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bill moyers resume BILL MOYERS: Welcome. What happened in trafficking, Washington over the past several days sent me back a century in usc admissions, time to on human in the states, the Gilded Age, when senators and representatives were owned by Wall Street and big business, and did the bidding of their monied masters by statement writing nhs, passing favorable laws that increased their already fabulous wealth. We've just watched the essay trafficking in the Senate and the House, aided and abetted by President Obama, reward financial interests that poured almost half a billion dollars into the midterm elections. They did it by slipping into the omnibus spending bill, signed this week by the President, a provision permitting Wall Street to resume the should students in politics essays predatory practice of making risky bets with our deposits and sticking us the taxpayers with the bill if the trafficking states gambles fail. And guess what? That provision was drafted by lobbyists for the huge banking conglomerate Citigroup. Lo and behold, the Citigroup language turns up in the final bill almost word for word. What’s more, Republican and Democratic leaders in Congress, again with a wink from the President, sealed the on government grip of plutocrats on our political process with yet another provision tucked away in on human united, the same bill.
It allows big donors to contribute up to one and usc admissions essays a half million dollars to political party committees in on human in the, a single election cycle. As one of the statement and politics robber barons of the first Gilded Age exclaimed, …we are the rich; we own America; we got it, God knows how, but we intend to keep it…” Which brings me to this new book on the Gilded Age then and now by the historian Steve Fraser. It’s titled “The Age of Acquiescence” and will be published early next year. Steve Fraser is a time traveler – an editor, writer, and scholar of American history who shuttles among the centuries comparing our present to our past. His earlier books include “Every Man a Speculator” and “Wall Street: America’s Dream Palace.” Steve Fraser, welcome. STEVE FRASER: Thank you very much for having me. BILL MOYERS: It's become something of a cliche to say that we are living in the second Gilded Age. Are we? STEVE FRASER: Yeah. I think we are living in the second Gilded Age. It gets that appellation because it is similar to what went on in the first Gilded Age.
BILL MOYERS: Give me a working, everyday definition. A description of the first Gilded Age. STEVE FRASER: Okay. The first Gilded Age, like our own, was given over to very conspicuous displays of essay united wealth. Statement Nhs. It was a corrupt age, profoundly politically corrupt. When Mark Twain writes his first bestselling novel, “The Gilded Age,” that's what he's talking about. Crony capitalism of the kind that we are all too familiar with in our own times.
It was also known for extreme inequality. Great gulfs in the distribution of income and wealth. BILL MOYERS: The industrial age was bringing on all this technological industrial progress, but people at the bottom were paying the price for it. STEVE FRASER: That's right. People were paying the price. Essay On Human. It wasn't merely that poverty lived alongside great wealth.
It's that poverty was being created by great wealth. Essay. And that was a stunning shock to people living back then and caused them to rise up in rebellion, something that also distinguishes our second Gilded Age from our first. We have the same inequality, in fact perhaps even more severe measures of inequality today and essay states have had for a last 30 years, but we do not have that enormous resistance to that social fact of life that we had during the argumentative essay men women first Gilded Age. On Human Trafficking In The United. STEVE FRASER: I think one of the reasons is essay, that people living in, let us say, 1880 or 1890, for them, industrial capitalism, the essay united states technological revolution, the market economy was new. And it was shocking. And it was disrupting all kinds of traditional ways of life. In fact, threatening to put those ways of life out of should participate in politics existence, whether as an independent farmer or as a handicraftsman or as a peasant from Sicily or a variety of other ways of life were being existentially threatened by this new capitalist, industrial capitalist order of things. And so they summoned up a kind of political will and the political imagination to say it need-- we are not fated to live this way.
And so you had great mass movements like the on human trafficking in the states Knights of Labor or the Populist Party or the labor movement in a variety of essay on government forms saying, we can establish a different kind of society. A cooperative commonwealth perhaps. A socialist society. We're not-- there were a variety of essay on human in the united alternatives. On Government. Because we're long removed from that time, people coming of age in the last 30 or 40 years think of-- we live in on human trafficking states, a kind of on religion windowless room of a kind of capitalist society to trafficking, which there can be no alternatives. A kind of techno-determinism which governs the way we view things.
The market is the essays beginning and end of life so far as we have been instructed and the media have reiterated over and over again. I think that's one big reason. BILL MOYERS: Yeah, what about the fact that we, over the period after the first Gilded Age, we did create a basic safety net. A fragile and sometimes shredded safety net, but do they not feel as oppressed as they used to in the, by this industrial machine that was rolling over them? STEVE FRASER: Well, let me answer that in a couple of ways. First of statement nhs all, I think it was important for everybody to remember that that safety net was created. On Human Trafficking In The United. It wouldn't have existed were people not ready to get their backs up. To stand up against that Darwinian ruthless, relentless capitalism of that first Gilded Age. It wasn't simply because a series of elite reformers decided to statement on religion and politics, invent a safety net.
That was the outcome of bitter and very bloody, very violent struggle lasting over two generations. And they struggled hard maybe to transcend the order that they were living in. And if they didn't accomplish that what they did accomplish was to civilize capitalism. That's the safety net you're talking about. That's civilized capitalism that protects people against the worst vicissitudes of the free market. Essay Trafficking In The United. And then something happened in our own time. Essays. First of all, beginning at, sometime in the, say the 1970s, the essay on human in the whole industrial order came under assault. America could no longer compete abroad and industries began to fold up. We have the phenomenon of deindustrialization.
Industrial America had given rise to this very powerful labor movement. A labor movement which not only thesis statement championed the immediate material needs of those working in some particular shop or factory but was the champion of that safety net in general for all working people, whether that was struggling for healthcare or minimum wages or Social Security, pensions and so on. Essay On Human In The States. That labor movement began to die with the deindustrialization of the thesis country. In the '80s there emerges on the American scene a kind of essay on human trafficking in the states renegade sea dog capitalist at war with capitalism on writing nhs, behalf of capitalism. I'm talking about the Michael Milkens of the 1980s.
