimulate? Pause a moment and wuthering heights ask some questions. You may have asked questions like -- What is the gap year essay, cause of their astonishment? Why did they ask about Jesus' wisdom?
What is the result of Jesus' teaching? Am I astonished at questions wuthering heights, Jesus' teaching or do I just read mechanically through my Bible in a year program? If you have just actively participated in university of maryland school coursework only this short practice on Mt 13:54, then it is likely that you read the passage 2 to 4 times. That being the case, is coursework heights not Mt 13:54 more familiar? Aren't you more likely to remember it later in the day? And so you see that one great blessing of observing and interrogating terms of explanation and terms of purpose/result is that you internalize the Word of Truth to a greater degree than if you had just read this passage as part of your goal to read an oedipus essay entire chapter.
Sure, this slows you down, but that's exactly the coursework questions heights, point. Jehovah Himself instructed Joshua to meditate on it (the Word) day and night, explaining that then he might be careful to do according to all that is written in it (better able to apply the thesis film, Truth), adding that then you will make your way prosperous and then you will have success. Questions! (Joshua 1:8-note) Since Jehovah has not changed, His Word to Joshua is thesis film as applicable to you beloved as it was 3000 years ago! You will be much more likely to ponder it day and night if you have slowed down to carefully observe and intelligently interrogate it! You will become like the psalmist who cried O how I love Thy law! It is my meditation all the day. (Ps 119:97) As you read the Bible and spot words or phrases like so, so that, in order that or as a result, prayerfully pause and ponder and coursework questions wuthering heights practice asking as many relevant questions as you can, over interaction on face-to-face behavior citation time, intelligent (Spirit directed and controlled) interrogation will become your default mode every time you open the Book. And you will begin to be pleasantly surprised at how much more fruitful your Bible reading becomes as hone your skills of observation, for this will lead to more accurate interpretation and most importantly to more appropriate application! Don't become frustrated! Persevere!
It's always too soon to quit! Some passages are more difficult to observe than others. However, I can assure you, that with practice you will become more and more skilled at observation! To be sure, there will be times when you pause and ponder a passage, and gain insights that are less than earth shaking. Coursework! However as stated earlier, you will never waste your time, but will almost always gain a greater familiarity with the verse and you will be more likely to retain the truth longer. Indeed, you will always be blessed for every time you prayerfully pause to ponder a passage you are in effect practicing a mini-meditation. Mediation is a discipline God promises to honor as attested by the psalmist who wrote that the one whose delight is in the law of the LORD, and in His law he meditates day and night, will be like a tree firmly planted by streams of water, which yields its fruit in thinking its season, and coursework wuthering its leaf does not wither; and in whatever he does, he prospers. (Ps 1:2-note, Ps 1:3-note) (See also Biblical Meditation. You should encounter ample opportunities to thesis film, practice interrogating terms of purpose/result for there are 992 occurrences of the phrase so that and almost 300 uses of in order in the NAS. Note that the frequency of these terms will vary depending on coursework questions heights which translation you use.
For example, the university school, ESV has only 622 occurrences of so that , because it often substitutes so or that for the phrase so that. Below are some uses of related terms of heights, purpose/result = that, as a result, in gap year essay order that, in questions order to. (1) That = for the purpose of essays on face-to-face behavior, - Read 1Cor 10:33ESV wherein Paul says just as I try to please everyone in everything I do, not seeking my own advantage, but that of many, that they may be saved. Coursework Questions! Focusing on the term of purpose that , you might ask What was Paul's goal or purpose? This might prompt you to ask How does this apply to my life purpose or does it even apply?
One commentator said that the last phrase (in 1Cor 10:33) summarizes the whole purpose of the life of Christ and that of university school coursework, Paul and all true followers of Jesus Christ! Notice how just pausing a moment to coursework wuthering, ponder the little word that caused us to think more deeply about this passage. We've probably read it many times before, but never stopped to gap year essay, smell the coursework heights, roses so to speak! And there is a Biblical principle that applies when we prayerfully pause and ponder passages. Paul called on Timothy to Consider what I say, for oedipus character the Lord will give you understanding. (2Ti 2:7) So as we take time to truly think about what we are reading, we can be sure that God's Spirit will lead us to a greater understanding of the coursework questions, passage. Does this mean we will understand every passage? Of course not, but it does mean that God will in some way give us a better sense of the meaning of that passage.
Does that make sense? (2) As a result (NAS) - Num 35:17-18, 20-21; Ezra 4:16; Isa 53:11; Da 10:16; John 6:66; 19:12; Eph 2:9; 4:14; Jas 2:22. (3) In order that (NAS)(38 uses) The phrase in order that expresses the purpose of or a means of achieving a specified end. Ex 8:22; 20:20; 32:29; Num 27:20; Deut 13:17; 14:29; 22:7; 24:19; 29:6, 13; 30:19; Josh 11:20; Jdg 3:2; 1 Kgs 6:6; 8:43; 2 Chr 6:33; Neh 6:13; Jer 25:7; 27:15; 36:3; Ezek 14:11; 16:54; 20:26; 46:20; Dan 2:16; 4:17; Luke 16:28; 20:20; John 11:52; Acts 3:19; Rom 4:16; 6:6; 7:4, 13; 2 Cor 9:3; Gal 3:14; Phil 3:11; 2Thess 2:12. (4) In order to (NAS)(93 uses in 92 verses) - Ge 11:31; 50:20; Ex 9:16; 20:20; 23:2; Deut 2:30; 6:23; 9:5, 19; 20:19; 29:19; Jdg 2:22; 6:11; 15:10; 19:3, 15; Ruth 2:23; 4:5, 10; 1 Sam 17:22, 28; 19:11; 21:6; 2Sam 10:3; 12:17; 14:20; 19:15; 20:15; 24:21; 1Kgs 2:27; 6:19; 15:17; 2Kgs 23:35; 2Chr 16:1; 30:17; 35:22; 36:22; Ezra 1:1; Neh 9:15, 29; Esther 1:11; 6:4; Ps 59:1; Isa 2:21; 30:1; 57:15; Jer 7:18; 11:5; 27:10; 37:12; 41:17; 43:5; Ezek 14:5; 22:20, 27; 27:9; 39:12, 14; 40:4; Dan 3:20; 11:14, 35; Joel 3:6; Amos 1:13; 2:7; Jonah 4:2; Zech 1:21; 13:4; Mark 3:10; 7:4, 9; 12:2, 13; 13:22; 14:10; Luke 2:5; 4:29; 6:34; 19:4; Acts 3:2; 6:2; 12:1; 18:10; 22:5; 2Cor 11:32; Gal 2:4; Phil 1:10; Col 1:22; 2Th 3:9; Heb 5:1; 10:9; 1 John 3:5. Addendum - The Greek conjunction hina is thesis film usually translated so, so that, in order that and is used to coursework questions wuthering heights, express purpose, aim, or goal. Practice with a few of the following examples asking questions like What is the purpose?, What are the thinking, conditions in order that the purpose might be fulfilled? , etc, to help you develop the habit of pausing to ponder this strategic term of coursework questions, purpose. Oedipus Essay! Note that you cannot ask every question of every verse. You can also vary your question depending on the context. While this does take some practice, is questions well worth your investment of about skills, time. Pray, ask the Spirit to open your eyes to behold wonderful truths (Ps 119:18) in the following passages as you practice observing the terms of purpose.
Mk 7:9; Lk 6:34; 8:16; Jn 3:15; 5:34; 6:30; Acts 2:25; Ro 1:11; 3:19; 11:25; 1Cor 9:12; Gal 6:13; Phil 3:8; Heb 5:1; 6:12; 1Jn 1:3 Mt 7:1; 14:15; 17:27; 23:26; Mk 11:25; Jn 4:15; 5:14; 10:38; 1 Cor 7:5; 11:34; 1 Ti 4:15; Titus 3:13. Mk 1:38; Lk 20:14; Jn 11:16; Heb 4:16. PAUSING AND PONDERING PASSAGES. Remember the heights, benefit that as you carry out interrogation of the terms of conclusion and terms of essay, explanation , you are in a very real sense practicing Biblical Meditation, a spiritual discipline which has been largely lost in our modern, fast paced society, which is sad because God promises such wonderful blessings to those who meditate on coursework His Word. Ritual On Face-to-face Behavior Citation! For example see Psalm 1:2-note, Psalm 1:3-note, Joshua 1:8-notee, Psalm 119:99-note, cp Ps 119:97- read Spurgeon's note on coursework advantage of meditation in this passage, Ps 119:148-note [Do you prefer study to slumber ?] See also Col 3:16-note where letting the about thinking skills, Word richly dwell in us is in a sense an allusion to coursework wuthering heights, meditating on His Word and of nursing then observe how Colossians parallels being filled with the Spirit in coursework questions wuthering Eph 5:18- See chart comparing Colossians and Ephesians!
Clearly filling oneself with the Word will facilitate being filled with the interaction essays on face-to-face, Spirit. This begs the [rhetorical] question -- Could there be any relationship between meditating on the Scripture and being filled with/controlled by the Spirit? In sum let the little word for become your good friend, one who continually guides you into the blessed practice of meditating on God's Word of Truth and Life day and night! You won't regret it in time or eternity! Always consider marking these connective words by underlining or boxing them in coursework (or use three dots in triangle form for therefore ). But even if you don't mark them, always take a moment to stop and gap year essay question why they are there . You will be amazed at how the questions wuthering, Spirit will illuminate the thesis film, passage when you make the choice to coursework questions wuthering, pause and ponder the passage . Whenever you see a term of conclusion, term of explanation , stop and ask at othello, least one 5W/H question. Terms of conclusion and explanation usually will compel you to re-read the previous passage(s). Re-reading in coursework wuthering turn helps you to establish the context, as well helping increase your retention ( interpretation) of that section of Scripture. C H Spurgeon had this to oedipus essay, say about the importance of therefores - Every doctrine of the Word of God has its practical application. Coursework Heights! As each tree bears seed after its kind, so does every truth of God bring forth practical virtues. Hence, you find the apostle Paul very full of therefores his therefores being the conclusions drawn from certain statements of divine truth. hoti (a causal conjunction) because that. The following chart highlights the importance of careful observation and interrogation when you encounter connecting words or conjunctions.
Conjunctions can greatly aid your understanding of the flow of thought in a passage, because they indicate relationships between the ideas that they link together. Just like the old spiritual Dem Bones where the character, knee bone is connected to the thigh bone etc, passages of Scripture are intimately connected. Therefore it behooves the wuthering, observer of Scripture to be on the lookout for these small but useful words. Whenever one of these code breaker conjunctions is about skills encountered, pause and ask a relevant 5W/H question - What is being explained? What's the reason or cause? Why the emphasis? What time is it, what is the coursework wuthering, sequence, etc? If interrogation of the thesis film, text with 5W/H questions seems difficult, it is because it does take some practice to become skillful in asking the right questions. Let me encourage you to ask at least one 5W/H question every time you open the Scriptures, because as with every pursuit in coursework questions life practice makes perfect. Here are a couple of thesis film, definitions of common conjunctions to help ask the correct questions when you observe the specific conjunction.
Because - for the reason that, on account of the fact that; for the cause which is explained in coursework questions wuthering the next proposition. For - For the following reason. Because. Character Essay! Note that many uses of for in Scripture function as a preposition instead of a coordinating conjunction. Coursework! A good clue that for is a coordinating conjunction explaining the reason for something is that the for appears at othello essay, the beginning of a sentence or clause. The American Dictionary writes that for is used as The word by which a reason is introduced of questions, something before advanced. That ye may be the thesis film, children of your father who is in heaven; for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good. In such sentences, for has the sense of because, by reason that. Until - up to the point in coursework questions wuthering heights time, up to such a time as. TERMS OF CONTRAST. Contrast is the juxtaposition of dissimilar elements , things that are unlike . Thesis Film! Contrast sets off their dissimilar qualities and in so doing makes something sharp and clear by highlighting the differences. Contrast focuses on the differences, whereas comparison (see below) focuses on questions wuthering similarities. John Phillips once quipped Oh, those revealing buts of the Bible.
They are small hinges on which great truths and of maryland of nursing only destinies swing. Always pause to ponder these little hinges . Coursework! You never know what great truth your Teacher the Holy Spirit might illumine as you read the of maryland school, text and context! While but is the main contrast be alert for questions wuthering other terms that highlight a contrast (# of uses are from thesis film 1995 version of the NASB). Note that in some cases the author may present a contrast without using one of the terms of contrast, and these instances are best discerned from the context. * Number of questions, uses in the 1995 New American Standard translation. ** Yet can be either a time phrase or a marker of contrast - the context as always determines the meaning. Note : All words in blue are active links to interaction ritual on face-to-face, allow you to examine the questions heights, uses of the respective word or phrase. Not all of the words or phrase in this table represent contrasts and character therefore one must always examine the context Words of coursework questions, contrast are always important to note because they indicate a change in direction . When a verse begins with one of these words, always stop and ask the 5W/H type questions such as.
What is the author's change of direction? Why is he changing direction? What is critical thinking skills being contrasted? Why is questions it being contrasted? When is it being contrasted?
What point does the author wish to about critical skills, convey?, etc. When a verse begins with a contrast word like but , as a good inductive student, what should be your natural reflex ? Clearly your attention should be drawn to re-read the questions wuthering, preceding context to determine what the author is contrasting. Once again you are forced to slow down and engage your thinking process rather than speeding through a crucial intersection without slowing down. Note that not all contrasts are identified or delineated by specific contrast words like but , yet , etc. Although they are more difficult to identify, be alert for contrasting thoughts. For example, observe the following passage. what is the contrast in 1Th 5:5 (note)? for you are all sons of light and sons of day. We are not of night nor of ritual behavior, darkness To reiterate, words of contrast should always be a clue the passage is changing direction. For example. take a moment and read Galatians 5 and coursework heights make a list of the thesis film, two contrasting lifestyles in Gal 5:19, 20, 21, 22, 23 (notes). Paul first writes that the deeds of the flesh are evident (Gal 5:19-note) and then proceeds to list those deeds (providing the source of a simple list).
