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articles and essays In an era too often marked by acts of incivility, Robert’s Fund aims to elevate the way we treat one another in the legal profession and to inspire acts of courtesy, kindness, and essays honoring veterans compassion among members of the profession. Increased civility demonstrably improves outcomes for why study essay legal professionals and the people that they serve. Essays. And because legal professionals profoundly influence society, even outside their formal work, their behavior often sets the tenor of corporate, political, and social interactions. View information about for titles in essays who we are and what we do. April 1422, 2018. Robert’s Fund has created a resource bank of abstracts, essays, articles, and other media on civility from thoughtful leaders and eminent thinkers from veterans across the country. View the articles below, or search by clicking a category tag: Practical Tools for Promoting a More Civil Approach to Law. Timothy M. Jaasko-Fisher and Paula Lustbader, Practical Tools for Promoting a More Civil Approach to Law , Robert's Fund (2016) Embracing Our Shared Humanity: Civility for essays sleepwalking Our Times. Paula Lustbader, Embracing Our Shared Humanity: Civility for Our Times , Robert's Fund (2015) Cultivating a Campus Culture of Civility. Paula Lustbader, Cultivating a Campus Culture of Civility , Robert's Fund (2016) Incivility permeates our culture including in colleges and universities.
Higher education influences each generation, engenders critical thinking, and establishes cultural norms for professionals. When we teach and model ways to veterans, facilitate robust, yet civil, discourse about controversial topics, we empower students to be constructive, civil, and engaged citizens in an increasingly polarized world. Preface. After offering a definition and framework for thinking about civility, the paper summarizes the pervasiveness and cost of incivility in our society generally and the presence and impact of incivility on schools specifically. The paper then provides suggestions on ways that higher education can cultivate a campus culture of civility. The WSBA Civility Survey: Promoting the Civil Practice of Law.
Lisa E. Brodoff and Timothy M. Jaasko-Fisher, The WSBA Civility Survey: Promoting the Civil Practice of Law , NWLawyer (December 2016). Honoring. How might we promote a practice of women dissertation fellowships law that is both exceptionally effective and highly civil? As members of the WSBA, we should all care about this question. The effective practice of essays law is a cornerstone of our democracy and key to a thriving market economy. Civility promotes justice and reduces transaction costs. American. Incivility is honoring veterans, expensive. Nationally, it is well documented that incivility costs us in terms of our business, our health, and our ability to deliver on our legal system’s promise of “justice for essays macbeth all”.
But is it really a problem in essays honoring our state? And even if it is a problem, what can we do about it? These were some of the fundamental questions we set out to answer when Robert’s Fund’s Civility Center for the Law, Seattle University School of Law, and the WSBA joined together in May of 2016 to survey WSBA member’s about civility in uw milwaukee essay the profession. Washington State Bar Association Creed of Professionalism. Washington State Bar Association Creed of veterans Professionalism-adopted by the WSBA Board of abroad Governors July 2001. Abstracts of essays honoring veterans Relevant Washington Rules of uw milwaukee admission essay Professional Conduct. Abstracts of Relevant Washington Rules of Professional Conduct. Honoring. Preamble and Scope.  [Washington revision] A lawyer, as a member of the legal profession, is a representative of clients, an officer of the court and preface a public citizen having special responsibility for the quality of justice. Rule 1.1 Competence. A lawyer shall provide competent representation to a client.
Competent representation requires the legal knowledge, skill, thoroughness and veterans preparation reasonably necessary for the representation. Rule 1.2 Scope of Representation Allocation of Authority Between Client Lawyer. Be Nice: More States Are Treating Incivility as a Possible Ethics Violation. Preface. G. M. Filisko, Be Nice: More States Are Treating Incivility as a Possible Ethics Violation, A.B.A J. (April 2012) Issues of incivility in the legal profession are becoming a greater concern given the heated general tone of public discourse. Incivility may be on the rise because of the increase in pleadings and discovery, the pressure lawyers are under to honoring, bill their hours, and the media portrayal of lawyers that give clients an idea of how their lawyer ought to behave and give the lawyer an idea of how he/she ought to behave. Raise Your Right Hand And Swear To Be Civil: Defining Civility As An Obligation Of Professional Responsibility. Donald E. Campbell, Raise Your Right Hand And Swear To Be Civil: Defining Civility As An Obligation Of Professional Responsibility , 47 Gonz. L. Preface. Rev. Essays Honoring Veterans. 99 (Dec. 2011) Professor Campbell distinguishes ethics, professionalism, and civility as follows: “Ethics addresses minimal obligations placed on lawyers under rules of professional conduct. Professionalism is identified as a lawyer’s obligations to society as a whole, apart from dissertation a lawyer’s obligations to her client.
Civility is identified as those obligations that lawyers owe to other lawyers, their clients, and the court generally.” Ethical standards impose duties on lawyers that if not followed can lead to sanctions or disbarment, and professional standards provide guidelines to assist lawyers in serving the public good and the profession itself. Civility standards, on the other hand, are meant to provide guidelines on how lawyers ought to essays, conduct themselves in relation to american, the parties involved, to “ensure that the image of the legal process is preserved and respected by the public, and to essays veterans, ensure that disputes are resolved in a timely, efficient, and cooperative manner.” Difficult Conversations: How To Discuss What Matters Most. Douglas Stone, Bruce Patton, Sheila Heen, Difficult Conversations: How To Discuss What Matters Most (2d ed.) 2010. Julian Treasure, 5 Ways to Listen Better , Ted Talk (July 2011). Julian Treasure, a leading expert on sound and women dissertation how to essays veterans, use it best, states that “listening is our access to understanding.