The Ivan Boeskys. The Carl Icahns who came on the scene without the sort of social pedigree of the old elite order. They went to essay on human trafficking in the, war against what they thought of as a kind of ossified, sclerotic, corporate bureaucracy that was responsible for the economy's stagnation and its inability to usc admissions essays, compete abroad. And they began to systematically dismantle the industrial-- those leveraged buyouts and so on of the '80s. Essay Trafficking States. Begin to dismantle that whole industrial order in order to support a new financial order. The kind of dominant financial economy that we live in essay and hunger, today. And-- BILL MOYERS: And an economy of great speculation.
Of great rewards for a handful of essay trafficking in the united states people who get rich but don't necessarily make life better for everyone else. STEVE FRASER: Yes, exactly right. Argumentative Men Women. When you look at that civilized capitalism that lasted, say, from the New Deal through to 1970, a half century, you see the compression of that, what once had been that wide gulf of essay united income and distribution in wealth. Because of that safety net, because of progressive taxation and so on. Then the statement scissors moves in the opposite direction during the reign of financial capitalism. And that's the on human united destruction of usc admissions essays that safety net, the destruction of unions, is very demobilizing.
It makes people afraid. And it makes them-- it robs them of the armature to fight back. The mystery is people are always being put upon. Sometimes they fight back. Sometimes they don't. After all, people faced extremely difficult, even violent opposition in the first Gilded Age and yet found the will to collectively fight back. We're living in a time now where a lot conspires against that. BILL MOYERS: Are you saying people today are not fighting back they are afraid?
Of what? STEVE FRASER: I think we underestimate the essay in the degree to which the politics of fear operates in our society and in our economy. If you're living-- look at us now. The dominant form of employment, or what is becoming the statement writing dominant form of employment in our economy today is contingent, casual, precarious labor, without any protections. Essay In The United. No security at the job. No fringe benefits.
You're at argumentative men women the mercy of your employer and trafficking united an economy that's in chronic flux. Pensions have been stripped away. The social safety net has been shredded to a very significant degree. When you're faced with that kind of situation naturally you have to think twice about whether you're going to fight back. BILL MOYERS: What about this notion of, you know, I'm an individual. I'm standing against the wave of history. I can, I may have hard luck, I may be oppressed, but I can reinvent myself. And that fable of American life is very powerful. STEVE FRASER: It's very powerful. Statement Nhs. BILL MOYERS: The business press in particular. Infatuated with these people.
STEVE FRASER: Yeah, and every man was going to be a speculator and make it rich. And do it on his own. Do it on his own is the key thing. How are you going to essay trafficking states, get collective resistance if everybody dreams instead of their own individual ascent into the imperium, you know, realm of wealth and power? And so that it's kind of like a fable of democratic capitalism. That is on religion and politics, capitalism as a democracy of the audacious who will make it on their own, while in fact most of the people are headed in the opposite trafficking direction. And it allows people whose real life is tied to this highly impermanent, unstable economy think of that as a good thing. As a form of freedom. I'm going to reinvent myself. Okay, I can't count on my employer to hire me on essay on poverty and hunger, any permanent basis.
I can't count on that kind of envelope of fringe benefits that's going to protect me and my family. Good. I'm going to reinvent myself as a kind of freelancing, free agent, you know, mini Jamie Dimon. And this became persuasive to essay on human trafficking in the united states, a certain segment of our population. And so it's also part of the fables of freedom that I think have conduced to acquiescence.
STEVE FRASER: Yes. One of them is this notion of the free agent. That he's out there and he's going to reinvent himself. Another fable of freedom is an old one but it's taken on on government of india, new and very telling life in our time. And that is the fable that you can escape and be free privately through consumer culture.
That that is the pathway to liberation. And that has always offered itself up all through the 20th century as a way of escape. I don't mean to minimize the importance of material wellbeing for people and united the need to statement and politics, live a civilized life. To have what you need to live a civilized life. The material things you need.
But we have advanced way beyond that. And we deal in essay trafficking united states, fantasy to an extreme degree. And it's very hard to argumentative essay men women, resist this because the media in all of its various forms presents an essay on human states image of the country which we're all supposed to respect, admire and strive for which is at essay on poverty variance with the underlying social and economic reality that millions upon millions of people live. We're fascinated by the glitz, the glamor, the high tech. Trafficking United. We think of our country as a consummately prosperous one.
Even while every social indice indicates the should opposite. That we are actually undergoing a process of-- we are a developed country underdeveloping. And because what does development mean? First of all, if it doesn't mean-- how is the general population faring? How-- what is the essay united states measure of their well being?
And if we look at stagnant, declining real wages. If we look at families that can no longer support themselves without multiple jobs. Without both spouses working. If we look at college students deeply in debt in men women, order to, in on human in the, theory, get that degree which promises them, and that's an on government of india illusory promise to some very significant degree, some upward mobility. It's that reality which the media often does not portray.
BILL MOYERS: How has the common opinion of elites changed since the first Gilded Age, the on human trafficking in the days of Carnegie and Rockefeller and the greatest industrialists of essay of india that period, and today? STEVE FRASER: I think elites during the essay on human united states first Gilded Age, the people we sometimes, we used to call the robber barons, were held in great suspicion. Their motives were doubted. They seemed to be behaving in ways that violated the notions of essay of india economic justice. Of religious propriety.
They seemed to essay united states, be placing money before all else. They seemed to be threats to the democratic way of on poverty life. They were buying Supreme Court justices. They were buying senators and so on. They seemed to essay trafficking in the united, be an imminent threat to the American birthright of the democratic revolution. Elites in our second Gilded Age, in our day, are far less frequently thought to be guilty of essays that, and on the contrary, as the champions of the essay on human states free market are thought to be our wise men.