Then in Gal 5:22 (note) Paul begins with the contrast word but writing But the fruit of the Spirit is coursework wuthering heights . About Thinking! and gives us a list of the components of the fruit that characterizes life in the Spirit. Questions Heights! The contrast is between two dramatically different lifestyles and ultimately two distinct destinies. Now put you skills of observation to work by doing the following exercise. PUT IT INTO PRACTICE: Click here for an exercise on identifying, marking and questioning the contrasting truths in Psalm 1. EXPRESSIONS OF TIME. References to essays on face-to-face citation, TIME show the progression or sequence of coursework wuthering, events, ideas, etc. ` Be on the alert for for words that express some element of time (# in parenthesis is frequency in 1977 NAS, but always check the context). Expressions of Time. Expressions of time identify the about critical thinking, timing or sequence of events.
These words generally answer the 5W/H question When ? Every time you encounter a TIME PHRASE you should pause and questions wuthering heights ask When type questions like -- What time is it ? When did this happen ? When will this happen ?, etc Remember that the answer will often be apparent only by examining the context or surrounding passages. Make note of essays on face-to-face citation, what you learn When something occurs. Mark expressions of time with a circle or clock (I use a green clock throughout my Bible and recommend Pigma Micron pens to keep from bleeding through the pages) in your Bible margin. I use Micron 01 size / .25 mm which is a fine point and excellent for wuthering marking the text. Thesis Film! The Micron 005 creates an even finer line but the thin tip is easily bent. Several useful colors are available in wuthering heights a six pack of 0.20 mm (Black, Red, Blue, Green, Brown, Purple). These pens are not cheap but last for many months in university of maryland school of nursing coursework my experience. OBSERVE THE CHRONOLOGY.
OF MATTHEW 24:15-31. Time phrases are especially crucial when interpreting prophecy. For example, practice this technique by reading Matthew 24:15-31 (print out a copy on your word processor) and mark the six uses of then or when (in NASB) and notice how the events come into focus as you note these expressions of time. Remember to check the coursework questions, context. Determine the context by interrogating the surrounding (especially the preceding) text. Do not look at commentaries or study notes to establish the context lest you be biased by their interpretation comments on this section of about thinking, Scripture. Let the text speak for itself (i.e., read it as literal unless you discern a clear figure of speech). Ask and answer questions like -- Where is this taking place?
Mt 24:1, 2, 3. What genre of literature does this section represent? Who (is speaking], [is the audience, what is their nationality?]? Mt 24:3, cp Mark 13:3 What is the general subject (or question that is being asked and addressed)? Now, you are primed and ready for this incredible and sadly oftimes very controversial passage Mt 24:15-31. Remember that whenever you read a verse, a paragraph, a chapter, etc, read with a purpose -- in this section of Matthew 24 your purpose is specifically to questions, observe for the chronology, marking the text with a green clock (consider doing this in your Bible if you are neat, but remember that ballpoint ink will leak through the page - Micron pens are recommended). Other time phrases that you want to be alert for interaction ritual on face-to-face behavior especially in the Old Testament include in that day and Day of the LORD. Click here to study the uses of the wuthering, Day of the LORD and oedipus character essay make a list of what you observe, remembering to coursework, examine the context because not all the uses refer to the same time period.
For some fascinating insights into skills, what the future holds for Israel, observe the 40 uses of in that day in Isaiah (click here but remember to read the text in context) and the 19 uses in Zechariah 12-14 (for all 3 chapters click here or for the specific verses click here). When used as an adverb THEN is always worth pausing to ponder and query asking questions like What time is it? What happens next? Why does this happen now?, etc. When then is heights used (as determined by the context) to be an expression of time or time phrase, it usually indicates sequence and thus marks that which is next in order of time, soon after that, following next after in order of position, narration or enumeration, being next in a series (See English definitions or here). Observing then can be very useful in interaction ritual behavior following the course of events in a chapter or paragraph, especially in wuthering eschatological (prophetic) passages - e.g., in about thinking Nebuchadnezzar's dream there are several occurrences of coursework wuthering heights, then (in the NAS) - Da 2:35, Da 2:39, Da 2:40, Da 2:46, Da 2:48-commentary. Compare the uses of then in the Olivet Discourse - Mt 24:9, Mt 24:14, 16, 21, 23, 30 (2 uses!), etc-see commentary.
TERMS OF COMPARISON. A picture is worth a thousand words. Figures of essays on face-to-face citation, speech (picture talk) are colorful expressions used for literary effect which may be a word or a phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. Figures of speech are used for emphasis, freshness of heights, expression or clarity. However, clarity may suffer if the figure is not properly interpreted. A picture can be worth a thousand words, unless we let our imagination run wild and come up with a thousand possible interpretations!
Remember that all Scripture has a single intended meaning. Note how much more vivid the description of the wicked man is when linked with a picturesque simile (see below). The wicked are not so, but they are like (introduces the simile or comparison to) chaff which the wind drives away. Thesis Film! (Psalm 1:4) Comment : To the student trained in the art of questions, observation, it is othello irony essay readily apparent that this passage calls for coursework questions wuthering heights several interactions and interrogations, all of which serve to slow you down, to actively engage your mind (and heart) with the text (and ultimately the Author of the text) and to aid personal (self) discovery of school, precious pearls of wisdom in coursework wuthering the passage (cp Pr 2:3-5 6-8). Practice It! - Before you read further, take a moment to practice your skills of observation and interrogation (note) on gap year essay Psalm 1:4. Some observations and questions one might ask - Who are the wicked?
What does the coursework wuthering heights, phrase are no so force us to do? (Check context to othello essay, answer both of coursework wuthering, these questions) What does but introduce (note)? What is school of nursing only being contrasted? How does the figure used to describe a godly man contrast with the figure used to describe a wicked man? What is chaff? How easy is it for chaff to blown away by the wind? (Chaff evokes an image of heights, lightness, instability and worthlessness. About Skills! - from reference with entire page on chaff!) What does this picture say about the fate of the wicked?, etc, etc. Once you have carried out your own observations, you are in a much better position to read the coursework questions, commentaries and you will be amazed at oedipus, how often you find yourself saying That passage does say that! - Commentary on Psalm 1:4) Clinton Lockhart (Principles of Interpretation, 1915) has a simple rule for determining what is literal and what is figurative language in heights the Bible. If the literal meaning of any word or expression makes good sense in its connections, it is literal; but if the literal meaning does not make good sense, it is university school only figurative . Since the literal is the wuthering heights, most usual signification of a word, and irony therefore occurs much more frequently than the figurative , any term should be regarded as literal until there is good reason for a different understanding.
Robertson McQuilkin explains that. Figurative language refers to any words that are used with a meaning other than their common, literal sense. When dog is used of coursework wuthering, a human being (e.g., Php 3:2-note), the skills, ordinary, literal designation of an animal is not intended. Questions Wuthering! All human languages are filled with talk that is not literal, but Eastern languages are especially full of gap year essay, figures of speech . Since those languages are foreign to us, that is all the coursework questions wuthering heights, more reason to work hard at understanding exactly what the author had in about thinking skills mind ( Ed : E.g., see example of a wall-less city ). There is the hurdle of distance in language and coursework questions culture, and there is critical skills also the hurdle of questions heights, figurative language. Consider the interaction on face-to-face, plight of a foreigner seeking to understand the English word hang. A literal definition is easy to coursework, come by, but what is he to think when he hears, as a foreigner, that he has many hang-ups; that he should indeed hang loose and allow his true feelings to hang out? If he searches out those idioms carefully, he still may be at interaction ritual essays behavior, a loss to know why someone is absent because of a hangover, or when he is told, in questions heights spite of all the obstacles to understanding, that he should not only interaction essays on face-to-face, hang on, but hang in there. Picture talk is one of the greatest problems of interpretation.
To treat figurative language as if it were literal and to treat literal language as if it were figurative, constitute two of the greatest hindrances to understanding the meaning of the Bible (Robertson McQuilkin - Understanding and Applying the Bible) In other words, while figures of wuthering heights, speech can be enlightening, they can also be misleading if one mishandles them and uses them as an excuse to look for hidden meanings (See Discussion of allegorizing in essay section on coursework questions wuthering Literal Interpretation) As discussed more in the section on interpretation, we must assiduously avoid all attempts to go behind the thesis film, text. Coursework Questions Heights! Instead, our continual quest should be to seek to carefully observe and accurately interpret what God's penman meant by what he wrote, for all Scripture has only one correct interpretation. Roy Zuck gives a number of advantages of figures of gap year essay, speech . (1) Figures of Speech Add Color or Vividness - To say, The Lord is my rock (Ps. 18:2-note) is a colorful, vivid way of saying the Lord is the One on coursework questions wuthering Whom I can depend because He is strong and unmovable. If we say, It is raining hard, we are using a normal, plain statement. But if we say, It is raining cats and dogs, we have used a sentence that means the same thing but is an unusual, more colorful way of expressing the same thought. (2) Figures of Speech Attract Attention - A listener or reader immediately perks up because of the uniqueness of figures of speech. This is evident when Paul wrote, Watch out for those dogs (Php 3:2-note), or when James wrote, The tongue also is a fire (Jas 3:6). When a comparison is university school coursework only made between two things that are normally not alike or normally not compared, then surprise occurs.
Similes and metaphors, for coursework questions heights example, often have this element of unexpectedness. (3) Figures of Speech Make Abstract or Intellectual Ideas More Concrete - Underneath are the everlasting arms (Dt 33:27) is certainly more concrete than the statement, The Lord will take care of you and support you. (4) Figures of thesis film, Speech Aid in Retention - Hosea's statement, The Israelites are. like a stubborn heifer (Hosea 4:16), is more easily remembered than if Hosea had written, Israel is terribly stubborn. The scribes and Pharisees could hardly forget Jesus' words, You are like whitewashed tombs, which look beautiful on the outside but on the inside are full of dead men's bones and everything unclean (Mt 23:27). Figures of speech are used in many languages because they are easily remembered and make indelible impressions.
(5) Figures of Speech Abbreviate an Idea - They capture and convey the idea in a brief way. Because they are graphic, they eliminate the need for elaborate description. They say a lot in a little. The well-known metaphor, The Lord is coursework questions wuthering heights my Shepherd (Ps 23:1-note), conveys briefly many ideas about the interaction essays behavior, Lord's relationship to His own. (6) Figures of Speech Encourage Reflection - Their resplendence makes the reader pause and think.
When you read Psalm 52:8-note, But I am like an olive tree flourishing in the house of God, you are challenged to coursework questions wuthering heights, reflect on about thinking skills points of similarities suggested in that simile. The same is questions heights true of Isaiah 1:8-note, The Daughter of Zion is left like a shelter in a vineyard, like a hut in a field of interaction ritual essays on face-to-face, melons, like a city under siege. (Basic Bible Interpretation: A Practical Guide to Discovering Biblical Truth) ( Recommended resource ) It is also important to remember that figures of speech although figurative are always intended to convey literal truth. As discussed below the literal meaning of a figure of speech is critically dependent on an analysis of the context in which is it used. Let's take a non-Biblical example of the figurative use of coursework, a word like crown. If someone declares I am going to crown you the literal meaning of this figurative use will depend on the context . Thesis Film! And so it could mean: I am going to place a literal crown on your head. I am going to coursework wuthering, symbolically exalt you to the place of kingship.
I am going to knock you in the head. As emphasized in the section on interpretation, Scripture should be understood in its literal, normal (normative), and natural sense. Figures of speech always convey literal truth and that is the meaning we must seek. Steve Lewis has a list of Reasons for Figurative Language, the first being that Figurative language is often used to speak about gap year essay abstract concepts in terms of concrete things. All human speech contains this type of language because it is intrinsic to the way people communicate. Very often when we are talking about something which is not perceptible by the five senses, we use words which in coursework questions wuthering one of interaction ritual on face-to-face citation, their meanings refer to things or actions that are. When a man says that he grasps an argument he is questions wuthering heights using a verb (grasp) which literally means to take something in the hand but he is certainly not thinking that his mind has hands or that an thesis film argument can be seized.
To avoid the coursework questions heights, word grasp he may change the form of the expression and say, I see your point, but he does not mean that a pointed object has appeared in his visual field. Everyone is familiar with this linguistic phenomenon and the grammarians call it metaphor. But it is gap year essay a serious mistake to coursework wuthering, think that metaphor is an optional thing which poets and authors may put into their work as a decoration and plain speakers can do without. The truth is that if we are going to talk at of maryland of nursing coursework, all about things which are not perceived by the senses, we are forced to use language metaphorically. There is no other way of talking. Anyone who talks about coursework questions heights things that cannot be seen, or touched, or heard, or the like, must inevitably talk as if they could be seen or touched or heard. Some topics can only be discussed using this type of language. For example, almost all of the Bible language used to describe God involves metaphor because that is the only way that finite creatures can speak about the Infinite Creator. (See all 6 reasons Lewis lists for figurative language = Bible Interpretation - Figurative Language - excellent summary) See also excellent related resource by Tony Garland - Interpreting Symbols. SOME GUIDELINES FOR.
FIGURING OUR FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE. Dr. Howard Hendricks has the following insights on thesis film how to distinguish literal from figurative noting that when. People talk about a 'literal interpretation of Scripture.' Does that mean that in Genesis 49, they see Judah as a real, live lions cub (Judah is a lion's whelp [cub]; from the prey, my son, you have gone up. He couches, he lies down as a lion, and as a lion, who dares rouse him up? Ge 49:9,)? Or Joseph standing by coursework questions heights a creek with roots going down into the soil (Joseph is a fruitful bough, a fruitful bough by a spring; its branches run over a wall. Ge 49:22)?
Or Benjamin as some sort of uncontrollable werewolf (Benjamin is a ravenous wolf. In the morning he devours the prey, and in critical thinking the evening he divides the spoil. Ge 49:27)? If so, Ive got a good psychiatrist I can recommend. When we speak of literal interpretation, we mean taking the language in its normal sense, accepting it at face value as if the writer is communicating in ways that people normally communicate. As one person has put it, When the plain sense of Scripture makes common sense, seek no other sense.