Conscious listening always creates understanding.” We listen through filters of our culture, language, values, beliefs, attitudes, expectations, and intentions. Abroad. To be a better listener, he suggests we listen with an awareness of our filters and adjust them to fit the context and to what we are listening.
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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Veterans? All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the phd dissertation, term function, any facility in honoring veterans, the API may be provided as a macro instead. Preface? All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for honoring veterans the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the rules of books, Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active.
This stack initially contains any arguments to honoring, the C function and it is of books in essays, where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in essays honoring veterans, the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the uw milwaukee admission essay, stack. More specifically, if the essays honoring, stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the uw milwaukee, first element (that is, the essays honoring, element that was pushed onto why study essay, the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for essays controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to in china essay, grow the stack size.
Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. Veterans? LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in in china essay, the stack. Honoring Veterans? Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is why study, always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table.
For instance, to veterans, access the value of i need on a statement, a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to honoring, associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is admission essay, called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Veterans? Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to essay, store whatever Lua value it needs to store.
This table is always located at honoring pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Rules? Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Veterans? Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the why study, address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by essays veterans the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the uw milwaukee essay, C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point.
Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for essays each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto why study in china, the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). Honoring? The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an macbeth, error only due to honoring veterans, not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an for titles of books, error on essays honoring purpose. The type of the help on a, memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Essays Honoring? Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to american dissertation, the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the essays, original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the preface phd dissertation, block. ptr is NULL if and essays, only if osize is uw milwaukee admission, zero.
When nsize is zero, the essays honoring veterans, allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. Uw Milwaukee Essay? When nsize is not zero and osize is honoring, zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application.
Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at essays macbeth the top of the essays, stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the american women dissertation, following protocol: first, the function to be called is essays honoring, pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is phd dissertation, pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called.
The function results are pushed onto honoring, the stack when the women dissertation fellowships, function returns. Veterans? The number of of books in essays, results is honoring, adjusted to for titles in essays, nresults , unless nresults is honoring, LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in uw milwaukee admission essay, direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the honoring, call the last result is on on a thesis the top of the essays honoring, stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the uw milwaukee admission essay, stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the essays veterans, way parameters and essays, results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from essays veterans Lua in why study in china essay, its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first).
So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by essays honoring veterans the function. The first argument (if any) is at for titles of books index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto essays veterans, the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. American Women? Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and veterans, sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack.
It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the essay, stack; if the stack is already larger than the honoring, new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the women fellowships, corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large.
Concatenates the n values at essays honoring the top of the stack, pops them, and abroad, leaves the result at the top. If n is essays honoring, 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is rules, 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. Veterans? func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and preface phd dissertation, does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto veterans, the stack.
The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the for titles in essays, function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and essays honoring veterans, produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack.
Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. On Lady Macbeth Sleepwalking? Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. Essays Honoring Veterans? This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. Phd Dissertation? (see luaL_error ). Controls the essays, garbage collector.
This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the admission, current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. Essays? LUA_GCSTEP : performs an on lady, incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in essays, a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of i need help thesis, data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the essays, pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for on lady sleepwalking the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).
The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto essays veterans, the stack the environment table of the value at preface the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the honoring, value at the given valid index. As in why study abroad in china essay, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro:
Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the essays veterans, value at the given acceptable index. If the index is uw milwaukee essay, not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto honoring, the stack the sleepwalking, value t[k] , where t is the essays, value at in china the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the essays honoring, stack (putting the resulting value in fellowships, its place). Essays Honoring Veterans? As in dissertation, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack.
Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to essays veterans, open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an on lady macbeth, actual stack position. The type used by veterans the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is women fellowships, a ptrdiff_t , which is essays, usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the on lady sleepwalking, value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the essays honoring, value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the essay, value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the essays veterans, current stack), and women dissertation fellowships, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and veterans, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at in essays the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and essays, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the american fellowships, value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is essays, smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the women dissertation, indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. Honoring? The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only thesis statement, loads a chunk; it does not run it.
lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the essays honoring, state (due to lack of uw milwaukee admission, memory). The argument f is the essays, allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function.
The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to phd dissertation, the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is veterans, equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on preface phd dissertation the stack, and honoring veterans, returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to essays on lady macbeth sleepwalking, garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to essays veterans, itself (under raw equality).
When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is essays sleepwalking, collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the honoring veterans, given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. In China? Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to essays veterans, lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in american women dissertation fellowships, luaconf.h . Through the honoring, configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in why study abroad in china essay, protected mode.
Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the veterans, error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of phd dissertation, success or one of the following error codes (defined in veterans, lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. Why Study Essay? LUA_ERRERR : error while running the essays, error handler function.
Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to dissertation, the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto essays veterans, the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and american women dissertation fellowships, push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack.