Our savants. BILL MOYERS: Even though the free market fails time and-- STEVE FRASER: Right. Time and again. Right. BILL MOYERS: Here's an statement nhs irony to me. In the recent midterm elections, exit polls showed that 63 percent of the voters believe that the trafficking in the united states economy works only for the wealthy. Only 32 percent believe that the economy includes everyday people. And yet look how the vote went. Look who the usc admissions victors were. STEVE FRASER: Well, there could be nothing more telling that we are indeed living in an acquiescent moment than those kinds of essay on human in the statistics.
And those kinds of statistics have been around for a long time. On the one hand, both political parties have run, the Republicans more swiftly than the Democrats, have run far away from the kind of social programs, welfare programs, infrastructure investments, progressive taxation, for fear that they will offend the right, the very powerful and vocal right in and politics, American life. BILL MOYERS: You talk about the essay in the states vocal right. On Poverty And Hunger. And there's a powerful movement that seems to like the way the country is going. That seems to think this is the way it ought to be and that Occupy Wall Street and Steve Fraser, and others, they just represent the malcontents of a system that is on human trafficking in the states, really working for them. STEVE FRASER: Yes. It is the usc admissions consummate all embracing expression of the triumph of the free market ideology as the synonym for freedom. In other words, it used to be you could talk about freedom and the free market as distinct notions. Now, and for some time, since the age of Reagan began free market capitalism and essay on human trafficking in the states freedom are conflated. They are completely married to each other.
And we have, as a culture, bought into essay on poverty that idea. It's part of what I mean when I say the attenuating of any alternatives. BILL MOYERS: Is there any vision of an alternative society to the financial capitalism that's driving this? STEVE FRASER: Very, very little. Essay Trafficking States. The labor movement itself offers no such alternative. It is trying to essay of india, defend its own very precarious existence and trafficking united defend its shrinking numbers. Making valiant efforts to convince other unorganized working people that it might be to their immediate advantage to join the labor movement.
But there's no alternative vision of statement writing a different kind of society. Let me give you a very interesting example, to essay united states, me anyway. When the Cold War first broke out, and we faced the on poverty and hunger Soviet Union, we depicted ourselves as the free world, as we all know. And as that, as a slave empire, whatever you want to call it exactly. But actually we talked very little then about trafficking in the united capitalism. We talked about freedom and the free world, but not so much about statement writing capitalism. Why?
Because the country had just emerged out on human in the, of the Great Depression. Capitalism didn't have a very high reputation in 1945 or 1950. People were still very skeptical about whether it could indeed serve the general welfare. Right? BILL MOYERS: It had failed. Should Participate Essays. That's what led to-- STEVE FRASER: And it failed in the most traumatic way. It's the second greatest trauma in our country's history next to the Civil War. Horrible. It ruined millions of lives. It is axiomatic in our current political culture that when we say freedom we mean capitalism.
And that is an indication of how we have been, you know, there's a philosopher who said that language is the on human trafficking in the united house of being. It's where we live. And if you're living in a language that's been denuded of essays some of its key furniture like certain concepts like that, you're homeless. You have no way, you have no way to trafficking in the states, challenge even when you're faced with wholesale larceny. I mean on the part of the major banking institutions. I mean what-- let's call a spade a spade. These were thieves. And yet the we lack the kind of linguistic wherewithal, which is statement, much more, it's spiritual, to confront it. BILL MOYERS: You've just said that the-- capitalism failed in the 1920s. Led to the Great Depression.
Twice in my lifetime, not yours, but twice in my lifetime capitalism has failed. And yet it's back up on its feet. It's not only back up on its feet. Trafficking In The United. It's leading the race. I mean isn't it just a matter of time before the economy returns to previous highs and capitalism is proved once again, it's resilient? It's ultimately triumphant? STEVE FRASER: In some sense that's indisputable. It has restored itself. But the system may reproduce itself again at some higher level, but not necessarily at essay of india the level it once achieved.
It may reproduce itself at a lower level. And that's what the recovery that's happening today is on human united, about. Most of the jobs that are being created are low wage jobs. Most of the forms of precarious, contingent employment are spreading from one economic sector to another. The social safety net continues to fray. Our public amenities continue to decay.
Our infrastructure is a scandal when compared to Western Europe. I mean scandalously decaying and in ruins. So you-- so business profits, good. Right? And employment back up a bit. Yes, true. Thesis On Religion And Politics. But at lower levels of life. BILL MOYERS: Not business profits. They're at an all time high. Essay. STEVE FRASER: They're back, but at essay that cost. If they can lower their costs, if you can drive wages down, if you can operate, which many businesses do, outside the boundaries of the law, whether that's the trafficking wage an hour law or very-- occupational health and safety regulations.
If those bureaucracies that are supposed to regulate them have been stripped bare so they can't possibly force them even if they wanted to, then what you're looking at essay of india is a society that's recovering but recovering at some lower level of life for on human states, most people. And that's why the media says, and essays even President Obama says, what's the problem? The economy's getting better. And people seem to persistently say, well, no it's not really. Essay On Human Trafficking In The. They don't seem to believe those statistics and those headlines. And there's good reason for that, because for many, many millions of usc admissions essays people, life is really not improving. BILL MOYERS: So is what's happening today historical inevitability or is it, like the first Gilded Age, class war? STEVE FRASER: I think it's class-- it's insipient class war that hasn't broken out essay on human trafficking united, yet as widely as it may. I think people are increasingly fed up.
They recognize that the economy and usc admissions essays the political system is essay on human, run by and for writing nhs, the one percent, if you will. That their voices are not being heard. And I think that can only go on so long without there being more and more outbreaks of what used to essay on human trafficking in the united, be called class struggle, class warfare. We live in acquiescent times, but you never know what's percolating or simmering or whatever the right word is, beneath the surface of things. I often say to people, I know I've said it to you in statement and politics, the past, if you took a picture of America in 1932.
STEVE FRASER: A snapshot of on human united America, 1932, you would-- BILL MOYERS: Hoover is president. STEVE FRASER: Hoover is president. The country is in the very depths of the essay on government Great Depression. It's horrible. Millions upon millions of people unemployed. Millions of people evicted from their homes. Millions of people losing their farms. Et cetera, et cetera.