So, according to this principle, when Jesus tells us to render to coursework wuthering heights, Caesar the things that are Caesars (Lk 20:25), we dont need to look for some hidden meaning or elaborate interpretation. Its quite plain that He is telling us to pay our taxes. On the other hand, when He calls Herod a fox (Lk 13:31,32), He obviously is not saying that the of nursing coursework, man is a roving carnivore. Hes speaking figuratively, comparing Herod to that sly, dog-like creature. (Hendricks, Howard: Living by the Book. Excellent resource). Below are several rules to keep in mind when evaluating figurative. 1) Clearly, one rule of thumb is to always read the passage for its literal sense unless there is questions heights some good reason not to. We must assiduously avoid the temptation to spiritualize or allegorize (look for about hidden or secret meaning) the coursework questions, text, trying to make it say everything but what it plainly says. Only compelling reasons makes the interaction ritual essays on face-to-face, words figurative. Take as an example the beautiful Song of coursework wuthering heights, Solomon, which Dr John MacArthur states.
has suffered strained interpretations over the centuries by those who use the allegorical method (Ed note: allegory = having hidden spiritual meaning that transcends the literal sense of a sacred text and the respected commentator Matthew Henry plainly states Song of Solomon is an gap year essay allegory!) of interpretation, claiming that this song has no actual historical basis, but rather that it depicts Gods love for Israel and/or Christs love for the church. A more satisfying way to approach Solomons Song is to take it at face value and interpret it in the normal historical sense, understanding the frequent use of poetic imagery to depict reality. thus providing spiritual music for a lifetime of marital harmony. Coursework Wuthering Heights! It is about given by God to demonstrate His intention for the romance and coursework questions heights loveliness of marriage, the most precious of human relations. (MacArthur, J.: The MacArthur Study Bible Nashville: Word) (recommended resource) William MacDonald adds that. the careful student of Scripture will realize that this (allegorical interpretation) cannot be the primary interpretation of the (Song of Solomon) since the church was a secret hidden in God from the foundation of the world and not revealed until the gap year essay, apostles and prophets of the NT. Few Christians will deny that in this song we have a very beautiful picture of the love of Christ for the church, but this is an APPLICATION and not the INTERPRETATION. (MacDonald, W Farstad, A. Believer's Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson) (Bolding and caps added) (Recommended resource) 2) Some passages use language that clearly identifies the use of a figure of speech (see like and as in simile below). For example Moses writes that manna was fine as the frost on the ground. (Ex 16:14)
3) In some passages a literal interpretation makes absolutely no sense, thus forcing the reader to interpret it as a figure of speech. If the coursework questions heights, statement would obviously be irrational, unreasonable, or absurd if taken literally, the presumption is that it is a figure of speech. For example, in John's Gospel, Jesus uses picture talk describing Himself as Living Bread (Jn 6:51, 35, 48), the Light (John 8:12, 1:4, 5, 7, 8,9, 3:19, 20, 21, 9:5, 11:9, 10, 12:35, 36, cp fulfillment of thesis film, prophecy = Isa 9:2), the coursework, Door (Jn 10:1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10), the good Shepherd (Jn 10:11, 14), the resurrection and the life (Jn 11:25), the way, the truth and the life (Jn 14:6), the True Vine (Jn 15:4, 5). Common sense tells us that Jesus is not a literal door, a literal vine, etc but that He is pointing to a literal truth about Himself. 4) It should also come as no surprise that when you are figuring out the interaction ritual on face-to-face, figurative, one of your best guides is the coursework wuthering, context.
When taken in isolation, the expression or statement might be either figurative or literal, but in the context the essays behavior citation, author indicates that he does not intend the meaning to be taken as literal. For example, in coursework questions heights Psalm 63:7 David declares. In the shadow of Thy wings I sing for joy (Ps 63:7-note). David is certainly not saying that God has wings for that would be an absurd interpretation. Examination of the entire Psalm (the context), leads one to gap year essay, a clearer understanding of the picture of God's protection for His children with the same watch care as a mother eagle for her helpless eaglets. As a corollary, when read in coursework wuthering heights context, there is usually a plain and ordinary meaning for the figure of speech. In many cases, the Scripture will even immediately explain the figure. Because of the integrity of the Scriptures, one can be confident that the oedipus, ultimate truth in view will correspond to the plain and ordinary sense of the questions wuthering heights, words used. Avoid the temptation of trying to make the figure of speech say something that God does not intend. Stated another way, although it is a figure of speech, it still will have only one literal meaning and that is always to be our goal in inductive Bible study. Terms of comparison are the most common type of figurative language in the Bible, usually expressing similarity between things that are otherwise dissimilar.
The basic idea of comparison is to take something with which everyone is familiar and use give the reader insight into something which is unfamiliar or less familiar. In everyday life, when we see two of anything alike, the essays citation, similarity immediately draws our attention and this same phenomenon is coursework questions wuthering heights true in Bible study. How often do you see children out in public and don't pay that much attention? But when we see twins, our attention is heightened and more focused. In the ritual essays, same way, similarities stand out thus the Bible frequently uses comparison things well known and coursework questions wuthering understood, in order to give insights into truths which may not as well known or understood. For example, in Psalm 1 we observe that the man who delights himself in the Word of God and mediates on it day and night will be like (term of comparison = simile) a tree planted by streams of water, which yields its fruit in its season, and its leaf does not wither; and in whatever he does, he prospers. About! (Ps 1:3-note) The writer could have just said the godly man prospers, but he compares him to a tree near water, which gives us additional insight into the character and course of the coursework heights, godly man. Practice it! - Read and meditate on ritual essays on face-to-face citation Jer 17:7, 8 - Before you read further take a moment to question this great text with several 5W/H questions.
With what word does Jer 17:8 begin (see terms of explanation)? What question does that it suggest? Why will this man be like a tree? How does Jeremiah amplify the comparison of this man to a tree? What two things won't happen to him? What two things will happen to coursework questions heights, him? How does this description help us understand what it means to be blessed? Why is this man blessed. University School Coursework Only! what has he done? What does anxious mean (be sure and questions heights read the origin or derivation of our English word anxious for a great word picture which describes how we feel when we are anxious - or see the original Greek word - merimnao - be anxious). In sum, we know that the Bible uses figures of speech like terms of comparison (simile, metaphor) or picture talk to expand or amplify the meaning of the thesis film, passage.
But how can we easily recognize and accurately interpret figurative language? Below are a few guidelines to help you figure out the figurative: FIGURES OF SPEECH: Simile is a figure of speech which draws a comparison between subjects (which may or may not otherwise be alike) and is introduced (and identified) by use of questions wuthering, as or like. For example if I say I am as nervous as a long-tailed cat in a room full of rocking chairs, the picture is much more forceful than if I simply say I am very nervous. Practice it! - Read Ps 42:1 . What is the comparison. What 5W/H questions might you ask? Stop for a moment an practice questioning this passage before you read on. As the deer pants for university of nursing coursework only the water brooks, So my soul pants for You, O God. (Ps 42:1) Comment: What does the psalmist compare to what?
The deer to my soul. Water brooks to God. Why does a deer pant for the water brooks? It is thirsty. Coursework Wuthering! It needs refreshing. It cannot live without water. So as water is to the deer's physical sustenance, the very person of God (not just knowledge about Him) Himself sustains us spiritually. Only God will fulfill our deepest longing.
What does this simile say about one's attitude toward God? It is clearly an othello irony essay intense longing, not a casual or passing fancy. David was experiencing a severe divine drought (MacArthur). Have you ever seen an questions wuthering heights animal panting after running hard and then being offered some water? This is the picture is of an intense longing for essay God even as the deer longs for coursework questions wuthering water. Made in the image of God image, men and women find the essence of life in the presence of othello, God and His word. 1Peter 2:2 (note) paints a similar comparison of the longing of a newborn babe for coursework questions heights its mother's milk with the appetite the believer should have for thesis film the spiritual nourishment found only in Gods pure, undiluted, unadulterated Word. Wuthering! Note the preceding context (1Pe 2:1-note) for an explanation of why one might have decreased appetite for the Word of the LORD. Spurgeon comments: As after a long drought the poor fainting deer longs for the streams or rather as the hunted deer instinctively seeks after the othello essay, river to bathe its smoking flanks and to escape the dogs, even so my weary, persecuted soul pants after the Lord my God. Debarred from coursework wuthering public worship, David was heartsick.
Ease he did not seek, honour he did not covet, but the enjoyment of communion with God was an urgent need of his soul; he viewed it not merely as the sweetest of all luxuries, but as an absolute necessity, like water to thesis film, a stag. Like the questions heights, parched traveler in interaction ritual essays behavior the wilderness, whose skin bottle is empty, and who finds the wells dry, he must drink or die -- he must have his God or faint. His soul, his very self, his deepest life, was insatiable for coursework wuthering heights a sense of the divine presence. As the othello, deer utters a loud cry so his soul prays. Coursework Questions Wuthering! Give him his God and he is as content as the thesis film, poor deer which at length slakes its thirst and coursework questions wuthering is perfectly happy; but deny him his Lord, and his heart heaves, his bosom palpitates, his whole frame is convulsed, like one who gasps for breath, or pants with long running. Dear reader, dost thou know what this is, by personally having felt the oedipus, same? It is a sweet bitterness. The next best thing to coursework questions heights, living in the light of the Lord's love is to be unhappy till we have it, and to pant hourly after it -- hourly, did I say? thirst is a perpetual appetite, and not to be forgotten, and even thus continual is the about critical skills, heart's longing after God. When it is coursework heights as natural for us to long for God as for an animal to thirst, it is interaction ritual on face-to-face well with our souls, however painful our feelings.
We may learn from this verse that the eagerness of wuthering, our desires may be pleaded with God, and the more so, because there are special promises for the importunate and fervent (see note) IN PSALMS PROVERBS. The Psalms and Proverbs are filled with comparisons, with over fifty uses of the word like (NAS) in similes. Practice it! - Three exercises below. (1) Read Pr 25:28.
Re-read the passage and ask one or more 5W/H Questions. When you've finished, compare your questions and conclusions to the following comments. Comment: What is compared to what? What is a city like when it is broken into? What happens when it has no walls? What will the city be like? Now carry that picture over to a man's spirit.
When a city is broken into, there is death and destruction. When there are no walls ancient cities (always keep the oedipus character, historical context in mind) were basically defenseless! How much more serious are the implications when applied to the spirit of a man or woman?! In summary, the writer is using the picture of a defeated, overrun city as a comparison to help us understand the gravity of coursework, a soul that is critical skills overrun by the world, the flesh and the devil because we have elected to coursework questions, let down our guard (wall)! Not a pretty site! Now you can go to the commentaries to see how they handle this passage. (Biblical illustrator) (Charles Bridges' comments) (2) Read Pr 25:26 (Note: polluted also = ruined!) Ask one or more 5W/H Questions before you continue reading. Comment: What is of maryland school compared to what? What does a trampled spring picture? (Is the water clear and inviting?) How is a righteous man who gives way to the wicked like a muddied, polluted spring? What is a spring? A spring speaks of the source of the coursework questions wuthering heights, water.
If the source is polluted, so too will be all that comes from that source! What are the implications for a righteous man or woman? How will this effect their usefulness to of nursing coursework only, a holy God (Recalling that the best commentary on Scripture is Scripture compare 2Ti 2:21, 22) The spring, which like the man, was once clean, pure, and useful, is now polluted, impure and useless for service! (cp Pr 4:23 and questions note the essays behavior citation, term of explanation for - ask questions. And remember to apply the truths illuminated to your life beloved. cp Ps 139:23, 24) As with all Scripture, not only is the immediate Scriptural context important in accurately interpreting a text, but the coursework questions wuthering, geographical/cultural/historical context is often important to consider and may add interesting insights. Ritual On Face-to-face Citation! In analyzing Pr 25:26 we need to be aware of the great value of pure springs in the arid often desert like conditions of the near east, a geographical consideration which gives this proverb an even greater force.
In the coursework, desert, when a spring or a well has been contaminated, the problem is that it may never be pure again. Therefore it will thereafter disappoint those who come to it for a drink. By comparison when a righteous man or woman defects to thesis film, sin disappoints others who look to him. Wuthering! Remember that another aid in analyzing a text is to examine it in othello irony a different translation - in this verse, the wuthering, Amplified translation expands on what it means to give way, rendering it as yields, falls down, and compromises his integrity. What a picturesque, practical and thesis film pithy proverb! And all of these insights have been gleaned by slowing down and coursework chewing on the passage using the tools of Inductive Bible Study. Can you imagine what treasures await you, as you begin to hone your skills of character, Inductive Bible Study and questions utilize them on every Scripture you read for university of maryland school of nursing coursework only the rest of your life?! (3) If you would like some more practice, study some of the coursework, following passages from the Proverbs and Psalms which use like and as. With each comparison bombard the oedipus essay, text with the 5W/H questions. Consider doing this over coursework wuthering heights a period of several days as a devotional exercise, recording your insights.
Don't forget to check the context. Ask what is being compared and what insights you glean from the comparisons. Some of gap year essay, these uses are difficult to evaluate without a knowledge of the historical or cultural context - eg Ps 126:4 uses Restore our captivity, as the streams in the South. One would have to understand that the South referred to a dry, desert area which floods when it receives the seasonal rains. Questions Wuthering! When I encounter one of these passages, I will refer to the NLT which is a reasonably accurate paraphrase which can provide a clue regarding the gap year essay, meaning (see Ps 126:4NLT). Note that the coursework wuthering heights, passages below do not include every use of like or as in the Psalms and irony essay Proverbs.
I have read through and extracted those I felt would not be as useful to practice observing terms of comparison. Other passages were not included as they were somewhat difficult to interpret. Notice that I have added links to coursework wuthering, commentaries (denoted by N). Gap Year Essay! Most of these will link to a commentary by Charles Bridges' which is coursework questions wuthering older but still very highly respected. But please use the commentaries in a sense as your reward, as well as a check on about thinking the accuracy your observations and interpretation. Always ask the 5W/H questions and heights arrive at your own conclusion (commentary) before going to the formal commentary! You do not want to spoil the thesis film, joy of self discovery! And you may be surprised that you have made observations just as insightful as the experts! Use of like - Pr 1:27 (N) Pr 4:18 19 (The preceding two are highly recommended.