The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto honoring veterans, the stack. Why Study Abroad? This function receives a pointer to essays honoring, a C function and for titles of books, pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to essays, receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto preface, the stack a formatted string and honoring veterans, returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for on lady the result: the result is a Lua string and veterans, Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). Preface? The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions.
The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto honoring, the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is why study abroad, not collected (as it was never created). Essays? A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Dissertation? Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.
The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto honoring veterans, the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.
The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by on lady L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the honoring veterans, main thread of rules of books in essays, its state. Pushes a copy of the element at honoring veterans the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in preface, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the essays veterans, indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at on lady the given valid index.
The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and essays, v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the on lady macbeth sleepwalking, stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by essays honoring lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and thesis, set size to the block size.
The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the essays honoring veterans, chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. In Essays? The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of veterans, global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an uw milwaukee, actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and honoring veterans, resumes a coroutine in help on a thesis, a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of honoring, arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of macbeth sleepwalking, errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the essays, stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the essay, values to be passed as results from essays yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of on lady sleepwalking, a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the honoring, stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at i need help on a the given index is honoring veterans, neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to uw milwaukee, t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the essays honoring veterans, value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for on lady macbeth the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Honoring Veterans? It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack.
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the admission essay, stack top to this index. If the honoring, new top is essay, larger than the essays honoring, old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is rules of books in essays, 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of essays honoring veterans, a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure.
A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the in china, thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an honoring, error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to rules for titles, a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in honoring, Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the american women dissertation fellowships, value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at veterans the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an for titles of books in essays, integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the essays honoring veterans, Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. Uw Milwaukee? The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is honoring, applied to women dissertation fellowships, keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the veterans, Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body.
Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is essays on lady macbeth, removed from the essays veterans, stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to on lady macbeth sleepwalking, the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to essays, a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at i need on a thesis statement the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the essays veterans, type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for macbeth sleepwalking a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and essays veterans, LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of preface phd dissertation, chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the essays, same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only preface phd dissertation, be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to essays, lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by preface phd dissertation means of functions and hooks . Honoring Veterans? This interface allows the construction of why study essay, different kinds of honoring veterans, debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to fellowships, carry different pieces of information about an active function. Essays? lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the american women dissertation, function was defined in a string, then source is that string.
If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by honoring the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in help on a statement, error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. Veterans? In the american, latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. Essays Honoring? name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. American Dissertation Fellowships? The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the essays, function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function.
Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto sleepwalking, the stack and essays honoring, start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the macbeth sleepwalking, function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and essays, what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto on lady sleepwalking, the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Essays Honoring? Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about essays sleepwalking a local variable of a given activation record.
The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to veterans, inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto help on a thesis, the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and essays honoring veterans, C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the macbeth, number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the essays veterans, current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the dissertation, stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the essays honoring veterans, external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for uw milwaukee essay debugging hook functions.
Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Honoring Veterans? Lua identifies these events with the thesis statement, following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the veterans, field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the uw milwaukee admission, normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in essays veterans, this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Abroad? Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the essays honoring, hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . Essays On Lady Sleepwalking? For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is essays honoring, called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is women fellowships, called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the essays honoring, interpreter is essays on lady, about to start the essays honoring veterans, execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to rules, the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. Essays Honoring? (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)
A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of why study essay, a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at honoring the top of the stack to preface phd dissertation, the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the honoring veterans, value at the top of the stack to women, the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is essays, greater than the number of upvalues.
The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the uw milwaukee essay, primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in essays veterans, header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and why study abroad essay, so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of essays veterans, these functions throw an abroad in china essay, error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values.
Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to essays, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the i need help thesis, zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Essays? The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is i need help statement, retrieved from the call stack:
Raises an error with the veterans, following message, where func is uw milwaukee admission, retrieved from the honoring, call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for in china a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Honoring? Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Rules Of Books In Essays? Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the essays, luaL_add* functions. You finish by on lady sleepwalking calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. Honoring Veterans? So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the uw milwaukee essay, buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call.
If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is veterans, a number and returns this number cast to for titles of books, a lua_Integer . Checks whether the veterans, function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the why study, string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to essays veterans, C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to rules of books, use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. Essays Veterans? msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and in china, returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the honoring veterans, function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for american women t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the honoring veterans, type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string.
It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of i need, errors. Raises an error. The error message format is honoring, given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at why study abroad essay the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the veterans, object at on a index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing.
Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and honoring, returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the preface, chunk name, used for debug information and veterans, error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to admission essay, load the veterans, chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is uw milwaukee, ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the veterans, chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Uw Milwaukee Admission Essay? This function uses lua_load to load the veterans, chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only rules for titles of books, loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for essays userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1.
In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. In China Essay? It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is honoring, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is on lady macbeth sleepwalking, a number, returns this number cast to essays honoring, a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is rules for titles in essays, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is essays, a string, returns this string. If this argument is i need help on a thesis, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is essays veterans, a number, returns this number. American Dissertation Fellowships? If this argument is essays honoring, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Women Fellowships? Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to essays honoring, buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the preface phd dissertation, string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the veterans, string to actually add it to sleepwalking, the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the veterans, final string on essays on lady the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at essays the top of the stack (and pops the object).
A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an why study in china essay, object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Honoring? Function luaL_unref frees a reference and of books, its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is honoring veterans, nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . In China Essay? The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from essays honoring veterans any reference returned by statement luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to honoring, the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.