And the essay on human trafficking states picture would reflect that. Writing. Despair. Demoralization. Demobilization. Nothing happening. Fear haunts the landscape. Take that same snapshot two years later, 1934, and it's a different country. And it's a different country not because Franklin Roosevelt was president. He's part of that story. But it's because suddenly there are millions of people mobilizing all over the place. There’s this militant labor movement conducting general strikes in San Francisco and Minneapolis and down South in the textile industry.
There are people aiding their neighbors when they get evicted. Stopping that. Gathering up their furniture on the sidewalk and putting it back in their apartment. There are farmers out in the Great Plains dumping milk on the highways in order to preserve the price of united milk. There are rent strikes going on all over the place. Essay. There are new labor farmer parties forming in places like Wisconsin and Minnesota and elsewhere. The country is electric with social activity and essay trafficking in the united a new ethos of social solidarity. Something nobody would have predicted in 1932. So you never know.
BILL MOYERS: The book is The Age of Acquiescence: The Life and Death of American Resistance to Organized Wealth and essay of india Power. Steve Fraser, thank you very much for being with me. STEVE FRASER: Thank you for having me. BILL MOYERS: At our website BillMoyers.com, there's more about the Gilded Age, including an excerpt from in the united, “The Treason of the Senate,” an expose that rocked the country a century ago. In it, muckraking journalist David Graham Phillips condemned campaign contributors as “the interests.” They were, he said, “vastly more dangerous” than an “invading army,” for they “manipulate the prosperity produced by all, so that it heaps up riches for the few…” Same old story, then and now. That’s at should in politics essays BillMoyers.com. I’ll see you there, and I’ll see you here, next time. ANNOUNCER: Funding is provided by: Anne Gumowitz, encouraging the renewal of states democracy. Carnegie Corporation of New York, supporting innovations in education, democratic engagement, and the advancement of should in politics international peace and security at Carnegie.org.
The Ford Foundation, working with visionaries on the front lines of social change worldwide. The Herb Alpert Foundation, supporting organizations whose mission is to promote compassion and creativity in our society. The John D. and Catherine T. Trafficking In The States. MacArthur Foundation, committed to building a more just, verdant, and peaceful world. Writing Nhs. More information at Macfound.org. Park Foundation, dedicated to heightening public awareness of critical issues. The Kohlberg Foundation. On Human United States. Barbara G. Fleischman.
And by our sole corporate sponsor, Mutual of America, designing customized individual and group retirement products. That’s why we’re your retirement company. We#8217;ve just watched the should students essays Senate and the House — aided and essay on human united states abetted by President Obama — pay off financial interests with provisions in the new spending bill that expand the amount of campaign cash wealthy donors can give, and let banks off the on government of india hook for gambling with customer (and taxpayer) money. What happened in Washington over the past several days sounds strikingly familiar to the First Gilded Age more than a century ago, when senators and representatives were owned by Wall Street and big business. On Human In The United States. Then, as now, those who footed the bill for political campaigns were richly rewarded with favorable laws. Bill#8217;s guest this week, historian Steve Fraser, says what was different about the First Gilded Age was that people rose in essay, rebellion against the powers that be.
Today we do not see “that enormous resistance,#8221; but he concludes, “people are increasingly fed up… their voices are not being heard. And I think that can only go on essay on human states, for so long without there being more and more outbreaks of essays what used to be called class struggle, class warfare.#8221; Steve Fraser is a writer, editor and scholar of American history. Among his books are Every Man a Speculator, Wall Street: America’s Dream Palace and Labor Will Rule . His latest, The Age of Acquiescence: The Life and Death of American Resistance to Organized Wealth and Power , will be published early next year. Essay On Human In The States. Producer: Candace White. Associate Producer: Arielle Evans. Editor: Sikay Tang. BillMoyers.com encourages conversation and debate around issues, events and essay ideas related to essay in the, content on Moyers Company and students participate essays the BillMoyers.com website. Essay In The States. The editorial staff reserves the right to take down comments it deems inappropriate. Essay On Government Of India. Profanity, personal attacks, hate speech, off-topic posts, advertisements and spam will not be tolerated. Do not intentionally make false or misleading statements, impersonate someone else, break the law, or condone or encourage unlawful activity.
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Human trafficking in the united states …
'Mister Rogers' to give Dartmouth Commencement Address. Fred McFeely Rogers, better known as Mister Rogers, will deliver the main address at Dartmouth College's 2002 Commencement exercises, which will begin at 10 a.m. Sunday, June 9, on the Dartmouth Green. Besides Rogers, speakers for the event will include Dartmouth President James Wright and the Valedictorian of the undergraduate senior class (who is announced the week of Commencement, after final grades are calculated). The College expects to on human trafficking in the united states award approximately 1,000 bachelor's degrees and approximately 500 master's or doctoral degrees in the Arts and Sciences or from one of the College's three professional schools: Dartmouth Medical School, Thayer School of Engineering and the Tuck School of Business. At Commencement, Dartmouth will confer honorary degrees on: Fred Rogers (Doctor of essays Humane Letters) , who is creator and host of the television program Mister Rogers' Neighborhood and Chief Executive Officer of Family Communications Inc.
He attended Dartmouth from 1946-48 as a member of the Class of 1950, before transferring to Rollins College (where he graduated) to study in the music program there. Marilyn Gaston (Doctor of Science), former U.S. Assistant Surgeon General and a physician internationally recognized for her work dedicated to improving the health of poor and essay on human united states minority families in the United States and abroad. Usc Admissions! Yuan-Tseh Lee (Doctor of Science) , President of Academia Sinica, the highest government-sponsored academic research institution in Taiwan, who won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1986 for seminal, far-reaching advancements in chemical reaction dynamics. Essay States! Gerda Lerner (Doctor of Letters) , the Robinson-Edwards Professor of History Emerita at essay and hunger the University of Wisconsin, who is a leading pioneer in women's history and helped establish several graduate programs in the field. Arthur Mitchell (Doctor of Arts) , founder and artistic director of the Dance Theatre of Harlem. Evelyn Stefansson Nef (Doctor of Humane Letters) , writer, polar researcher and noted philanthropist. President of the Evelyn Stefansson Nef Foundation, she has written extensively about arctic regions and, with Vilhjalmur Stefansson, helped to establish the Stefansson Collection that is now located in Dartmouth's Rauner Library. In 2001, she was awarded the trafficking states, Icelandic Order of the Falcon.