Look also for questions wuthering heights contrasts between these two parallel passages - see excellent succinct summary on Hebrew Parallelism = the expression of one idea in two or more different ways) (N); Pr 6:5, Pr 6:11(N); Pr 10:23, 26 (N) Pr11:28 (Cp Ps 1:3, Jer 17:8) (N); Pr 12:4 (N), Pr 12:18 (Wow! What a comparison! Note: One comparison is simile, the irony essay, other is a metaphor) (N); Pr 16:15, 27(N); Pr 17:14 (Cp another translation - Pr 17:14NLT) (N); Pr 18:8, 11 (Note: one simile, one metaphor, check context = Pr 18:10)(N), Pr 18:19YLT, Pr 19:12 (N); Pr20:5 (N); Pr 21:1 (Ponder this one then look at N); Pr 23:5 (What a poignant picture! - N), Pr 23:32, 34 (Note importance of coursework questions wuthering, context to accurately analyze the preceding two passages) (N); Pr 24:34 (Note it begins with a term of conclusion - what must you do?) (N); Pr 25:11, 12, 13, 14 (What is the common theme in these 4 proverbs? Pr 25:13NLT helps grasp the meaning. Ns) Pr 25:18, 19, 20, 25 26, 28 (N) Pr 26:1 7 8 (cp Pr 26:8NLT) Pr 26:9, 10 11 17 18, 21, 22, 23 (Pr 26:23NLT) (N); Pr 27:8 (N); Pr 28:3 15(N) Pr 30:14(N); Pr 31:14(N) Use of as - Pr 2:4(N), Pr 3:12(N), Pr 5:4(N), Pr 5:19(N), Pr 7:2, 10, 22, 23(N), Pr10:20(N), Pr 11:22(N) Pr 15:19(N) Pr 23:28(N) Pr 24:34(N) Pr 25:3(N) Pr 26:14(N) Pr 27:19(N) Pr 28:1(N) Use of like - Ps 1:3 4; 2:9; 7:2; 17:12; 18:33; 22:14 15; 28:1; 29:6; 31:12; 35:5, 10, 16; 36:6; 37:2, 20, 35; 38:13 13; 39:12; 49:12, 20; 50:21; 52:2, 8; 55:6; 58:4, 7 8; 59:6, 14; 62:3; 64:3; 68:13; 71:19; 72:6, 16; 73:5, 20, 22; 77:13, 20; 78:8, 13, 15f, 27, 52, 57, 65, 69; 79:3, 5; 80:1; 82:7; 83:11, 13 14; 86:8; 88:4 5, 17; 89:6, 8, 10, 37, 46; 90:4 5, 9; 92:7, 10, 12; 97:5, 11; 102:3 4, 6 7, 9, 11, 26; 103:5, 15; 104:2; 105:41; 106:6; 107:27, 41; 109:18, 23; 113:5; 114:4, 6; 115:8; 118:12; 119:83, 119, 176; 126:1; 127:4; 128:3; 129:6; 131:2; 133:2 3; 135:18; 143:3, 7; 144:4; 147:16. Use of as - Ps 5:12 10:9 12:6 14:4 17:8 18:42 19:5 21:9 22:13 31:12 32:4 9 33:7 35:14 37:6 38:4 39:1 5 6 11 42:1 10 44:11 22 48:3 6 10 49:14 53:4 58:7 8 61:6 63:5 64:3 66:10 68:2 74:14 78:65 83:9 10 89:29 36 90:4 95:8 102:8 103:11 12 13 15 104:2 6 109:18 19 109:19 29 110:3 118:12 119:162 122:3 123:2 124:7 125:1 2 126:4 140:3 141:2 7 143:6 144:12 147:17.
To reiterate, as you observe the preceding passages ask questions like what is being compared to what. Always remember to read the gap year essay, immediate context. Ask other 5W/H questions as dictated by the subject matter in that specific passage. Write down notes on wuthering heights the insights you receive from questioning the comparison (e.g., you could use a simple table like the one below). And don't forget that figures of speech always convey literal truth seek the literal truth that is brought out by the comparisons, using the othello essay, context to questions, help guide your interpretation (notice how observation merges almost imperceptibly with interpretation). About Critical! While you will want to be open to the Holy Spirit's illumination of the passage, be careful not to let your sanctified imagination run wild to the point that you try to discern things that do not reflect the original intent of the passage. To encourage as the the value of coursework questions, this exercise, read Ps 2:9.
Observe the thesis film, simile, check the context and ask the coursework questions heights, 5W/H questions. Interaction Essays Citation! The psalmist could have simply said You shall shatter them but note how the addition of the simile emphasizes the coursework, completeness and ease of their shattering! So take a moment and practice your skills of observation using the similes in the psalms. Essay! You will be blessed and challenged by the truths you discover. And you will begin to experience the Psalms and Proverbs coming alive in 3-D and coursework wuthering heights Technicolor in ritual on face-to-face citation a way you may have previously thought possible only for Bible scholars! FIGURES OF SPEECH: In simple terms, a metaphor is coursework wuthering a term or phrase which in some way shows comparison between two things but without using the words as or like. It is an implied comparison, a word (or phrase) applied to something it is not, to irony, suggest a resemblance.
Stated another way, metaphors suggest some likeness or similarity between two things that might not immediately be seen as alike. The value of metaphors (and similes) is wuthering that they give the reader a greater understanding then he or she would have had without the use of word picture. Patzia defines metaphor as In general usage, an implied comparison in which the characteristics, qualities or actions of one thing are applied to another (e.g., speaking of critical skills, God as shepherd). (Patzia, A. G., Petrotta, A. J. Pocket Dictionary of Biblical Studies. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press) E W Bullinger in his classic work on figures of speech explains that while the coursework wuthering heights, simile gently states that one thing is about thinking skills like or resembles another, the metaphor boldly and warmly declares that one thing IS the other. Questions Wuthering Heights! While the Simile says All flesh is AS grass (1Pe 1:24), the Metaphor carries the figure across at once, and says All flesh IS grass (Isa 40:6). Gap Year Essay! This is the distinction between the two. The Simile says All we like sheep, while the Metaphor declares that we are the sheep of His pasture..
Ps 23:1 The Lord is my Shepherd. It is He who tends his People, and does more for them than any earthly shepherd does for his sheep. Metaphors are so numerous in the Old Testament, that it is wuthering impossible to give more than these few to serve as specimens and examples. About Critical Skills! (Read pages 735-743 for Bullinger's full discussion of Metaphor - in coursework wuthering heights his classic book Figures of oedipus, speech used in the Bible, explained - online) You are the salt of the earth. (Mt 5:13 - see note) Bullinger comments Ye are the salt of the earth: i.e., you are (or represent) with regard to the earth what salt is to other things, preserving it from total corruption and destruction; just as the few righteous in Sodom would have preserved that city. (Figures of speech used in the Bible) What metaphors does Jesus use in the following verses? What do they teach us about questions heights how believers should live in this present, passing world? Note how Jesus uses two common metaphors to explain His main metaphor. Meditate on thesis film these passages asking these and similar questions before you read what the prince of coursework questions wuthering, preachers, Charles Haddon Spurgeon observed in the passage. Ritual Essays Behavior Citation! Notice how Spurgeon takes the passages and prays them back to wuthering, the Lord - this is a discipline (an application if you will) we should all continually seek to practice! (Why is this practice so fruitful? See 1Jn 5:14, 15, compare Jn 15:7)
You are the light of the thesis film, world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden. 15 Nor do men light a lamp, and put it under the peck-measure, but on coursework heights the lampstand; and it gives light to all who are in the house. 16 Let your light shine (aorist imperative = not a suggestion but a command which can even convey a sense of gap year essay, urgency!) before men in such a way that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven. (Mt 5:14-16-note). Spurgeon: We are to remove the coursework wuthering, darkness of ignorance, sin, and sorrow. Christ has lighted us that we may enlighten the world. It is not ours to lie in concealment as to our religion. God intends his grace to be as conspicuous as a city built on the mountains brow. To attempt to conceal his Spirit is othello as foolish as to put a lamp under a bushel: the lamp should be seen by all that are in the house, and so should the Christians graces.
Household piety is the best of piety. Coursework Wuthering Heights! If our light is not seen in the house, depend upon it we have none. Candles are meant for parlors and bedrooms. Let us not cover up the light of grace: indeed, we cannot be hid if once the Lord has built us on the hill of his love, neither can we dwell in darkness if God has lighted us, and set us on a candlestick. Lord, let me be zealous to spread abroad the light I have received from thee even throughout the world! At least let me shine in my own home. The light is ours, but the glorification is for our Father in heaven. We shine because we have light, and we are seen because we shine. By good works we best shine before men.
True shining is oedipus character essay silent, but yet it is so useful, that men, who are too often very bad judges, are yet forced to bless God for the good which they receive through the coursework, light which he has kindled. Critical Thinking! Angels glorify God whom they see; and men are forced to glorify God whom they do not see, when they mark the coursework questions heights, good works of gap year essay, his saints. We need not object to be seen, although we are not to wish to coursework questions wuthering heights, be seen. Since men will be sure to critical thinking, see our excellences, if we possess any, be it ours to see that all the heights, glory is given to our Lord, to whom it is gap year essay entirely due. Questions Wuthering! Not unto us, not unto us, but unto thy name, O Lord, be praise! (Matthew 5 Commentary)
Another definition - Metaphors are comparisons that show how two things that are not alike in most ways are similar in one important way. Metaphors are a way to describe something and are used make a passage more understandable by painting a word picture. Unlike similes that use the words as or like to make a comparison, metaphors state that something is something else. In other words metaphor is the comparison of one thing to thesis film, another without the use of like or as. Dictionary.com says metaphor is a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance, as in 'A mighty fortress is our God.' The 1828 Webster's dictionary defines metaphor as. A short similitude (simile); a similitude (simile) reduced to a single word; or a word expressing similitude (simile) without the signs of coursework wuthering, comparison. Thus that man is critical thinking skills a fox, is coursework a metaphor; but that man is like a fox, is interaction ritual essays on face-to-face behavior citation a similitude (or simile).
So when I say, the soldiers fought like lions, I use a similitude (simile). Questions Wuthering! In metaphor, the similitude is university of maryland school of nursing coursework only contained in coursework questions wuthering the name; a man is a fox, means, a man is othello as crafty as a fox. So we say, a man bridles his anger, that is, restrains it as a bridle restrains a horse. In the preceding examples from the wuthering heights, beatitudes (Mt 5:13, 14) we see our Lord Jesus multiplying metaphors to communicate graphic truth about the vital, dynamic (even radical) lifestyle His disciples should live in order that they might spiritually impact a world shrouded in character sin and spiritual darkness. As we have stated figurative language always calls for careful attention to coursework, the context so that we can derive an accurate picture of what the simile or metaphor was intended to picture by the author. Interaction Ritual On Face-to-face Behavior! And so to accurately interpret Jesus' metaphors requires some understanding of the historical/cultural context. Heights! In Jesus' day salt was the major means of arresting corruption in meats, and thus the audience clearly understood Jesus' charge to them. Light on the other hand calls for thesis film less understanding of the questions, ancient culture, for we all know that physical light dispels physical darkness. We know that when we cannot see, we are in trouble! From the context of other Scriptures, we know that the whole world lies in thesis film spiritual darkness brought on questions by Adam's sin.
Jesus charge is to shine forth our light in the spiritual darkness so others might see our good works (pictured here as the lights that shine forth) and give glory to university of maryland school, God. In other words, God is questions invisible to our physical vision, but believers are to live in such a supernatural way, that others see the tangible supernatural evidence that clearly points to interaction, a supernatural Source, i.e., the invisible God. As an aside, if you are a believer and you question your value or your purpose in God's Kingdom work, then you need to meditate on Mt 5:16, because frankly, you could not have a higher and holier purpose than to be a light beam who points lost souls to God that they might come to coursework questions wuthering heights, know Him and His Son (Jn 17:3). Practice it! - For an insightful study, click the following link which list most of the irony essay, metaphors used to coursework questions, picture the thesis film, Word of God. As you read each passage, ask the 5W/H questions and specifically what truth about questions heights His Word this picture is intended to portray. = Click for Word metaphors. Practice it! - Read John 15:1 and John 15:5 and identify the metaphors. Othello Essay! Ask your own 5W/H questions before reading the comment below. Comment: Clearly Jesus is using a well known horticultural figure of speech which would have been familiar to His listeners and which served to coursework heights, emphasize His relationship to His Father. Essay! The interpretation is dramatic -- Abide in Jesus and bear much fruit. Wuthering Heights! Fail to about critical skills, abide in Him and bring forth absolutely nothing. A vine branch has one great purpose which is to bear fruit.
Vine branches are useless for making furniture or building homes. Vine branches are good for fruit bearing, but only as long as the coursework questions, branch remains attached to the vine! What is the application to every believer? Abide in the Vine, be at home with Jesus, keep your focus on Him through your time in the Word (He is the Word Jn 1:1), conducting yourself in loving obedience to critical thinking skills, the Word ingested. As this process takes place, you are learning to abide in coursework the Vine. Practice it! - Observe and university of maryland school only ask the 5W/H questions on all seven of Jesus' I Am statements in John, all of which are metaphors that serve to expand our understanding of the infinitely glorious God-Man Christ Jesus! Bread (Jn 6:35,41,48, 51), Light (Jn 8:12), Door (Jn 10:9), Good Shepherd (Jn 10:14), Resurrection and Life (Jn 11:25), Way (Jn 14:6), Vine (Jn 15:1, 5). Bullinger comments: What bread does in supporting natural life is a representation of what Christ does in supporting and nourishing the wuthering, new, Divine, spiritual life. (Jesus is also saying) I am what a door is.
I am the entrance to the sheepfold, and to the Father. Yes, a door, and irony not a flight of steps. A door, through which we pass in one movement from one side to coursework wuthering, the other. FIGURES OF SPEECH: Hyperbole (Exaggeration) is a deliberate exaggeration for the sake of emphasis or effect. Examples of ritual on face-to-face, hyperbole: In each of the coursework, following examples pause and ponder the passage, asking yourself what is the hyperbole or exaggeration and character what does it mean in coursework context.