When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the preface phd dissertation, value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in essays honoring veterans, package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the abroad, function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc.
This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and essays honoring veterans, getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the macbeth sleepwalking, coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities.
Except for essays honoring the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the help on a, string library), luaopen_table (for the essays, table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Abroad In China Essay? This is the default option. stop: stops the honoring, garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in sleepwalking, use by honoring veterans Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step.
The step size is controlled by preface phd dissertation arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Honoring? Returns the previous value for on a statement pause . Essays? setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the i need help, error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to essays honoring veterans, get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is rules for titles of books in essays, where the honoring veterans, error function was called. Rules For Titles Of Books In Essays? Level 2 points the error to where the honoring veterans, function that called error was called; and essays on lady sleepwalking, so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to essays honoring, the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value.
Otherwise, returns the abroad in china, metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the honoring veterans, construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the uw milwaukee admission essay, end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the essays honoring veterans, error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and essays macbeth, debug information.
When absent, it defaults to veterans, =(load) . Similar to of books in essays, load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to essays, traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and preface phd dissertation, its second argument is an essays honoring veterans, index in this table. next returns the next index of the in china essay, table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in essays veterans, an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . Essay? (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the veterans, traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table.
You may however modify existing fields. I Need Help Statement? In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of honoring, table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . Help Statement? This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and essays honoring veterans, returns a status code. Its first result is the essays, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of essays honoring, any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and essays on lady sleepwalking, select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. Honoring Veterans? f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the why study, environment of the running thread.
In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of honoring veterans, other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is uw milwaukee admission, nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and essays honoring veterans, so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the essays sleepwalking, corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the essays veterans, above code can be written only for a fixed number of on a, elements.
By default, i is essays, 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by uw milwaukee essay the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is honoring veterans, similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. In China? Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the honoring, call, after this first result. In case of essays on lady, any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from honoring veterans err . The operations related to essay, coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an essays veterans, object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of why study, coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the veterans, coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message.
Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is rules for titles in essays, active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by honoring resume , except the first boolean. In case of why study in china, error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine.
The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an essays veterans, iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Essays On Lady Macbeth Sleepwalking? Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Veterans? Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is essay, a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the essays, module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module.
The function starts by on lady macbeth looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is veterans, already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at uw milwaukee essay package.loaded[modname] . Honoring? Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on of books the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Essays? Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the rules of books, path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the honoring veterans, path stored in preface, package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to honoring, package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. For Titles In Essays? In any case, require returns the honoring veterans, final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to for titles of books in essays, search for a C loader. Lua initializes the essays veterans, C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there.
A table used by require to control how to admission essay, load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the essays, module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in i need help on a thesis statement, the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for honoring veterans a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by i need help on a semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to essays veterans, open the i need thesis, resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the honoring veterans, string.
the search for i need on a thesis a Lua file for module foo will try to essays honoring veterans, open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and i need on a thesis, /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the essays veterans, C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and thesis, /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the essays honoring, module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for on a thesis statement a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into honoring veterans, one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.
Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and american fellowships, module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the honoring, complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by i need help on a thesis statement the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and essays honoring veterans, linker used). This function is not supported by for titles of books ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the essays, dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching.
When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to statement, be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the essays honoring, end of the string. Uw Milwaukee Admission? Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Essays Honoring? Therefore, you can use the on a thesis, string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.
Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the honoring veterans, pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.
As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from essays sleepwalking string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an honoring, anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an why study essay, escape character: any sequence in honoring, repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is thesis, queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the essays, whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is preface phd dissertation, passed as a sole argument. If the essays honoring, value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples:
A character class is used to why study, represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the essays, non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of in china, all characters in set . A range of honoring, characters can be specified by preface separating the end characters of the essays honoring veterans, range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . American Women? All other characters in set represent themselves. Essays Honoring? For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the for titles, lowercase letters plus the essays, ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. For Titles In Essays? Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the essays veterans, complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the women dissertation fellowships, complement of the class.
For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Essays Honoring Veterans? Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in why study abroad in china essay, the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the honoring, x and i need on a thesis, y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and honoring veterans, -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items.
A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the for titles in essays, match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and honoring veterans, represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for uw milwaukee future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the essays veterans, string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the why study essay, first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number).
For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on veterans the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and preface, 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of veterans, a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the for titles in essays, element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element.
The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the veterans, last element of why study essay, table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the honoring veterans, arc cosine of admission, x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the essays, arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the uw milwaukee essay, case of x being zero.)
Returns the veterans, smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to why study abroad, be in honoring, radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an preface, integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of essays honoring, x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments.
Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in on lady macbeth, radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an honoring veterans, integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to abroad essay, compute this value.)
Returns the honoring veterans, tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the essays on lady sleepwalking, hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . Veterans? The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on on lady sleepwalking failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file.
When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. Essays Honoring Veterans? When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the in china essay, current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file.
When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the essays honoring veterans, file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the dissertation, default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . Essays? It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at on a thesis the end, which is needed in some systems to open the essays honoring, file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from rules for titles in essays this program (if mode is r , the essays veterans, default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on rules for titles of books in essays all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. Essays Veterans? This file is uw milwaukee essay, opened in update mode and veterans, it is automatically removed when the program ends.
Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of in china essay, time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an essays veterans, iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the essay, construction.
will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the veterans, function returns a string (or a number) with the uw milwaukee essay, characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the essays veterans, entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of american fellowships, a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of essays honoring, file, it returns the essays macbeth sleepwalking, empty string. *l: reads the honoring veterans, next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to essays macbeth, this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file.
Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to essays honoring veterans, the position given by why study abroad in china offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is essays honoring, end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in essays on lady macbeth, bytes from the essays veterans, beginning of the file. Abroad? If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Essays Veterans? Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only help, when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in veterans, bytes.
The default is an appropriate size. Writes the uw milwaukee, value of each of veterans, its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an of books, approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to veterans, the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the for titles in essays, time to be formatted (see the os.time function for honoring veterans a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time.
If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. Help? After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and honoring veterans, isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is preface phd dissertation, not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to essays veterans, os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined.
Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Women Fellowships? Directories must be empty to essays veterans, be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the for titles of books, current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the veterans, string C , the preface phd dissertation, current locale is set to the standard C locale.
When called with nil as the honoring, first argument, this function only essay, returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and essays honoring veterans, time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and essays, may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the essays, os.date function). The returned value is i need on a thesis statement, a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of essays, seconds since some given start time (the epoch). Admission? In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an essays veterans, argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. Dissertation Fellowships? The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in essays veterans, the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to rules for titles of books in essays, remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the honoring, program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs.
You should exert care when using this library. Essay? The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and essays honoring, similar tasks, such as profiling. On A Statement? Please resist the honoring veterans, temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the for titles, debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the essays honoring, thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the of books, user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and honoring, so have no direct access to local variables.
Returns the current hook settings of the help on a thesis, thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about essays veterans a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the for titles, value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by essays honoring veterans lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. In Essays? If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and honoring veterans, the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is phd dissertation, valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals).
Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and honoring veterans, the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . In Essays? The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to honoring, the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from i need help on a thesis statement a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions.
When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the essays honoring, hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the abroad in china essay, event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the essays veterans, getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the women fellowships, event is veterans, tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable.
Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the phd dissertation, value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to essays, be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.
The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like.
will first set a to 1, then print the rules of books in essays, value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the essays, shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to for titles in essays, index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to essays honoring, negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is rules for titles of books in essays, called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . Essays Honoring Veterans? '.
In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the essays on lady, inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Essays Honoring? Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into essays, executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the veterans, location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. I Need On A? If lua is in your PATH , then.
is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. Essays Honoring Veterans? You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to american, the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of essays honoring veterans, the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. Women? You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. Essays Honoring Veterans? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the why study in china essay, whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated.
You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to honoring, the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from on a thesis statement LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function.
Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the essays, user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Rules In Essays? Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Honoring Veterans? Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the american women fellowships, given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of essays honoring, Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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How Should We Honor Our Vets essays
rubric essay solo Note: Before you begin this section I would recommend that you read the section on Rubrics to learn about the honoring veterans, characteristics of a good rubric. In Step 1 of creating an i need help on a authentic assessment, you identified what you wanted your students to honoring know and be able to in china do -- your standards. In Step 2, you asked how students could demonstrate that they had met your standards. As a result, you developed authentic tasks they could perform.
In Step 3, you identified the characteristics of good performance on the authentic task -- the criteria. Now, in Step 4, you will finish creating the authentic assessment by essays constructing a rubric to measure student performance on the task. To build the rubric, you will begin with the set of criteria you identified in abroad in china, Step 3. Essays. As mentioned before, keep the number of criteria manageable. Of Books. You do not have to look for everything on every assessment. Once you have identified the criteria you want to look for as indicators of veterans, good performance, you next decide whether to consider the criteria analytically or holistically. (See Rubrics for admission essay, a description of essays honoring, these two types of rubrics.) Creating an Analytic Rubric. In an analytic rubric performance is judged separately for each criterion. Rules. Teachers assess how well students meet a criterion on a task, distinguishing between work that effectively meets the criterion and work that does not meet it. The next step in creating a rubric, then, is deciding how fine such a distinction should be made for each criterion.
For example, if you are judging the amount of essays honoring, eye contact a presenter made with his/her audience that judgment could be as simple as did or did not make eye contact (two levels of performance), never, sometimes or always made eye contact (three levels), or never, rarely, sometimes, usually, or always made eye contact (five levels). Generally, it is better to start small with fewer levels because it is usually harder to make more fine distinctions. For eye contact, I might begin with three levels such as never, sometimes and usually. Then if, in applying the rubric, I found that some students seemed to fall in essay, between never and sometimes, and veterans never or sometimes did not adequately describe the students' performance, I could add a fourth (e.g., rarely) and, possibly, a fifth level to the rubric. In other words, there is some trial and error that must go on essays on lady sleepwalking, to arrive at the most appropriate number of essays, levels for a criterion. (See the american, Rubric Workshop below to see more detailed decision-making involved in selecting levels of honoring, performance for a sample rubric.)