E. John Rosenwald Jr. (Doctor of Laws) , a 1952 graduate of Dartmouth and a 1953 graduate of Dartmouth's Tuck School of Business, who is should in politics Vice Chairman of Bear, Stearns Co. Inc. in New York City. A member of the on human trafficking in the united, Dartmouth Board of students participate essays Trustees from 1986 to 1996, he served as its chair from 1993 to 1996. In 2000 The New York Times named him philanthropist of the on human trafficking, year for New York City. Commencement Weekend will include a public reception for the honorary degree recipients from 5-6 p.m. Saturday, June 8, in the main corridor of Baker Library. Saturday, June 8: Speakers for Dartmouth professional schools' Class Day and Investiture ceremonies and for undergraduate Baccalaureate Service. A variety of ceremonies take place the day before Commencement, including Class Day and on government of india Investiture ceremonies for Dartmouth's three professional schools, and undergraduate baccalaureate services.
Those events and essay on human states their speakers are: Dartmouth Medical School: Vermont Governor Howard Dean. 9 a.m., Derzon Courtyard at DMS (front lawn). (Rain location and essay on poverty time: Leede Arena, 11:30 a.m.) Thayer School of Engineering: Jeffrey Immelt, a 1978 graduate of Dartmouth who is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of on human in the united General Electric Co. 10 a.m., Cook Auditorium. Tuck School of argumentative essay Business: Peter R. Dolan, a 1980 graduate of the Tuck School who is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. 3 p.m., Tuck Circle. In The United States! (Rain location: Leede Arena). Baccalaureate Service: The Very Rev. Nathan D. Baxter, Dean of of india Washington National Cathedral.
3 p.m., Rollins Chapel. Commencement speaker; will receive honorary degree Doctor of Humane Letters. Fred McFeely Rogers is best known as Mister Rogers, creator, host, composer and essay on human in the puppeteer for argumentative men women the longest-running program on essay, PBS, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. His journey to the Neighborhood began in 1950, during his senior year at Rollins College, when he became intrigued by the potential of children's television. Statement Nhs! After graduation, he headed to NBC as an assistant producer for The Kate Smith Hour and essay trafficking states The Voice of Firestone. He married Joanne Byrd, a pianist and fellow Rollins graduate, in 1952. (Rogers attended Dartmouth his first two years of college, 1946-48, before transferring to students participate essays Rollins to study in the music program there.) Returning to his hometown area of western Pennsylvania in essay on human trafficking united states 1953, he helped found Pittsburgh's public television station, WQED, and co-produced an hour live daily children's program, The Children's Corner, for which he also worked behind-the-scenes as puppeteer and musician.
Several regulars of today's Mister Rogers' Neighborhood made their first appearances on The Children's Corner - among them, Daniel Striped Tiger, King Friday XIII, X the Owl, and Lady Elaine Fairchilde. To broaden his background for children's television, Fred Rogers studied at the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Child Development. He also completed a Master of Divinity degree at and hunger the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary and was ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1963 with a unique charge of serving children and families through the media. Mister Rogers' Neighborhood made its national debut on public television in 1968. Since then, the series has been recognized internationally as a unique and pioneering effort to communicate with young children about things that matter in childhood. TV Guide says . Mister Rogers' Neighborhood makes us, young and old alike, feel safe, cared for, and valued. wherever Mister Rogers is, so is essay on human trafficking sanctuary. Fred Rogers has received virtually every major award in television and education, and should participate in politics essays has received honorary degrees from more than 40 colleges and universities. Fred Rogers is the Chairman of the Board of Family Communications Inc., the nonprofit company that he formed in 1971 to produce Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. The company has since diversified into non-broadcast materials that reflect the same philosophy and purpose: to encourage the healthy emotional growth of children and their families. Doctor of Science.
Dr. Essay On Human In The United States! Marilyn H. Writing! Gaston, former U.S. Assistant Surgeon General and the first African-American woman to direct a public health service bureau, has dedicated her professional career to improving the health of essay trafficking in the united poor and essays minority families in the U.S. and in the united states abroad. Through delivering quality primary health care, providing medical education to young clinicians in training, being involved in clinical research, and administering local and statement federal programs dedicated to the underserved, she strives to essay on human trafficking achieve her goal of quality, culturally competent care for everyone. Gaston is the second African-American woman to achieve the rank of on poverty Rear Admiral in the U.S.
Public Health Service. As Director of the Bureau of essay in the states Primary Health Care in Health Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Gaston was responsible for a budget of $5 billion serving 12 million poor, underserved and disadvantaged people. Prior to her appointment as Bureau Director, her work at the National Institutes of Health improved the treatment of children with sickle cell disease, resulting in significantly decreased morbidity and mortality in young children around the world, for usc admissions essays which she is internationally recognized. Dr. Gaston is a member of the prestigious Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, has received an honorary degree from the University of Pennsylvania, and recently received the National Medical Association Scroll of Merit and their Lifetime Achievement Award. She has received numerous awards from Public Health Service, the American Medical Association's Dr. Nathan Davis Award and is honored yearly on Marilyn Hughes Gaston Day in the cities of Lincoln Heights and Cincinnati, Ohio, where there is also a Buford-Gaston building in her name.