Dt 1:28 (Deuteronomy chapter 1 for ritual essays on face-to-face behavior citation context) 'Where can we go up? Our brethren have made our hearts melt, saying, The people are bigger and questions heights taller than we; the school of nursing only, cities are large and fortified to heaven. And besides, we saw the coursework heights, sons of the Anakim there.' (Deuteronomy chapter 1 for context) Comment: What is the hyperbole? What is the purpose or effect of this hyperbole?
Fortified to about, heaven grossly exaggerates the power of the enemy, in a sense even approaching the power of wuthering heights, God. What is the application? When we take our eyes off of the majesty and greatness of essay, our God, the temporal, earthly obstacles often become exaggerated in coursework wuthering our imagination and reasoning! Mark 1:5 And all the thesis film, country of Judea was going out to coursework heights, him, and all the people of Jerusalem; and ritual essays they were being baptized by him in the Jordan River, confessing their sins. Comment: What is the hyperbole?
Clearly all does not signify every single person in Judea was going to coursework questions wuthering heights, John the Baptist, but Mark does emphasize that Jews were streaming out to gap year essay, John from everywhere in the region. Mark's emphatic point is that this church service did not just have one or two new baptisms but that multitudes were being baptized! Matthew 23:24 You blind guides, who strain out a gnat and coursework questions swallow a camel! Comment: What are the gap year essay, hyperboles? Gnats and coursework questions wuthering camels! Before we explain those, did you see any other figurative language? Who is interaction ritual on face-to-face behavior you in the passage? We would have to go and read the chapter and it would become apparent that Jesus is speaking to the Pharisees.
Now were they literally blind guides? Jesus is not referring to physical blindness, but to questions wuthering, spiritual blindness, for thesis film here was the very Light of the World in coursework their eyesight, and yet they failed to see Him as their long awaited Messiah! Now the othello, interpretation of the hyperbole not as simple and heights requires some understanding of the thesis film, cultural context which forces us to go to coursework questions wuthering, other resources. Interaction Essays On Face-to-face Citation! In this case, I had to consult 4 Bible dictionaries before I found a useful explanation of the custom in Jesus' day of filtering wine to remove impurities symbolized by gnats (Easton's). In difficult cases like this one might then consult a trusted commentary such as that by Dr John MacArthur who explains that.
Some Pharisees would strain their beverages through a fine cloth to make sure they did not inadvertently swallow a gnatthe smallest of unclean animals (Lev 11:23). The camel was the largest of all the coursework, unclean animals (Lev 11:4). (MacArthur, J.: The MacArthur Study Bible Nashville: Word) Psalm 119:20 My soul is crushed with longing after Thine ordinances at all times. Comment: What is the hyperbole? Clearly one's soul cannot be literally crushed so this represents the exaggeration, to emphasize the great degree of the psalmist's longing for God's ordinances. Oedipus! How often does the psalmist experience this deep, profound longing? Let us seek to be imitators of the wuthering heights, psalmist, asking God to give us even a soul crushing longing for His Word, if we find ourselves drifting into the waters of apathy God's Word.
It is good when our thirst for the Scriptures is enormous and unflagging. Spurgeon beautifully unpacks this hyperbole explaining that True godliness lies very much in othello irony desires. As we are not what we shall be, so also we are not what we would be. The desires of gracious men after holiness are intense, -- they cause a wear of heart, a straining of the mind, till it feels ready to snap with the heavenly pull. A high value of the Lord's commandment leads to a pressing desire to know and to do it, and this so weighs upon the soul that it is ready to coursework heights, break in pieces under the crush of its own longings.
What a blessing it is when all our desires are after the things of God. We may well long for such longings. (Ed: And we may well pray for them dear child of God. God will be pleased to grant such a request that is clearly in His holy will. Irony Essay! [1Jn 5:14, 15]) Figurative Language - Tony Garland at spiritandtruth.org Figurative language - Bob Smith in Basics of coursework heights, Bible Interpretation Click for of maryland school only more discussion of other figures of speech such as irony, metonymy, hyperbole, personification, apostrophe and synecdoche. Dictionary of Biblical Imagery edited by Leland Ryken, J C Wilhoit, Tremper Longman III - This can be a useful tool in analyzing the questions wuthering, intended meaning of gap year essay, a specific figure of speech. Here is an example from the entry for the image of Rock
In the ancient world, where explosives and powerful drills were unknown, rockabundant and coursework questions wuthering heights varied in shape and sizewas a ready image of impervious solidity. A rock provides a solid foundation, protection and security, but it can be a nuisance when it poses an obstacle to progress and character essay dangerous when it falls. Questions Heights! The Bible uses words translated rock in all these senses and occasionally in more specialized ways. PUT IT INTO PRACTICE: Click and thinking skills read Psalm 1 taking note of the figures of speech.
DO YOU READ SCRIPTURE. LIKE DR. Coursework Questions Wuthering! WATSON OR SHERLOCK HOLMES? Holmes : You see , but you do not observe . The distinction is clear. For example, you have frequently seen the steps which lead up from the hall to this room. Watson : Well, some hundreds of times. Holmes : Then how many are there?
Watson : How many? I dont know. Holmes : Quite so! You have not observed . And yet you have seen . That is just my point. Character! Now, I know that there are seventeen steps, because I have both seen and observed (A Scandal in Bohemia in The Complete Sherlock Holmes. New York: Doubleday, 1927) Beloved, let us diligently seek to be spiritual Sherlocks (cp 2Ti 2:15 - note) who not only coursework questions wuthering, read our Scriptures daily (as part of our devotional and/or read thru the Bible in a year programs), but also make time to truly observe the about thinking skills, Scriptures in order that we might then be able to do them (proving ourselves doers of the Word Jas 1:22 - note) empowered by God's Spirit and His always sufficient supply of amazing grace. So let me ask you again: Do you read the heights, Scriptures like Dr Watson or like Sherlock Holmes? Do you mechanically read a section in the morning as part of your routine devotional and oedipus character essay walk away without having truly observed what the Author is saying?
If this is often your experience, then inductive study is for coursework questions wuthering heights you and will revolutionize your time in God's Word. As Howard Hendricks writes Personal Bible study is the Christian's lifeline. It is never optional; always essential. MISINTERPRETATION OF A FAMILIAR TEXT. BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO OBSERVE CONTEXT. In 1 Corinthians Paul's quotes a passage from Isaiah 64:4, one which I have personally used many times in on face-to-face behavior citation teaching and in praying. Unfortunately I misused it because I had failed to carefully observe the context of 1Corinthians 2:9 which reads as follows.
But just as it is written, THINGS WHICH EYE HAS NOT SEEN AND EAR HAS NOT HEARD, AND which HAVE NOT ENTERED THE HEART OF MAN, ALL THAT GOD HAS PREPARED FOR THOSE WHO LOVE HIM. P ractice it! - Now stop and ask yourself, To what is Paul referring? Many of us have come to believe Paul is referring to future glory in heaven in the presence of our Lord. Before you read further, take a moment and carefully observe the context (1Corinthians 2:10-16), and see it that influences your interpretation. For (if you miss this term of questions heights, explanation, you could miss the interpretation!) to gap year essay, us God revealed them through the coursework wuthering heights, Spirit; for the Spirit searches all things, even the depths of coursework, God. Coursework Questions Wuthering Heights! For who among men knows the interaction ritual behavior citation, thoughts of a man except the spirit of the man, which is in questions him? Even so the citation, thoughts of God no one knows except the Spirit of God. Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from wuthering heights God, that we might know the essays on face-to-face behavior citation, things freely given to us by God, which things we also speak, not in words taught by human wisdom, but in those taught by the Spirit, combining spiritual thoughts with spiritual words. But a natural man does not accept the things of the Spirit of God; for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually appraised. But he who is spiritual appraises all things, yet he himself is appraised by no man. For WHO HAS KNOWN THE MIND OF THE LORD, THAT HE SHOULD INSTRUCT HIM?
But we have the mind of Christ. (1Cor 2:10-16) Observe that 1Cor 2:10 begins with for (term of explanation) which in itself should prompt us to questions wuthering heights, pause, ponder, and ask at least one 5W/H question -- What is Paul explaining? Is he not explaining how eye can see and othello irony ear hear and mind can comprehend what God has prepared for him? This should prompt another question - What has God prepared for him? In context, we observe that what God has prepared for him is not a reference to the glories to come in questions heights heaven, but to the glories we can see today. In other words, Paul is not referring to the future but to essays on face-to-face, the present and questions specifically to about skills, the glories to be revealed in the Word of Truth by heights the Spirit of critical, Truth to those who depend on and yield to His teaching ministry. Wuthering! Even such an excellent conservative commentator such as Henry Morris fails to interpret 1Cor 2:9 in context, writing. The glories of the othello irony essay, new heavens and the new earth (Isaiah 66:22) are beyond human imagination, for they are being prepared for coursework questions wuthering us by Christ Himself (John 14:2,3).
Now, I will concede that one might apply the words of 1Cor 2:9 to university of maryland school coursework only, the future glory, but the questions wuthering heights, fact is thinking that this is not an accurate interpretation in heights context. Here are two other respected commentators that give the proper interpretation. William MacDonald: The quotation in 1Cor 2:9 from Isaiah 64:4 is a prophecy that God had treasured up wonderful truths which could not be discovered by the natural senses but which in due time He would reveal to those who love Him. Three faculties (eye and ritual on face-to-face behavior ear and heart, or mind) by which we learn earthly things, are listed, but these are not sufficient for coursework heights the reception of skills, divine truths, for there the Spirit of God is necessary. This verse is commonly interpreted to refer to the glories of coursework questions heights, heaven, and once we get that meaning in our minds, it is difficult to dislodge it and accept any other meaning. But Paul is really speaking here about the truths that have been revealed for the first time in critical thinking the NT. Men could never have arrived at these truths through scientific investigations or philosophical inquiries. The human mind, left to itself, could never discover the wonderful mysteries which were made known at the beginning of the gospel era. Human reason is totally inadequate to find the truth of God. (Believer's Bible Commentary) John MacArthur: These words from Isaiah 64:4, often incorrectly thought to refer to the wonders of questions, heaven, refer rather to the wisdom God has prepared for essays believers.
God's truth is coursework questions wuthering heights not discoverable by essay eye or ear (objective, empirical evidence), nor is it discovered by the mind (subjective, rational conclusions). Comment: In other words, spiritual truth (God's Word) is not understood merely because it is seen (read) or heard (eg, Bible on tape) or even because one uses his natural mind to think about it. E.g., consider the so-called higher critics who do a great deal of thinking about the Word but have absolutely no understanding of it's intrinsic truth, the truth God's Spirit intended to convey. And so Paul explains that in order for these glories of truth in God's Word to be seen by the eye of our heart, we must yield ourselves in complete dependence to our indwelling resident Teacher, the Holy Spirit (Cp 1John 2:20, 27) In conclusion, accurate interpretation is coursework wuthering heights always dependent on accurate observation of the context. Never interpret a single verse in a vacuum, but always take time to thesis film, examine the context! Agassiz and the Fish. It was more than fifteen years ago that I entered the laboratory of Professor Agassiz, and told him I had enrolled my name in the scientific school as a student of natural history. He asked me a few questions about my object in coming, my antecedents generally, the coursework questions wuthering, mode in critical thinking which I afterwards proposed to use the questions, knowledge I might acquire, and finally, whether I wished to study any special branch.
To the latter I replied that while I wished to be well grounded in all departments of zoology, I purposed to gap year essay, devote myself specially to insects. When do you wish to begin? he asked. This seemed to please him, and with an energetic Very well, he reached from a shelf a huge jar of specimens in yellow alcohol. Take this fish, he said, and look at it; we call it a Haemulon; by and by coursework questions wuthering heights I will ask what you have seen. With that he left me. . . About Critical! . I was conscious of a passing feeling of disappointment, for gazing at a fish did not commend itself to questions wuthering, an ardent entomologist. Gap Year Essay! . . . . In ten minutes I had seen all that could be seen in that fish, and questions wuthering heights started in search of the professor, who had, however, left the museum; and when I returned, after lingering over othello irony some of the questions wuthering, odd animals stored in the upper apartment, my specimen was dry all over. I dashed the fluid over the fish as if to thinking skills, resuscitate it from a fainting-fit, and looked with anxiety for a return of a normal, sloppy appearance. This little excitement over, nothing was to be done but return to a steadfast gaze at my mute companion. Questions! Half an hour passed, an hour, another hour; the fish began to look loathsome. I turned it over and around; looked it in the faceghastly; from thesis film behind, beneath, above, sideways, at a three-quarters viewjust as ghastly.
I was in despair; at wuthering heights, an early hour, I concluded that lunch was necessary; so with infinite relief, the fish was carefully replaced in the jar, and for an hour I was free. On my return, I learned that Professor Agassiz had been at oedipus character, the museum, but had gone and coursework questions heights would not return for several hours. My fellow students were too busy to be disturbed by continued conversation. Slowly I drew forth that hideous fish, and with a feeling of desperation again looked at of maryland coursework only, it. Wuthering Heights! I might not use a magnifying glass; instruments of all kinds were interdicted. My two hands, my two eyes, and about critical thinking the fish; it seemed a most limited field. I pushed my fingers down its throat to see how sharp its teeth were. Coursework Questions Wuthering Heights! I began to count the scales in the different rows until I was convinced that that was nonsense.
At last a happy thought struck meI would draw the interaction ritual essays on face-to-face behavior, fish; and now with surprise I began to discover new features in the creature. Just then the professor returned. That is right, said he, a pencil is one of the best eyes. I am glad to notice, too, that you keep your specimen wet and your bottle corked. With these encouraging words he added Well, what is it like?
He listened attentively to my brief rehearsal of the structure of coursework questions, parts whose names were still unknown to me; the fringed gill-arches and movable operculum; the pores of the head, fleshly lips, and lidless eyes; the oedipus character, lateral line, the spinous fin, and forked tail; the compressed and arched body. When I had finished, he waited as if expecting more, and wuthering heights then, with an air of interaction ritual essays behavior citation, disappointment: You have not looked very carefully; why, he continued, more earnestly, you havent seen one of the most conspicuous features of the animal, which is as plainly before your eyes as the fish itself. Look again; look again! And he left me to coursework questions, my misery. I was piqued; I was mortified. Still more of that wretched fish? But now I set myself to the task with a will, and discovered one new thing after another, until I saw how just the professors criticism had been. The afternoon passed quickly, and when, towards its close, the on face-to-face behavior, professor inquired, Do you see it yet? No, I replied. I am certain I do not, but I see how little I saw before. That is next best, said he earnestly, but I wont hear you now; put away your fish and go home; perhaps you will be ready with a better answer in the morning. Coursework Questions Wuthering Heights! I will examine you before you look at the fish.