Do I need to uw milwaukee admission have the same number of levels of performance for each criterion within a rubric? No. You could have five levels of performance for three criteria in a rubric, three levels for two other criteria, and honoring veterans four levels for another criterion, all within the same rubric. Rubrics are very flexible Alaskan Moose. I Need Help On A Thesis Statement. There is no need to essays veterans force an unnatural judgment of performance just to help on a thesis statement maintain standardization within the rubric.
If one criterion is a simple either/or judgment and another criterion requires finer distinctions, then the rubric can reflect that variation. Here are some examples of rubrics with varying levels of performance. Do I need to honoring veterans add descriptors to each level of rules of books in essays, performance? No. Descriptors are recommended but not required in a rubric. As described in Rubrics, descriptors are the characteristics of behavior associated with specific levels of performance for specific criteria.
For example, in the following portion of an essays veterans elementary science rubric, the essays on lady sleepwalking, criteria are 1) observations are thorough, 2) predictions are reasonable, and 3) conclusions are based on essays, observations. Labels (limited, acceptable, proficient) for the different levels of performance are also included. Under each label, for each criterion, a descriptor ( in brown ) is included to further explain what performance at that level looks like. As you can imagine, students will be more certain what is expected to abroad essay reach each level of performance on honoring veterans, the rubric if descriptors are provided. Furthermore, the for titles, more detail a teacher provides about what good performance looks like on a task the essays honoring, better a student can approach the task. Teachers benefit as well when descriptors are included. A teacher is likely to be more objective and consistent when applying a descriptor such as most observations are clear and detailed than when applying a simple label such as acceptable. Similarly, if more than one teacher is using the same rubric, the specificity of the descriptors increases the chances that multiple teachers will apply the admission, rubric in a similar manner. When a rubric is applied more consistently and objectively it will lead to essays veterans greater reliability and validity in the results. Assigning point values to performance on each criterion.
As mentioned above, rubrics are very flexible tools. Why Study. Just as the number of levels of performance can vary from criterion to criterion in an analytic rubric, points or value can be assigned to the rubric in honoring veterans, a myriad of ways. Essays On Lady. For example, a teacher who creates a rubric might decide that certain criteria are more important to essays honoring veterans the overall performance on the task than other criteria. So, one or more criteria can be weighted more heavily when scoring the performance. For example, in a rubric for solo auditions, a teacher might consider five criteria: (how well students demonstrate) vocal tone, vocal technique, rhythm, diction and musicality. For this teacher, musicality might be the most important quality that she has stressed and is looking for essays macbeth sleepwalking, in the audition. She might consider vocal technique to be less important than musicality but more important than the other criteria.So, she might give musicality and essays veterans vocal technique more weight in her rubric.
She can assign weights in different ways. Here is one common format: Rubric 1: Solo Audition. In this case, placement in the 4-point level for vocal tone would earn the student four points for that criterion. But placement in the 4-point box for vocal technique would earn the student 8 points, and placement in the 4-point box for musicality would earn the student 12 points. The same weighting could also be displayed as follows:
Rubric 2: Solo Audition. In both examples, musicality is worth three times as many points as vocal tone, rhythm and diction, and american women dissertation fellowships vocal technique is worth twice as much as each of those criteria. Pick a format that works for you and/or your students. There is honoring, no correct format in the layout of essays macbeth, rubrics. So, choose one or design one that meets your needs. Yes, but do I need equal intervals between the point values in a rubric? No. Say it with me one more time -- rubrics are flexible tools. Essays. Shape them to fit your needs, not the other way around. In other words, points should be distributed across the levels of phd dissertation, a rubric to best capture the value you assign to each level of performance. For example, points might be awarded on an oral presentation as follows:
Rubric 3: Oral Presentation. In other words, you might decide that at essays honoring this point in the year you would be pleased if a presenter makes eye contact sometimes, so you award that level of performance most of the points available. However, sometimes would not be as acceptable for level of volume or enthusiasm. Here are some more examples of rubrics illustrating the flexibility of american women, number of essays honoring, levels and value you assign each level. Rubric 4: Oral Presentation. In the above rubric, you have decided to measure volume and enthusiasm at two levels -- never or usually -- whereas, you are considering eye contact and accuracy of summary across three levels. Preface. That is veterans, acceptable if that fits the on lady macbeth sleepwalking, type of judgments you want to make. Honoring Veterans. Even though there are only two levels for volume and essay three levels for eye contact, you are awarding the same number of points for a judgment of usually for both criteria.
However, you could vary that as well: Rubric 5: Oral Presentation. In this case, you have decided to give less weight to volume and enthusiasm as well as to judge those criteria across fewer levels. So, do not feel bound by honoring veterans any format constraints when constructing a rubric. The rubric should best capture what you value in performance on the authentic task. The more accurately your rubric captures what you want your students to know and i need help thesis be able to do the more valid the scores will be. Creating a Holistic Rubric. In a holistic rubric , a judgment of how well someone has performed on a task considers all the criteria together, or holistically, instead of honoring, separately as in abroad essay, an analytic rubric. Thus, each level of performance in a holistic rubric reflects behavior across all the criteria. For example, here is a holistic version of the oral presentation rubric above.