The University of Cincinnati College of Medicine has named a yearly scholarship for two underprivileged and minority first-year students to receive full, four-year medical school scholarships in her honor. Gaston is the co-author of the book Prime Time: The African American Women's Complete Guide to Midlife Health and Wellness published by Random House. (Doctor of trafficking Science) Yuan-Tseh Lee received the Nobel Prize for on government of india Chemistry in 1986 for his contributions to the field of chemical reaction dynamics. (He was a co-winner of the prize with Dr. Dudley Herschbach of Harvard University and Dr. John Polyani of the University of essay trafficking united Toronto.) Today, he is the statement writing, president of essay trafficking in the states Academia Sinica, the highest government-sponsored academic research institution in Taiwan.
Born in 1936 in students participate in politics essays Hsinchu, Taiwan, Lee's early school years were disrupted by essay on human trafficking, World War II. It was not until the nhs, Japanese returned Taiwan to on human trafficking in the China that Lee was able to resume his formal education. An energetic child, he was a member of the baseball, tennis and ping-pong teams, and he played trombone in the school band. He also was an avid reader who was drawn to science by a biography of Madame Curie. In 1955, his excellent academic record allowed Lee to enroll at participate essays the National Taiwan University without taking the entrance exam. After graduation, he earned his master's degree at the National Tsinghua University. He then entered the doctoral program at the University of California at Berkeley, receiving his degree in states 1965. During his graduate study, Lee became interested in ion-molecule reactions and the dynamics of molecular scattering. Writing Nhs! In 1967, he joined Dr. Essay Trafficking! Dudley Herschbach and his group at usc admissions essays Harvard University as a research fellow.
Herschbach's lab was a leader in the crossed molecular beam technique, in which beams of molecules are brought together at supersonic speeds under controlled conditions to on human trafficking united study chemical reactions. Lee subsequently extended this technique to enable study of writing larger and more complex molecules. His academic career at the University of Chicago and at Berkeley significantly advanced his research, allowing him to carry out trafficking states, numerous pioneering experiments with his students. In 1994, he retired from the University of California to become president at Academia Sinica. In addition to the Nobel Prize, Lee's awards and students essays honors include the U.S. On Human Trafficking In The United! National Medal of on poverty Science in 1986, an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship, a John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship, the Ernest O. Lawrence Award from the U.S. Department of Energy, the American Chemical Society's Peter Debye Award of Physical Chemistry and the Clark Kerr Medal from the University of California. He is a fellow of the American Academy of essay on human trafficking states Arts and Sciences, a foreign member of the statement writing, U.S. Academy of Sciences, Indian Academy of Sciences, Korean Academy of Science and Technology, and a member of the Third World Academy of Science.
(Doctor of Letters) Women's studies pioneer Gerda Lerner was born into a well-to-do Viennese Jewish family in 1920. On Human In The United States! As a teenager, she witnessed the Nazis' rise to should participate in politics essays power and essay on human united became involved in essay the underground resistance movement. After being imprisoned and forced into essay on human trafficking in the united exile, she came to the United States in 1939. She became a U.S. citizen in essay 1943, and married Carl Lerner, with whom she had two children.
In 1958 Gerda Lerner returned to college, graduating with a Ph.D. from New York's Columbia University in 1966. She became a preeminent scholar recognized as a pioneer in the field of women's history. In 1972, Lerner founded the first U.S. graduate program in women's history at Sarah Lawrence College, where she taught from 1968-1980. She was the Robinson-Edwards Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison from 1980-1991, during which time she also founded the university's Ph.D. program in women's history. Lerner has been a Professor Emerita since 1991. Over the years, she has also been a visiting professor at Duke University. The author of a dozen books, Lerner's books on history include Black Women in White America: A Documentary History (1972), The Creation of Patriarchy (1986), The Creation of Feminist Consciousness (1993) and her 1997 best seller, Why History Matters. Her autobiography, Fireweed, was published in April 2002.
Lerner's many awards include the 2002 Bruce Catton Prize from the Society of American Historians and the 2002 Distinguished Service Award from the Organization of American Historians (OAH). In 1992, the trafficking in the united, OAH also honored her with a Lifetime Achievement Award for statement writing Scholarly Distinction. She has been a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1998 and was named a senior distinguished research professor by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Alumni Research Foundation in 1984. Over the years, Lerner has received grants and fellowships from the National Endowment for essay on human trafficking in the states the Humanities, the Ford Foundation, the Lilly Foundation and the Guggenheim Foundation, among others. Arthur Mitchell, co-founder and Artistic Director of the Dance Theatre of Harlem, is known internationally as an educator, choreographer and dancer. Born in essays 1934, Mitchell began his dance training at New York City's High School for the Performing Arts. Upon graduation, he received a scholarship to attend the School of American Ballet. Mitchell made history in 1955 as the first African-American male dancer to become a permanent member of a major ballet company when he joined the New York City Ballet. Mitchell quickly rose to the position of principal dancer. In his 15 years with the company, he electrified audiences with performances ranging from the neoclassical style of Agon to the lighthearted role of on human Puck in A Midsummer Night's Dream, roles choreographed especially for him by George Balanchine. Mitchell also has performed in films, on TV, and for nightclub and Broadway shows.
In 1968, upon learning of the death of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Mitchell was determined to provide children in Harlem, where he grew up, with the kinds of opportunities he had been given. In 1969, with financial assistance from the Ford Foundation, Mitchell and Karel Shook (his teacher and mentor) founded the usc admissions essays, Dance Theatre of Harlem as a school of the allied arts and professional ballet company. Now 33 years old, Dance Theatre of on human trafficking in the united states Harlem has grown into an institution of world renown. Among the honors and awards conferred on Mitchell are the 1997 Americans for the Arts' Arts in Education Award; the 1995 National Medal of Arts, the highest honor awarded by writing, the U.S. President in trafficking the arts and humanities; the coveted MacArthur Foundation Fellowship; the School of American Ballet Lifetime Achievement Award; and the 1994 Award for Distinguished Service to the Arts from the American Academy of Arts and Letters.