This was disconcerting; not only must I think of my fish all night, studying, without the thesis film, object before me, what this unknown but most visible feature might be, but also, without reviewing my new discoveries, I must give an exact account of questions wuthering, them the essay, next day. I had a bad memory; so I walked home by Charles River in a distracted state, with my two perplexities. The cordial greeting from the professor the next morning was reassuring; here was a man who seemed to be quite as anxious as I that I should see for myself what he saw. Do you perhaps mean, I asked, that the fish has symmetrical sides with paired organs? His thoroughly pleased, Of course, of course! repaid the wakeful hours of the previous night. After he had discoursed most happily and questions wuthering heights enthusiasticallyas he always didupon the importance of this point, I ventured to ask what I should do next. Oh, look at your fish! he said, and left me again to my own devices. In a little more than an hour he returned and heard my new catalogue. That is good, that is good! he repeated, but that is not all; go on. And so for gap year essay three long days, he placed that fish before my eyes, forbidding me to coursework questions wuthering heights, look at anything else, or to use any artificial aid. Look, look, look, was his repeated injunction. This was the best entomological lesson I ever hada lesson whose influence was extended to the details of every subsequent study; a legacy the thesis film, professor has left to me, as he left it to many others, of inestimable value, which we could not buy, with which we cannot part. . . . The fourth day a second fish of the coursework wuthering, same group was placed beside the first, and I was bidden to point out the resemblances and differences between the university school of nursing, two; another and another followed, until the entire family lay before me, and a whole legion of jars covered the table and surrounding shelves; the wuthering heights, odor had become a pleasant perfume; and even now, the school coursework, sight of an coursework questions heights old six-inch worm-eaten cork brings fragrant memories! The whole group of Haemulons was thus brought into interaction essays, review; and whether engaged upon the dissection of the internal organs, preparation and questions wuthering heights examination of the bony framework, or the essays on face-to-face behavior, description of the various parts, Agassizs training in the method of observing facts in their orderly arrangement, was ever accompanied by the urgent exhortation not to be content with them.
Facts are stupid things, he would say, until brought into connection with some general law. At the coursework, end of eight months, it was almost with reluctance that I left these friends and turned to othello irony, insects; but what I gained by this outside experience has been of greater value than years of later investigation in my favorite groups. Collections of Commentaries Sermons. Enter Verse to Search 20,000 journal articles.
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SAT Score Range: Whats a Good SAT Score for Colleges? The new SAT is scored on a range from a low of 400 to a max score of 1600, combined from a range of coursework, 200 to 800 on SAT Math and 200 to 800 on SAT Reading/Writing, but the SAT score range for students admitted to different colleges varies. This post was updated in July 2017 to about thinking, reflect the most recent data available. Below youll find an SAT score range chart of old SAT score ranges and new SAT score ranges for 100 top colleges and universities! Okay, Im just going to come out and say it: the new SAT scoring system is extremely confusing. Wuthering Heights. There are subscores, cross-test scores, a science score and much more. And dont even get me started on the new concordance tables (though started Ill get, but later in university of nursing coursework, the post!) Because I dont want you to be uncertain about something as important as your SAT scores, Im here to dispel any confusion and answer your questions. Ill talk about all of the different scores: what they mean, SAT score ranges, what SAT scores you need for coursework wuthering heights, top colleges, and how everything ties together. Ill also let you in on a little secret: the SAT scoring tables comparing the old SAT and new SAT are a little wonky (but more on that later). Weve also put together this table of critical, SAT score ranges for questions wuthering heights, the top 100 universities in the United States . This table gives the existing old SAT score ranges for these schools (the middle 50%), and weve converted them to new SAT score ranges so that if you are planning on irony essay, submitting new SAT scores to colleges, youll have a sense of what you need to be aiming for.
Keep in mind that we dont yet have official data from schools about new SAT score ranges because no students have applied yet with new SAT scores. But this table should get you close enough to wuthering heights, know whether or not you are in range for your dream school! College SAT Score Range for 100 Top Universities. Expand the table by clicking on the entries box, or type the name of your chosen school in the search box to gap year essay, find the middle 50% score range for that college or university! Now lets get into everything and anything relating to SAT scores and SAT score range. Ill break it down to make things a little easier to follow. Herein orderare the main points Ill cover:
The basics of coursework questions, SAT total scores, subscores, and othello essay scores How the old SAT stacks up against the new SAT. What a good score on the SAT is, and wuthering how SAT scores stack up against university of maryland school of nursing coursework, ACT scores. The old SAT score range and new SAT score range youll need for colleges, from the Ivy League to other competitive schools. Okay, here are the basics: Two sections, one math and one verbal (combined from the reading and writing sections) Each is worth 800 points The total on the new SAT is 1600 points The lowest you can get on coursework wuthering heights, either the reading/writing or the oedipus character, math section is 200 and the highest SAT score on a section is 800. So, the total new SAT score range (combining Reading/Writing and Math) is 400-1600. If you are with me so far, its time to wuthering heights, talk about average SAT scores: the average score on character essay, each section is 500 points . The average overall SAT score is 1000 . Wuthering Heights. These are theoretical averages but the real averages tend to on face-to-face citation, be within about 20 points, plus or minus, of coursework, 500 points. Now things are going to get a little more complicated.
On the new SAT there are going to be three different types of scores. Thesis Film. Yes, three. So hold onto coursework heights, your seats. Okay, so the essays on face-to-face behavior citation, new SAT lumps the separate reading and writing sections into one 800 score. But the College Board still wants to wuthering heights, still give colleges a better idea of how to understand your SAT scores: how you did on the reading section and thesis film how you did on the writing section. That makes sense, but for good measure, they figured theyd throw math in as a test score. So the three test scores are as follows: Reading Test Score Writing and coursework Language Test Score Math Test Score.
Each one of these will be scored on a range of interaction ritual on face-to-face behavior, 10 to 40 . This score will correspond to how many questions you missed on each section and is adapted to heights, fit the score range. The two scores, one from the reading test and one from the writing test, will be combined to give you a verbal score on the 200-800 range. The math score on the 10-40 scale will be converted to a score from 200-800, which will be your math score. Add these together and youll have your overall SAT score. How important are these test scores? Speaking honestly, they just give people looking at university school coursework only, your score report a way to coursework, compare your scores to students who took different versions of the SAT.
This relates to interaction on face-to-face citation, an idea called equating, which allows the SAT to coursework questions wuthering, compare scores between different tests. But its pretty technical and the statistics folks over at College Board take care of thisyou just have to look at of maryland of nursing coursework, your score. What is important for youand what colleges will likely look at if they want to get a better sense of your performanceis how you did on coursework, the reading section and how you did on ritual essays on face-to-face behavior, the writing sections. Questions Wuthering Heights. After all, you could do very poorly on gap year essay, reading yet thrive in writing and can get the same verbal score as somebody who was average on wuthering heights, both sections. So the new SAT doesnt have a science section like the ACT does, but it does have what are called cross-test scores. Essentially, there are questions that are science related, whether they are in the math section, the gap year essay, reading section, or the coursework questions, writing section (hence the name cross-test). And there are also cross-test scores that are history/social studies related.
Heres how the College Board terms the cross-test sections: 1. Analysis in critical skills, History/Social Studies. 2. Analysis in Science. Each score will be on the same scale as test scores: 10-40. The College Board wants to coursework questions heights, give college admissions officers as much information as possible. University School Of Nursing Coursework Only. That gives us (I promise) our final set of scores.
There are seven of these scores, the first two relate to reading comprehension, the next two relate to writing and the last three relate to math. 1. Command of Evidence. 2. Words in Context. 1. Expression of coursework questions, Ideas. 2. Standard English Conventions. 1. Heart of oedipus character essay, Algebra. 2. Problem Solving and Data Analysis.
3. Passport to Advanced Math. Each of these subscores will be based on a 1 to 15 scale. Last, and perhaps least (for those not taking the essay), we have three scores based on the 55-minute writing sample youll have to cough up after working on the test for questions heights, three hours. Heres what you need to gap year essay, know: Two graders will be scoring your essay Each grader will give your essay a score (1-4) for three different criteria The three criteria are reading (how well do you understand the passage), analysis (how well do you describe how the writer is coursework persuading his/her audience), and writing (how well do you write).
This gives us a total of othello irony essay, 24. However, the coursework questions wuthering, scores will NOT be added up, but will be presented as three scores: a 2-8 range for reading a 2-8 range for analysis a 2-8 range for writing . So a possible SAT essay score might look something like this: 7 reading/5 analysis/6 writing. Whats the deal with all these different SAT scores? Why oh why is the SAT even coming up with such a complex scoring system in the first place? My theory is that the SAT wants to give schools a lot better break down of your skill set. On the old SAT, there were just three section scores. Now, colleges that want to know the difference between two very similar candidates in terms of SAT scores can learn a lot more with the subscores and cross-test scores. At the character essay, same time, colleges dont want to be inundated with all this information for coursework heights, each of the thousands of candidates they look at. Skills. That way they can start with the general score and if they want to dig deeper, they can look at these other scores.
How do we compare new SAT scores to old SAT scores? The short answer is we cant. The two tests are very different; a student who might have scored in the 95% on the old math section, might not even crack 80% on the new one, or vice versa. But, this isnt very helpful to schools. So the long answer is coursework questions heights that we have to be able to compare scores between old and new SAT candidates; otherwise we wont have a way to compare students who took only the old test to those who took the new test. Without a table to show which score on thesis film, the old SAT corresponds to which score on coursework questions wuthering heights, the new SAT, colleges wouldnt have a real sense of how the new test stacks up to the old one. Though the tests are pretty different, one way to compare the two is by using SAT score percentiles. If 800 used to correspond to the top 1%, then the same should apply to the new test. (Im just using a vague answer here).
Its actually a lot more complicated than this (some of the statistics involved is gap year essay Ph.D level stuff). But I hope to give you a very loose sense of how it works. Im not psychic, wielding a crystal ball to make SAT predictions. But that is exactlyminus the crystal ballwhat Ill have to coursework heights, do. Gap Year Essay. Luckily, we have the old SAT scores for universities. While this might seem so last year, Id be surprised if schools end up choosing students with drastically different SAT scoreseven though the test content has changed. Remember: the concordance tables are treating the two tests as roughly the coursework questions wuthering, same. Gap Year Essay. While the subscores and wuthering heights cross test scores might change things up a littleand indeed some schools might be over interaction ritual essays behavior the SAT, at least somewhatusing the old SAT score ranges for colleges will give you a pretty good sense of coursework wuthering, what you should be gunning for on the new test. And you can take a look at our SAT Score Range for Top 100 Universities chart above to on face-to-face behavior citation, see what old SAT score ranges would approximately look like as new SAT score ranges. Remember I told you how I was here to dispel confusion?
Well, thats very likely what we have around the PSAT, since there is no longer just one PSAT but three, depending on your grade level. The main PSAT, the questions wuthering, one for oedipus essay, sophomores and juniors, has two primary functions: to coursework questions wuthering, see if you qualify for the National Merit Program and to give you a sense of what your likely SAT score will be. Unless, you aim to score in essay, the top 2%, you shouldnt worry about the scholarship. You should, though, take your PSAT score seriously because it will let you know how much youll need to prep for the SAT to hit your target score. The big news is that a perfect PSAT score corresponds to a 1520 on the SAT. Thats right, because the PSAT is an easier test, it wontat the very high endgive you a sense of how well youll score on the SAT. But otherwise, your PSAT score which ranges from 320-1520 will correspond to what youd likely get on questions heights, the SAT where you to thesis film, take it right after the coursework, SAT (not as in the very same day, but you know what I mean). However, you can improve your performance on the actual SAT by prepping and practice; or, if you slack off, your SAT score might be lower than what your PSAT score would suggest.
SAT and ACT score ranges is about as dry a topic as they come. But theres actually some serious drama behind this. The fact is that the ACT right now is pretty much fuming that the thesis film, College Board decided to release an questions heights, SAT to ACT score translation without consulting them (hey College Boardwhy you no invite me to party?) So the information Im about to share is somewhat provisional; it might change if the ACT decides to release its own concordance tables (spoiler alert: the College Board wont be invited). That said, for gap year essay, now, this is what colleges will most likely go on: ACT to New SAT to questions wuthering, Old SAT Score Conversion Chart. As you can see from the tables on this score conversion chart, a perfect score on the ACT is othello irony a perfect score on questions, the SAT. Ritual Essays On Face-to-face Behavior. Though an ACT score of 35 works out to a 1540 on the SAT, remember that the ACT doesnt have nearly as large of a score range as the SAT (36 increments from 1-36 vs.
120 increments for the SAT from 400-1600). What SAT score range do I need to get into the Ivy League? Everyone is always wondering about the Ivy League and questions SAT scoreswhich should come as no surprise. The Ivy League is highly competitive and SAT scores give admissions boards a chance to find out othello, who the top of the coursework heights, top are (at least as far as test scores go). Below is table showing the middle 50% score range (meaning 25% of admitted students had lower scores and 25% had higher scores) for Ivy League schools: How to Improve Your SAT Score Range. As I implied from the PSAT vs SAT bit above, your score has its own rangeits not set in stone. Preparation is about critical a huge factor, as is how well you perform on test day. The most important thing to doand this goes for almost any point-based or time-based goal you want to set for yourselfis establish a baseline. What that means is wuthering heights you should take an about critical, official practice test before doing anything else (these are available for free at Khan Academy or in the Official Study Guide for a little bit more).
This will give you what is called your baseline scoreor the score you get when you havent started preparing yet. The goal is to increase that SAT score as you take subsequent practice tests. Brushing up on the fundamentals is the first order of business. Coursework Wuthering Heights. Next, improve how well you test. University Of Nursing Coursework Only. Believe it or not, this is a skill, too. And those who are good test takers are often those whove developed this skill, and therefore get a good SAT score.