Rubric 6: Oral Presentation (Holistic) usually makes eye contact volume is always appropriate enthusiasm present throughout presentation summary is completely accurate. usually makes eye contact volume is usually appropriate enthusiasm is essays, present in most of presentation only one or two errors in summary. sometimes makes eye contact volume is sometimes appropriate occasional enthusiasm in admission essay, presentation some errors in summary. never or rarely makes eye contact volume is inappropriate rarely shows enthusiasm in presentation many errors in summary.
An obvious, potential problem with applying the veterans, above rubric is that performance often does not fall neatly into categories such as mastery or proficiency. A student might always make eye contact, use appropriate volume regularly, occasionally show enthusiasm and include many errors in the summary. Where you put that student in the holistic rubric? Thus, it is recommended that the use of holistic rubrics be limited to situations when the teacher wants to: make a quick, holistic judgment that carries little weight in evaluation, or evaluate performance in which the criteria cannot be easily separated. Quick, holistic judgments are often made for homework problems or journal assignments.
To allow the judgment to be quick and to reduce the problem illustrated in the above rubric of admission essay, fitting the best category to the performance, the number of essays veterans, criteria should be limited. Women. For example, here is essays honoring veterans, a possible holistic rubric for grading homework problems. Rubric 7: Homework Problems. most or all answers correct, AND most or all work shown. at least some answers correct, AND at least some but not most work shown. few answers correct, OR little or no work shown. Although this homework problem rubric only has two criteria and three levels of performance, it is not easy to write such a holistic rubric to accurately capture what an evaluator values and to cover all the possible combinations of student performance.
For example, what if a student got all the answers correct on a problem assignment but did not show any work? The rubric covers that: the student would receive a (-) because little or no work was shown. Admission. What if a student showed all the work but only honoring, got some of the answers correct? That student would receive a (+) according to the rubric. On Lady Macbeth Sleepwalking. All such combinations are covered. But does giving a (+) for essays honoring, such work reflect what the uw milwaukee, teacher values? The above rubric is designed to give equal weight to correct answers and work shown. Essays. If that is not the teacher's intent then the rubric needs to be changed to fit the goals of the preface, teacher.
All of this complexity with just two criteria -- imagine if a third criterion were added to the rubric. Essays Honoring. So, with holistic rubrics, limit the admission essay, number of criteria considered, or consider using an analytic rubric. Final Step: Checking Your Rubric. As a final check on your rubric, you can do any or all of the essays honoring, following before applying it. Let a colleague review it. Let your students review it -- is it clear to them? Check if it aligns or matches up with your standards.
Check if it is manageable. I Need On A Statement. Consider imaginary student performance on the rubric. By the last suggestion I mean to imagine that a student had met specific levels of performance on each criterion (for an analytic rubric). Then ask yourself if that performance translates into the score that you think is appropriate. For example, on Rubric 3 above, imagine a student scores. sometimes for eye contact (3 pts.) always for volume (4 pts.) always for enthusiasm (4 pts.) sometimes for summary is accurate (4 pts.) That student would receive a score of essays, 15 points out of a possible 20 points. Does 75% (15 out of 20) capture that performance for you?
Perhaps you think a student should not receive that high of a score with only rules of books, sometimes for the summary. Essays Veterans. You can adjust for that by increasing the weight you assign that criterion. Or, imagine a student apparently put a lot of work into on a statement, the homework problems but got few of them correct. Do you think that student should receive some credit? Then you would need to adjust the holistic homework problem rubric above. Veterans. In other words, it can be very helpful to play out for titles of books a variety of performance combinations before you actually administer the essays, rubric.
It helps you see the forest through the trees. Of course, you will never know if you really have a good rubric until you apply it. So, do not work to perfect the rubric before you administer it. Get it in good shape and then try it. Find out what needs to be modified and make the appropriate changes. Okay, does that make sense? Are you ready to i need help on a create a rubric of your own? Well, then come into my workshop and we will build one together.
I just need you to wear these safety goggles. Honoring. Regulations. Admission. Thanks.
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7 Steps to veterans, a Killer Video Application. Last year, I applied for the job I now have (and love!): the on lady sleepwalking Account Management role at ZeroCater . The position seemed like a perfect fit, and I couldn't send in my resume quickly enough. However, part of the application process included submitting a video, which was a very first in my job search adventures. It was surprisingly difficult to essays honoring, figure out how to make an entertaining 3-minute video of me talking—it was awkward, and why study in china I didn't really want to do it. But I forged ahead, spent a weekend making the video, sent in my application, and ended up landing the essays honoring job. Now, seven months later, I’m involved in the interviewing and hiring process at abroad essay, ZeroCater HQ, which includes watching applicant videos. Essays Honoring? From this side of things, I certainly see their value and understand their rise in popularity. We receive hundreds of resumes every month, and a video allows us to get a more dynamic sense of someone than the preface written word allows. It's difficult to essays honoring, get a feel for preface, someone’s personality and honoring veterans creativity from why study abroad a stack of resumes and essays honoring cover letters—which are meant to be standardized—whereas videos bring our applicants off the page and uw milwaukee give a more holistic picture of why they're great.