In 1993, Mitchell became one of the youngest recipients of the should students, Kennedy Center Honor , celebrating an extraordinary lifetime of contributions to American culture through the performing arts. Mitchell is a member of the essay on human in the united, Council of the National Endowment for the Arts. He was inducted into the NAACP's Image Awards Hall of Fame and, in 1999, the Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Hall of Fame at the National Museum of Dance in Saratoga, N.Y. (Doctor of essay and hunger Humane Letters) Writer, polar researcher, psychotherapist and philanthropist Evelyn Stefansson Nef was born in New York City in essay in the states 1913. Her diverse career began when, as a young woman, she used her art training to create marionettes, museum dioramas and World's Fair exhibits.
She was also an and hunger accomplished puppeteer. In 1939, she began working for the Arctic explorer Vilhjalmur Stefansson. They married in trafficking in the 1941, and, until his death in 1962, she worked with him as researcher, special assistant and librarian of his polar library, travelling extensively in Alaska, Greenland, Iceland, Hudson Bay, Siberia, the Polar Sea and the Antarctic. In 1951 she moved 25,000 books and 40,000 reprints to Dartmouth College, continuing as librarian of what became the Stefansson Collection in on poverty and hunger Dartmouth's Baker Library. She remained active in the Polar Studies Program and for two years taught the essay in the states, Arctic Seminar. Her first book, Here is Alaska, was a bestseller that continued in print through four editions for 45 years.
She was editor-in-chief of should students participate essays The Great Explorer Series of essay trafficking in the books on the exploration of the statement on religion, world for Delacorte Press and reviewed polar books for The New York Times and the New York Herald Tribune. Following Stefansson's death, Evelyn married historian John Ulric Nef, founder of the University of Chicago's Committee on Social Thought, in 1964. States! At age 60, she went back to school and became a psychotherapist with a special interest in psychosomatic illnesses. Her autobiography, Finding My Way: The Autobiography of an Optimist, was published in Icelandic in November 2001 and thesis statement on religion will be published in English by Francis Press in May 2002. Nef has served on the boards of the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the on human in the, National Symphony Orchestra, the Paget Foundation, the MacDowell Colony, the Lourie Center for Infants and Young Children and the International Longevity Center, among others. A long-time member of the Society of Women Geographers, she was national president from thesis, 1969-71. Essay On Human Trafficking In The States! She is president of the Evelyn Stefansson Nef Foundation and is on the Advisory Council of the Gerontology Department of Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. She previously received honorary degrees from the University of Alaska and usc admissions The Corcoran School of Art. Nef was awarded the Icelandic Order of the Falcon in 2001. E. John Rosenwald Jr. has been an active member of the Dartmouth community for more than fifty years.
A 1952 Dartmouth graduate, he earned his MBA from Dartmouth's Tuck School of Business in 1953. Rosenwald was a member of Dartmouth's Board of Trustees from on human trafficking in the united, 1986 to 1996, serving as its chair from 1993 to 1996. He also chaired Dartmouth's successful Will to Excel capital campaign launched in argumentative men women 1991. In 1954, Rosenwald began his career at The Bear Stearns Companies Inc., an investment banking firm in New York. He was elected a General Partner of the firm in 1962 and united shortly thereafter was elected to The Bear Stearns Executive Committee. When the essays, company went public in 1985, Rosenwald was elected a Member of the on human, Office of the President, then later as Vice Chairman of The Bear Stearns Companies Inc. in 1988. Through his work as a philanthropist, Rosenwald has raised nearly $2.3 billion, chairing or co-chairing capital campaigns for organizations such as the New York University Medical Center, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Environmental Defense Fund -- and Dartmouth. The New York Times named him Philanthropist of the Year for New York City in 2000.
In addition to helping to raise money, Rosenwald is a prodigious contributor himself, having endowed a Dartmouth professorship and funded the construction of a chemistry lab and should participate essays Tuck School classroom among numerous other gifts. Rosenwald is a member of the essay in the united states, Council on Foreign Relations and the American Academy of the Arts and Sciences. He sits on the board of many non-profit organizations, including Carnegie Hall, the Central Park Conservancy, the National Center on Addiction and essays Substance Abuse at Columbia University, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Mount Sinai NYU Health, the National Organization on Disability, New York University and the New York University School of Medicine. The Metropolitan Museum of Art will be honoring Rosenwald at its 2002 Corporate Benefit in May. Rosenwald also serves on the board of directors of Hasbro Inc.
Dartmouth has television (satellite uplink) and radio (ISDN) studios available for domestic and international live and taped interviews. For more information, call 603-646-3661 or see our Radio, Television capability webpage .
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democracy essay css 2. What is democracy? 3. Nature of democracy. 4. Beginning of democracy. 5. Democracy since creation. 6. Causes of failure of democracy. 7. Impacts of democracy. 8. Measures for the survival of democracy. “The essence of democracy is its assurance that people should so respect himself and should be so respected in his own personality that he should have opportunity equal to essay trafficking united that of every other human being to show what he was meant to become.” Ana Garlin Spencer.
Democracy is the most powerful foam of essay men women government. It is essay on human in the united states also regarded as the decisive foam of government. It requires active participation of argumentative people in the decision making process. Without public collaboration, democracy cannot flourish properly. In The United. It is the thesis statement on religion and politics most favorable foam of government as well.
The great personality of entire subcontinent Quaid-a-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the staunch supporter of public participation in formulating government. He was the promoter of essay in the democracy in Pakistan. According to Abraham Lincoln, “Democracy is the foam of government for the people, by the people, and through the people” Dr Hassan Askari rightly defines “democracy in the precise and appropriate manner. According to him, It is a process which people initiates by argumentative men women, conscious decision and sustain by subscribing to its principle by theory and practices.” Here the question arises, what is the nature of democracy? The nature of democracy is evolutionary.
It is not achieved at essay in the united, once. It is the long process. It needs strong collaboration. The birth place of democracy was England. Thesis And Politics. Sir Robert Walpole became Prime minister in 1722.Parliamentray democracy started in England first. Before industrial revolution, concentration of wealth was under the control of feudal lords, which was disastrous for the promotion of democracy. Feudalism was a threat for democracy. Essay On Human In The States. History clearly reflects that feudal class was great threat for the establishment of democratic practice. After Industrial revolution wealth was divided and distributed. Middle class came to forefront which promoted ideal foam of argumentative democracy in different countries.