What this means is coursework wuthering heights you should learn how to pace yourself during an exam, how to remain calm when a question flusters you (often guess and move on is the irony essay, best strategy), and how you can avoid careless mistakes in the future. Improving on these things will help boost your score. So next time you come to this post, when you look at the table above on SAT score ranges for top schools, youll be focusing on the higher end of the range and get the coursework heights, best SAT score you can get. Improve your SAT or ACT score, guaranteed. Start your 1 Week Free Trial of Magoosh SAT Prep or your 1 Week Free Trial of Magoosh ACT Prep today! Chris Lele is the GRE and SAT Curriculum Manager (and vocabulary wizard) at Magoosh Online Test Prep.
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Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. Scope of the Journal and guidelines for papers. The Journal welcomes manuscripts reporting significant new knowledge and understanding of fisheries and aquatic sciences. Manuscripts may concern omics, cells, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, or processes that affect aquatic systems. They may cover a range of disciplines including biology and ecology of marine and freshwater organisms, limnology, oceanography, physiology, toxicology, genetics, economics, disease, and management. Manuscripts are selected for publication according to the extent and coursework heights, significance of new knowledge or ideas presented. Preference will be given to manuscripts that contain clearly demonstrated empirical evidence of predictive or mechanistic relationships (i.e., rigorous quantitative analysis of observational data or experiments) or that advance underlying theory. The Journal considers the following types of contributions: Invited review is a critical synthesis of gap year essay information on an important topic; reviews can exceed the length limits of coursework wuthering heights articles, but length concerns should be discussed with the Editor prior to submission.
Papers must be clearly and concisely written in good English or French. Authors whose native language is not English or French should consult someone fluent in university school, English or French prior to submission of the manuscript. Alternatively, a professional language-editing service can be used. NRC Research Press recommends Editage, a leading provider of coursework heights English-language editing and irony, author support services. NRC Research Press authors get a special 15% discount on submissions made through this link. Abstracts should be submitted in the language of the coursework questions wuthering heights, paper.
They will be translated into the other official language by gap year essay the Journal translator. There are no page charges for publication in the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and coursework questions heights, Aquatic Sciences. To facilitate publication , authors must check symbols, abbreviations, and oedipus, technical terms for accuracy, consistency, and coursework questions wuthering heights, readability. NRC Research Press maintains the right to preserve the technical quality of the Journal. Authors are requested to refer to a recent issue of the Journal for details of othello irony essay layout, especially for questions wuthering, tables and othello essay, reference lists. Questions Wuthering Heights! Manuscripts and illustrations must meet the essays on face-to-face citation, requirements outlined below; otherwise, publication may be delayed.
Submitted manuscripts are evaluated by the Editorial Office for suitability and compliance with these instructions to authors. Manuscripts that do not meet the guidelines are returned to authors for corrections as Unsubmitted Draft. When first submitting a manuscript for coursework wuthering heights, peer review, low-resolution versions of figures should be uploaded to limit file size. For revisions, the corresponding author will be contacted by e-mail and asked to submit a revision; the process is very similar to initial submission. Submit Production Files is the final step of the oedipus character, peer review process. In ScholarOne, check that all author names appear as desired online.
Check that the contact author in ScholarOne matches the corresponding (contact) author on the title page of the coursework questions heights, manuscript. Checklist for thesis film, authors (Material to accompany the submission) Authors should note the Cover Letter section of coursework questions wuthering ScholarOne does not need to thesis film repeat any information that will also be given in the next section: Author Questions. explanation of conflict of interest, reasons why reviewers have been placed on coursework wuthering your Non-Preferred list, a brief statement of the significance of the work (optional) Resubmissions Use the Cover Letter area to include comments to thinking the previous reviewers (pasted or attached.) A highlighted copy of the resubmitted manuscript showing changes made should be included as a file upload. Authors can choose to have a pdf of the accepted manuscript (prior to copy editing and questions wuthering heights, page composition) loaded to the Journals website while their paper is undergoing the regular production process.
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Once the Editor has decided to consider the manuscript for publication, the corresponding author of gap year essay a submitted manuscript will receive a formal acknowledgement letter and will be requested by the Editorial Office to complete necessary forms as soon as possible. If the Editor has decided not to consider it for publication, then the questions, corresponding author will be notified of this decision via e-mail. Peer review is irony, required for all manuscripts, including those submitted for a special or thematic issue. In most cases, the Editor will assign an Associate Editor who will invite confidential reviewers. The Associate Editor may use the reviewers suggested by the authors but is not limited to those suggestions. Special or thematic issues may have differing practices, depending on the policies of the journal or the needs of the special issue. Although the Editors generally seek the advice of scientific peers, they may decline without review those manuscripts judged inappropriate for wuthering heights, the Journal. If the manuscript is accepted for review, the Editor will seek advice from gap year essay, a minimum of two reviewers selected for their knowledge of, and their experience in, the subject treated in the manuscript.
Reviewers are invited, in confidence, to recommend on the suitability of the submission and coursework, provide comments for the authors and gap year essay, the Editor. The Editor retains full responsibility, however, for all decisions regarding the manuscript. Suggested Reviewers: Authors should provide the first and last names of the reviewers in addition to their current e-mail addresses. Qualified and eligible reviewers include other researchers in the field who are not in direct or indirect conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. Please also consider naming international reviewers in coursework questions, the list. Authors are invited to suggest reviewers who are competent to examine their manuscript, but the Editor is oedipus character essay, not limited to such suggestions. Reviewers are informed that they have received privileged documents for assessment of questions wuthering scientific merit and are expected to provide reasonable arguments to support their evaluations. Identities of reviewers will not be released to authors without the written consent of the reviewer. Non-Preferred Reviewers: You may optionally enter the names of reviewers who you do not want to review your paper. Authors resubmitting a manuscript after previous rejection or withdrawal must indicate the manuscript number assigned to university of maryland of nursing only the previous submission in their cover letter. These resubmitted manuscripts are treated as new papers, and thus the cover letter must include all of the information requested for new submissions (see Cover letter requirements noted above).
Authors may submit the new manuscript by via ScholarOne, along with a detailed, point-by-point reply to all issues raised during the previous evaluation. The Editorial Office checks all accepted manuscripts for conformation to coursework the Instructions to Authors and to ensure that all necessary paperwork, including a signed licence to critical publish form (see section Permission license), is present. Any areas that are identified as problematic will be addressed by the Editorial Office in consultation with the corresponding author. Once the Editorial Office has resolved any problems with the manuscript and the original signed Assignment of Copyright forms have been received from all authors, the manuscript is forwarded to NRC Research Press in Ottawa for publication. The papers are prepared for publication by a professional copy editor responsible for questions heights, ensuring that the about skills, final published work is consistent in wuthering heights, form and style. Thesis Film! Authors who so choose can have a pdf of the wuthering, accepted version of their manuscript (prior to copy editing and page composition) loaded to the Journals Web site while their paper is undergoing the regular production process. To learn more about this, see our FAQ page on Just-IN manuscripts. Correspondence with NRC Research Press.
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Extended abstracts are usually under 2000 words and do not include presentation of detailed tables and graphics of the results of the coursework wuthering heights, study. Plagiarism (publishing a substantial portion of ones own previously published research results without acknowledgement of such republication or using work published by another author without attribution) is a serious offence . Othello Irony Essay! Because NRC Research Press is wuthering, committed to of maryland coursework combating plagiarism, it participates in CrossCheck. Wuthering Heights! CrossCheck is ritual essays behavior citation, a multi-publisher initiative to screen content for questions heights, originality using the software iThenticate, which compares submitted manuscripts against the CrossCheck database of character scholarly literature and detects instances of overlapping and coursework questions wuthering heights, similar text. To find out more about CrossCheck visit http://www.crossref.org/crosscheck.html. In the cover letter, the about critical thinking, corresponding author must affirm that all of the heights, authors have read and approved the manuscript.
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When choosing keywords, consider what words you yourself would enter into a search box if you were to search for your work online. Where possible and practical in on face-to-face behavior, the abstract, include synonyms for your keywords which laypersons would understand. Use your keywords in the body of the paper where appropriate. Ensure that abstracts are complete, such that they include a clear definition of the problem, methods, and results. Both titles and abstracts provide information for contemporary alerting and information retrieval services , and should therefore be informative but brief. Titles are also the most heavily weighted element of coursework questions a paper for irony, online search engines and should therefore contain important descriptive phrases that relate to the topic, stating information such as the heights, experimental organism used, specific behaviour , modifying agent, and key result or concept. Titles should be brief and clear. The common name and taxonomic name should be included if the organism is not well known, as in the example The cuticle of tephritid fruit flies (Urophora spp.). The title page should contain the following. ( i ) The full title of the paper. ( ii ) Authors listed in the order in which they are to appear at the head of the printed article. ( iii ) Affiliation and address (including e-mail address) for each author. This should reflect the affiliation and thesis film, address at the time of the study.
Indicate current affiliations and addresses (including e-mail addresses) that differ from those in the by-line in a footnote. ( iv ) Name, address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the author responsible for correspondence. The Editor urges all authors to use full forenames rather than initials and (or) one forename. An abstract is required for every contribution. Its content is coursework questions wuthering heights, particularly important for alerting retrieval services, search engines, and for readers, who scan the abstract to decide whether to othello irony essay download and read the rest of the paper. The abstract should be well written and wuthering heights, contain three to four descriptive keyword phrases that will draw the reader to the content. Because search engines look for thesis film, duplication of coursework heights terms, repeating keyword phrases in the title and abstract increases the chance that a paper will be highlighted during an online search; care should be taken, however, because excessive repetition of a term can cause a search engine to reject a Web page. About! Begin the abstract with the main conclusion from the questions wuthering heights, study and support it with the relevant findings.
Limit details of methods to those needed in understanding what was done and work them into statements of findings. Avoid using phrases such as is critical skills, discussed or was found; be specific. The abstract should not be more than 175 words and should appear on a separate page. Abstracts submitted in one language will be translated into the other official language by the Journal translator. References should not be cited in the abstract unless they are absolutely essential, in questions wuthering heights, which case full bibliographic information must be provided. Authors are encouraged to submit a graphical abstract with their manuscripts.
The purpose of a graphical abstract is to visually describe a concept or finding from the paper to entice readers and encourage understanding of the character essay, main message of the paper. The graphical abstract may consist of an illustration, diagram, equation, or other informative visual that serves to explain the subject of the article. Graphical abstracts appear online only. Limit the Introduction largely to the scope, purpose, and rationale of the study. Restrict the literature review and coursework wuthering heights, other background information to that needed in defining the problem or setting the work in perspective. Try beginning with the purpose or scope of the othello, work, defining the problem next, and adding guideposts to orient the reader. An introduction generally need not exceed 375500 words.
Materials and methods provides the wuthering, framework for getting answers to thesis film the questions posed in the purpose of the work. Limit the results to answers to the questions posed in the purpose of the work and condense them as comprehensively as possible. Give the questions wuthering, findings as nearly as possible in the terms in which the observations or measurements were made so as to avoid confusion between facts and inferences. Othello Irony! State noteworthy findings to be noted in heights, each table and figure, and avoid restating in the text what is clear from the captions. Material supplementary to behavior the text can be archived in the report literature or a recognized data depository and referenced in the text (see Supplementary material section). Limit the Discussion to giving the main contributions of the study and interpreting particular findings, comparing them with those of other workers. Emphasis should be maintained on heights synthesis and interpretation and exposition of broadly applicable generalizations and principles. If these are exceptions or unsettled points, note them and show how the gap year essay, findings agree or contrast with previously published work.
Limit speculation to coursework questions what can be supported with reasonable evidence. End the Discussion with a short summary of the significance of the work and conclusions drawn. If the Discussion is brief and straightforward, it can be combined with the Results section. Acknowledgements should be written in the third person. We strongly urge authors to limit acknowledgments to university school of nursing those who contributed substantially to scientific and questions wuthering heights, technical aspects of the university school of nursing coursework, paper, gave financial support, or improved the quality of the presentation. Avoid acknowledging those whose contribution was clerical only. Footnotes to material in the text should not be used unless they are unavoidable, but their use is encouraged in coursework wuthering, tables.
Where used in the text, footnotes should be cited in gap year essay, the manuscript by superscript Arabic numbers (except in the tables, see below) and coursework wuthering, should be numbered serially beginning with any that appear on the title page. Each footnote should be typed on the manuscript page upon which the reference is made; footnotes should not be included in the list of references . Equations should be clearly typed; triple-spacing should be used if superscripts and oedipus character essay, (or) subscripts are involved. Superscripts and subscripts should be legible and carefully placed. Coursework Heights! Distinguish between lowercase l and irony essay, the numeral one, and between capital O and the numeral zero. A letter or symbol should represent only one entity and be used consistently throughout the coursework wuthering heights, paper.
Each variable must be defined in thesis film, the text or in coursework wuthering, a List of symbols to appear after the university school coursework only, reference list. Variables representing vectors, matrices, vector matrices, and tensors must be clearly identified. Numbers identifying equations must be in parentheses and heights, placed flush with the thesis film, left margin . In numbering, no distinction is made between mathematical and chemical equations. The author is responsible for verifying each reference against the original article. Questions Heights! Each reference must be cited in the text using the surnames of the authors and the year, for example, (Walpole 1985) or Green and Brown (1990). Depending on the sentence construction, the names may or may not be in parentheses, but the year always is. Othello! If there are three or more authors, the citation should give the name of the first author followed by et al. (e.g., Green et al.
1991). If references occur that are not uniquely identified by the authors names and year, use a , b , c , etc., after the year, for coursework heights, example, Green 1983 a , 1983 b ; Green and Brown 1988 a , 1988 b , for the text citation and in the reference list. Unpublished reports, private communications, and in-press references. References to unpublished data, manuscripts in preparation or submitted to critical thinking skills other journals, progress reports, and unpublished papers given at annual meetings are not cited in the reference list but may be included in parentheses in the text, giving all authors names and initials. For a private communication, year of communication should also be given, as well as the individual's affiliation and location, e.g., (J.S. Jones, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, personal communication, 2010). Heights! If consultants reports or other documents of limited circulation must be cited, they should carry with them an availability statement explaining where the document can be obtained. If an unpublished book or article has been accepted for publication , include it in the reference list followed by the notation In press.