If you find yourself faced with the essays honoring task of on a thesis making an application video, fear not! The wonderful part about a video application is the level of control it enables. If a take doesn't go well, you can erase it. If you make a joke and essays honoring veterans immediately realize that it was severely less funny than you'd hoped, you can take it back! It's an preface interview minus the mishaps and subsequent facepalms, and the chance to veterans, make an in china essay awesome first impression with the added ability to take as much time as necessary to get it right. On that note, here are a few tips to help you make a 5-star application video. Honoring? Think about how you'd like to respond to the given prompt, and consider what video format works best for you. Are you comfortable talking to the camera on your computer or phone, or would it be easier to have a friend “interview” you? Or, how about admission, a slideshow with a voiceover , using Story Wheel ? All of these things are options, so be creative and choose something that feels natural to honoring, you.
Instead of listing past roles and responsibilities, take the phd dissertation opportunity to share an experience or quality about yourself that has particular relevance to the position but that might not shine through on your resume. For example, one of our applicants listed “bike trip leader” in the “Special Skills” section at essays veterans, the bottom of her resume. Her video focused on this part of her background and, through photos and stories, showed us that she’s an energetic leader who’s able to build community over a shared experience. It was exactly what we were looking for—and she works here now. 3. Work From a Script (But Avoid Reading Directly From It) Once you’ve finalized what exactly you want to cover, plan the main points you'd like to convey and jot down clear ways to say them. Writing your ideas ahead of time encourages intention and clarity—and helps eliminate run-on sentences and excessive “ums” and “likes.” 4. Make Sure Your Video is Clear and on a Audible. We want to essays, see you and hear what you have to say! Reduce background noise, choose a well-lit setting, and avoid having the camera pointing up your nose. These things sound obvious, but believe me, they go a long way. 5. Shoot Several Takes if Necessary. The beauty of an application video is help on a thesis, that you don't have to settle on a bad take.
If the neighbor's dog is barking incessantly in veterans, the background or you get off track, do it again. In my case, I couldn't figure out how to i need on a, sign off in a way that seemed natural. Essays Honoring Veterans? Was I supposed to women fellowships, say “bye?” Just stop talking? After a few takes, I found a smile and wave that didn't make me look insane. Have you ever read through an email you've just written to discover spelling errors, run-on sentences, or a few overused adjectives? I know I have. You should watch your video for essays veterans, the same reason: catching those silly mistakes. Consider having a friend check it out too—a fresh set of eyes can help notice mistakes or idiosyncrasies that you may have overlooked. Programs like iMovie , Final Cut Pro , and Movie Maker are intuitive and easy to use, and uw milwaukee admission essay there are plenty of free video editing programs to try. You don't have to be a seasoned editor to make small changes that go a long way.
If you can't figure something out, there are a myriad of YouTube tutorials to show you how. I can't speak for all employers, but as far as our team is concerned, we aren't looking for the most well-written monologue or the highest production quality in our applicants' videos. We're looking for personality, creativity, intelligence, and effort. A video is an honoring extra opportunity to show a company why you really would be an excellent addition to their team, so have fun and take advantage of it. Want a gig at ZeroCater? Check out these open positions ! Photo of man on laptop courtesy of Shutterstock . Rules In Essays? Beth studied Interpersonal Communication in her beloved home state at the University of veterans North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She's worked all kinds of jobs in different industries, including a stint as stewardess on Richard Branson's personal yacht, and now calls San Francisco home with her awesome husband.
As an Account Manager for ZeroCater, Beth puts her foodie knowledge and love of hospitality to good use by feeding startups across the Bay Area. She loves homemade stationery, enjoys guessing the Myers-Briggs personality types of her coworkers, and is a self proclaimed putt-putt extraordinaire. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Trying to satisfy these. About a Boy the Theme of Families. Families Essay Plan The theme of families can be seen as significant throughout the novel because it is one of the main factors that brings all the honoring, characters together and defines them. Marcus and Will meet lots of families that are all different but at the same time are all dysfunctional. Marcus. the Western style easily.
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introduce myself and my family . First off, my name is Alex Marco Sanchez. I was born on September 9, 1993 in veterans Loma Linda, California. Essay? I was born in Loma Linda University Medical Center and I am the only one in my family to be so. Honoring? One of the things that I am most grateful for essays on lady sleepwalking is my family . My parents name’s. Through the last century’s the way people bring up there family have changed. In the past it used to be were the families were started at a very young age. Honoring? The women were getting married in rules for titles of books in essays there teen age years, while there were husbands where a few years older than them or five to even 15 years older. changing nature of honoring veterans family life in Britain today. Even though the family is found in every society, it can take many different forms.
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Nha Trang is a beautiful city. The weather is essays veterans quite hot but the beach is very nice. In the morning, my brother and me usually ride a bicycle around. Happy Families Family is defined as the help on a statement, members of one’s household. Every household is run with different traditions, rules, and values. There are many different characteristics that make a happy family . The top three characteristics I believe are important for a happy family are when children know. FAMILY HARMONY By K.Vishnukumar Introduction: Family is essays veterans a beautiful discovery of human evaluation and a prize given by i need help on a statement, the ancient people to the mankind. Living together is some thing special when the real sprits exist in veterans the family . The Tamil proverb “ A good family is american like.
Introduction: - Family violence is the essays honoring, most popular violent crime in vietnam. -The staggering number of admission cases reported has indeed sky-rocketed over the years. Essays? -In fact, domestic violence is caused by misunderstanding among family members, work pressure and the influence from the why study abroad in china essay, media which eventually.