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The following bibliographic citations illustrate the punctuation, style, and abbreviations for references. Examples of references types, including electronic references. Newbury, M .G., and Ashworth, A.C. 2004. A fossil record of colonization and response of lacustrine fish populations to climate change.
Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 61 (10): 18071816. Questions Wuthering Heights! doi:10.1139/F04-113. Newbury, M .G., and Ashworth, A.C. Gap Year Essay! 2004. A fossil record of colonization and response of lacustrine fish populations to climate change. Questions Heights! Can. J. Fish. Aquat.
Sci. 61 (10): 18071816. Available from http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139%2Ff04-113 [accessed 28 October 2005]. Journal article available online only of maryland school of nursing coursework (with DO I): van d er Sanden, J.J., and Hoekman, D.H. 2005. Review of coursework questions wuthering heights relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches [online]. Can. J. Remote Sens. 31 (3): 207213. doi:10.1139/rs03-011.
Gordon, D .C., Jr., and Hourston , A.S. ( Editors ). 1983. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Dynamics of irony essay Turbid Coastal Environments. Can. Coursework Wuthering Heights! J. Fish. Aquat. Othello! Sci. 40 (Suppl. 1). Sanders, W .W., Jr., and Elleby, H.A. 1970. Distribution of coursework questions wuthering heights wheel loads in highway bridges.
National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 83, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Williams, R .A. Othello Essay! 1987. Communication systems analysis and design. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Scott, W .B., and Crossman, E.J. 1973.
Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bull. Questions Heights! Fish. Res. Othello! Board Can. No. 184. Healey, M .C. 1980. The ecology of juvenile salmon in questions, Georgia Strait, British Columbia. In Salmonid ecosystems of the North Pacific.
Edited by W.J. McNeil and D.C. Himsworth . Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oreg. pp. Gap Year Essay! 203229. Kemp, A .L.W. 1969. Organic matter in coursework wuthering heights, the sediments of thesis film Lakes Ontario and wuthering heights, Erie.
In Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Great Lakes Research, Ann Arbor, Mich., 57 May 1969. Of Maryland School Coursework Only! International Association for Great Lakes Research, Ann Arbor, Mich. pp. Coursework Questions Wuthering Heights! 237249. Institutional publications and pa mphlets: Dzikowski, P .A., Kirby, G., Read, G., and Richards, W.G. 1984. The climate for agriculture in Atlantic Canada.
Available from the thesis film, Atlantic Advisory Committee on Agrometeorology, Halifax, N.S. Publ. ACA 84-2-500. Agdex No. 070. American P ublic Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation. 1975. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 14th ed.
American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, D.C. Keller, C .P. 1987. The role of polysaccharidases in acid wall loosening of epidermal tissue from young Phaseolus vulgaris L. hypocotyls. M.Sc. Coursework Wuthering Heights! thesis, Department of university of maryland Botany, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Quinion, M .B. 1998. Citing online sources: advice on online citation formats [online]. Available from http://worldwidewords.org/articles/citation.htm [accessed 20 October 2005]. Koike, A ., and Ogura, B. 1977.
Selectivity of meshes and entrances of shrimp traps and crab traps. J. Tokyo Univ. Fish. 64: 111. [Translated from questions heights, Japanese by Can. Transl. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Thesis Film! 4950, 1983.] Tables must be typed on separate pages, placed after the wuthering heights, list of references, and numbered with Arabic numerals in the order cited in the text.
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Wuthering heights themes essays
Custom Ethos essay paper writing service. The doctrine of ethos is the notion that describes how music affects the brain. Questions. Ethos or music psychology is a branch of musicology and psychology. These branches help to understand and explain musical experience in relation to musical behavior. The basic interpretations of the primary source help the systems observation approach and the systematic interaction with humans. About Thinking. This research paper seeks to explore the coursework questions heights questions and issues that surround musical activities and experiences. Doctrine of Ethos.
There are many things that come in through senses of human beings. However, this does not mean that there should be difficulty while focusing attention on one stimulus and ignoring another. This is explained by the fact that human beings have an exceptional ability to get rid of unwanted stimuli. Doctrine of ethos is a fascinating sub discipline that explores mental processes and tries to understand how people think, remember, perceive, sing and speak. Thesis Film. This branch of coursework musical psychology can be also related to other disciplines such as linguistics and neuroscience. It is mainly focused on how human beings acquire, store, and process information. Research requires many different musical practical applications. These applications should focus on the increasing decision making accuracy, improving the memory and structuring the educational and musical processes. Historically, psychology as the school of thought was dominating other schools, while in the later years it focused more on the problem solving and attention, memory and problem solving after the cognitive evolution. It is irony essay necessary to coursework wuthering note that behaviorism focuses on the behaviors observed while cognitive psychology focuses on the internal mental states of human beings.
The critical question is othello irony “why it is wuthering necessary to study the irony essay doctrine of ethos?” Ethos is a branch of psychology that studies and examines the coursework wuthering psychological aspects of the human brain. This simply means that there is a connection between emotions and the brain. It is studied by teachers, educators, scientists, architects, artists, designers, musicians and many other professionals. This psychology evolves around the thesis film idea and the notion that understanding the mind and wuthering, internal processes is the key to understanding the relationship between human emotions and the brain. It applies to a homothetic approach that adopts ideographic techniques in about skills the case study. How the coursework heights Doctrine of thesis film Ethos Pertains to wuthering heights Music. The doctrine of ethos pertains to music in about thinking several ways.
It is necessary to questions heights note that tonal qualities and sounds are triggered by a part of the brain which in turn, releases hormones into the body. These hormones change the mood of gap year essay a person drastically. This simply means that the doctrine of ethos is related to music moral qualities. In this case, study of coursework ethos discusses benefits and gap year essay, harmful effects of ethical music. Questions Heights. Musical attention is the ability to concentrate, focus on a musical notes and sounds, and allocate other processing resources. There are different types of attention, namely selective attention, divided attention and interaction ritual, automatic attention. Wuthering Heights. Selective attention entails the effects of trying to attend to different things at the same time. About Critical. In this case, the person needs to select the coursework heights task to essay attend in coursework wuthering order to finish another.
Divided attention, on the other hand, is the difficulty that is faced when trying to do two different tasks at of nursing the same time. The neurosciences and philosophy in questions wuthering heights music is known as a binding problem. These are many different possible uses which are useful at different anchor points. The process by which brains segregate musical elements is not unique but also highly complex. The first problem faced in this conventional questioning is the neural mechanism that distributes most activities to the central nervous system. Visual perception is a process that separates information and sends them to different regions or parts of the brain. Taking this into account, synthesis will feature on the synchronizing different neurons which are found in the cortex. Memory also largely depends on the biding problem. Ritual. This simply means that it is coursework heights associated with many different elements which help to maintain and create brain association. The binding problem is applied to unity consciousness in relation to a problem within the brain. In other words, the brain is supported by limited domains that can assess sensitive cells.
Most of the researches carried out studies on the music psychology have shown that all the music performers and listeners respond emotionally during and after listening to music. This is attributed to gap year essay the fact that after experiencing emotion which is related to the music, the music emotions are recognizable. This simply means that these emotions are a behavioral change towards a stimulus. The listener’s expression in the course of music determines music emotions and experience. According to Waterman (1992), people respond to music because they have different musical responses. While choosing the best method to use in the ethos research study, it is necessary to consider the cognitive neuroscience and contemporary cognitive psychology. The methods chosen must focus on auditory attention. This simply means that the method should be introduced using a limited capacity in coursework wuthering the attention given.
The first method should try to gap year essay understand human behavior and questions, how music is processed. The method should evaluate and provide understanding how humans interpret, remember, perceive and sense music. The method should be based on the cross-cultural and developmental perspectives of music, performance anxiety, music therapy and neurological aspects. The selective method should use the about critical thinking Broadbent filter model of selective attention. It is necessary to note that the Broadbent method recognizes the information processing approach that contributes key information to the same. Broadbent argues that any information provided at any time has the capacity to enter a sensory buffer. According to Broadbent, this filter is designed to prevent an overload in the processing of the information. This method entails focusing on how people are listening to the music deliberately overloading with this information and how to read such a signal in the information process. This method also focuses on a repeated background. Therefore, this implies that people will make fewer mistakes if the music can be repeated back. The other sheer effective method that can be used is the dichotic listening task.
This method attempts to determine why it is difficult for humans to listen to music or switch to different channels at a time. This simply means that human beings can only listen to coursework questions wuthering one musical composition at a given time, while another musical composition from the unattended year gets lost. Hence, it means that the music get stored by a remarkably short term memory. In this method, one music type is introduced. It is necessary to note that this method considers that there is limited capacity to enable the processing of interaction essays citation this information or the music. There are many disciplines and mutual aspects that help in research methodologies of music psychology or ethos. Other method will involve identifying a single motion while the listener is listening to different types of music. In this case, a questionnaire is used to conduct an coursework questions, experiment. Thinking. The questionnaire should be simple and precise in order to allow easy understanding of the questions.
It should also be addressed to a large group of questions heights person and should not only be limited to a group of people. The research method should also explore the relationship between musical psychology and music cognition. As a result the cognitive arrays can be transformed into musical sequences of multi tracks. While constructing or developing the questionnaire, the researchers must consider the fact that music psychology methods are extremely difficult to implement. In this case, they should put quality control procedures in place in order to get expert review. The research study must cover the perception of sound patterns, perception of musical sounds, music memory, absolute pitch, musical gatherings and rituals, musical instruments learning processes, emotional musical behavior, personal role of music, musical social influences, rhythm, tone, harmony dance ability, phrasing and meter in the music and the psychological processes involved in musical performance.
A variety of statistical tests should also be carried out in the research study. This will help to understand and explain the interlocking sets of music that are related to musical psychology. This research method should be based on ritual essays on face-to-face citation, disciplines such as use of computational models. Consequently, it will be able to coursework questions heights reflect most of the properties present in the human cognition process. In this case, a music task should be used in order to determine actual relations between the theories used and the statistical tests involved. Results from the filter or Broadbent model showed that this method was more effective when operated as a selective attention. This simply means that human beings can only university of nursing, pay attention to one specific song or songs at the same time. The results from the music psychological research method brought to questions wuthering heights a conclusion that musical elements are related to emotional experiences depending on the music.
However, there were many methodology problems that were observed because emotions last for a short duration of time. Oedipus Essay. Latter means that the questionnaires do not provide enough insight to help researchers understand other complex emotions which were experienced while listening to the music. The results show that the music mind can perform, listen to and compose music. It also shows that the mind is linked to body language and responses from coursework questions heights music. The resulting music therapy lowers the heart rate, anxiety, systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
The other discovery that was made was that music therapy is an essential element that helps to improve the quality of life among a certain group of persons. Music therapy is also associated with improving stride symmetry, stride length and gate velocity. About Critical Thinking. The study also showed that understanding a person’s music choice is critical in wuthering understanding the oedipus character essay music responses from the particular person. Most people had limited control over the music played and coursework questions wuthering heights, thus the effects were related to the particular music played. Thesis Film. The challenge, however, comes from controlling these trials in order to understand the affects on people from different environments and medical settings.
This could significantly help to coursework questions wuthering heights optimize the use of music, relieve anxiety and increase comfort on the people involved. In this way, music can be used medically to help improve the life and health of the patients or individuals involved. The main aim for conducting an ethos research is to study and school, understand the sound verbal domain which is a particular contemporary field of science that is actively developing. In this sense, cognitive framework represents some unique properties of the abstract or the musical sound environment. In this case, the wuthering heights sensory information or the gap year essay frequency is ultimately transformed into coursework wuthering, a pitch.
The input and thesis film, output nature represent the transformation of the algorithms used. This research also explores the instantaneous biology of the human brain in order to present a functional base for the oriented neuropsychological work. As the wuthering heights sound is produced from different sources the behavior can change or remain constant through time, however, using a limited number of cues can give conflicting evidence or reinforcement on the same. Therefore, sound sources in the environment depend on the acoustic information. In this case, the music or the arrangement of notes can profoundly affect the about thinking skills perpetual results of the same.
Once the music is derived from the coursework questions perpetual source, the music perception begins. These attributes or sources help to activate a knowledge structure which represents long term memory. Music Psychology. Music features rich melodic and rhythmic structures in the addition to the spoken language. Language and music largely depend on thesis film, the functions of the brain. As a result, the relationship between speech intonation’s perceptions and musical deafness or tone deafness are some of the behaviors that are illuminated in the neural foundations and cognitive domain. In this case, perception is not registered as passive but is an active interpretation that involves a constructive process.
In other words, the brain has a remarkable ability to support music and rhythm perceptions, examine auditoria systems, motor systems and other beat perceptions. The mechanism of the brain clearly shows that understanding a musical beat is a phenomenon that illustrates the mechanism of the brain and the human culture. Temporal Dynamics of the coursework questions wuthering heights Brain Activity. To understand temporal details of the brain, one should understand how the brain responds to the sound. A frequency tagging is othello essay a method that is used in the research to study the brain and how it evolves over time.
It also helps to understand the auditory processes and questions wuthering, the brain mechanisms. Stimulus affects the brain activity in a great way since the brain activity is largely related to the stimuli that become temporally correlated. Music and thesis film, Body Language. Music is coursework questions heights a cultural form that has survived many generations from the historical times to present time. Music does not only have an effect on society but also has an effect on modern life.
The body responds to music. Results and finding of numerous studies that have been carried out on character, this subject have proved that music is simply a unique thought that is related to heights the physical, spiritual and emotional aspects in the world. Therefore, a person’s mood can be easily changed by music. Ritual Citation. Music can also cause simultaneous physical responses in human beings. Other people have perceived music as a way to weaken or strengthen a person’s emotion depending on the circumstances or the environment. Music has many functions apart from relaxation. It also decreases blood pressure, affects the breathing rate, increase heart rate and enhances a person’s ability to learn. Music Healthy Effects. Healthy effects of wuthering heights music are related to essays on face-to-face the power of music. As mentioned before, music can slow down blood pressure, slow down the breathing rate among many other functions.
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