Democracy first finds ground in India after England. Jawaharlal Nehru Comprehended the entire scenario of feudalism. Trafficking In The States. He did not give chance to feudalism to hold ground. These initial efforts brought tremendous change in usc admissions essays, India. Essay On Human United. It laid down the foundation of strong democracy.
Active participation of people has been viewed in students, India. Pakistan as a sovereign state came into existence on 14 august 1947.The initial years of Pakistan was encircled with multitudes of crises. Bundles of crises have not given smooth path for the establishment of strong democracy. Since independence Pakistan has been facing a lot of turbulences in the path of democracy. In The United States. Utter failures have been viewed since independence.
It creates a sense of self deprivation among masses. Essays. Active participation of people has not been viewed since independence. The main causes of failure of on human democracy in Pakistan are summarized as follows: Overdeveloped state structure, political instability, military intervention, massive corruption, lack of accountability, weak infrastructure, feudal dispensation, institutional crises, constitutional crises, strong bureaucracy, low level of political socialization, extremism, weak civil society and absence of mature leadership. Presence of participate these causes is essay united states always considered as a menace to argumentative essay men women democracy. Now let’s have a cursory look on the elaboration of the following causes. Overdeveloped state structure causes a great hurdle in the path of democracy. Pakistan has been facing this challenge since independence. The monopolization and essay on human trafficking states centralization of power have creating a lot of problem for Pakistan.
It creates hurdles in the way of smooth democracy. Political instability is the main threat to usc admissions democratic process. It creates unnecessary barriers in the process of democracy. Pakistan has been facing this menace since independence. Because of this problem democracy is always facing difficulties. Military intervention in the democratic path was regarded as a dead blow in the way of democracy. In Pakistan, democracy faced four military intrusions, which was the trafficking in the united states menace for argumentative essay men women, democracy. Massive corruption paved the essay in the way for military to usc admissions essays intervene in the internal affairs of country.
After independence, massive corruption started to essay trafficking in the great extent. It gave path to military elite to rule Pakistan. Lack of accountability is known as threat for any institution. In the usc admissions essays absence of accountability no country can maintain its strong foothold. Essay In The. It causes a lot of trouble. Since inception, Pakistan has been facing the essay on poverty challenge of lack of aacountability.this is main reason of democratic downfall. Weak infrastructure of on human trafficking united states Pakistan has been creating a lot of issues.
Massive corruption make infrastructure weak and futile. On Government. In the presence of corruption and essay on human united absence of on government accountability make infrastructure weak. Weakness of infrastructure is creating constraints in the path of democracy. Feudalism is threat to democracy. After emergence, feudal class had more power and wealth. This class created barriers in the way of essay on human in the united democracy. Since independence, institutional crises have been viewed.
Clash between judiciary and executive class is a threat to democratic practice. Lack of consensus is making commotion. A constitutional crisis is regarded as a definite threat to democratic procedure. Essay Of India. After independence Pakistan took long seven year in drafting constitution. Essay On Human In The United States. Certain pitfall also aroused in the path of drafting constitution. After emergence Pakistan faced strong influence of on poverty and hunger bureaucracy. In the initial year of establishment only two institutions were powerful to face the challenge of early establishment. Quaideazam gave chance to military elite and bureaucrats to on human in the complete the task of establishment. Soon after completing the task, they maintained strong control over argumentative essay the state institution which created a lot of problem for Pakistan.
Low level of political socialization in Pakistan has been viewed since independence. For democratic achievement political socialization is necessary. Weak civil society is states a menace for democracy. It creates a big gap in the establishment of democracy. Both are dependable on each other. Extremism has been spreading like ulcer in Pakistan. It has deep roots in the past history. Statement Writing Nhs. It creates a lot of hurdles in trafficking united states, the development process.
How can democracy flourish in the presence of trouble makers? Dynamic leadership is missing in Pakistan. After the death of Powerful leader Quaideazam Pakistan has been facing democratic vacuum. No leader is like Father of nation.Quaideazam proved to statement on religion be marvelous. Since independence no leader has proved himself as mighty Quaideazam. Now let’s have a cursory look on the impacts of democracy. Democracy puts positive impacts on individual life, social life, political life and economic life.
Democracy flourishes individual life to great extent. Public say has been promoted in the presence of democracy. It provides massive opportunity in the development process. Demands of people have been viewed. Opportunities have been given to people regarding job.
Society blooms in the presence of democracy. States. Every department whether government or private work in an organized manner. Democracy puts positive impacts on political life. Usc Admissions Essays. If political parties work with sincerity in the establishment, and then it proves to be gain. Embezzlement of essay on human states funds creates hurdles in nhs, the path of democratic process. On Human In The States. Political stability has been needed in the establishment of democracy. Democracy gives very smooth path to essay economic development. On Human Trafficking. Both are interconnected. Funds have been utilized in the socio economic development which paves the way for successful establishment. Now let’s have a look on the measure for the survival of democracy in Pakistan.
Uninterrupted democratic process, curtailment in the role of army, efficacious accountability, breakage in power accumulation, judicial reformation, role of media, limited international interference and political socialization. UN interruption in should essays, democratic process should be enforced. This can play very effective role in the establishment of democracy. Since independence, army intrusion has been viewed which created hurdles in the path of democracy. Massive intrusion in the democratic process should be controlled.
Corruption should be controlled. Proper system of on human trafficking united accountability should be launched to eliminate this illegal activity. Argumentative Essay. Accountability is necessary for the proper working of institutions. Breakage in the power accumulation process has paved the way for democracy. Feudal class has been engage in the accumulation of power. They are power lusty.
This power must be snatched from them for proper flow of essay trafficking in the democracy in Pakistan. Judicial reforming is very important for the establishment of democratic practices. Judiciary is statement nhs very powerful branch of government. It needs reformation in its own spheres. Media is known as the fourth pillar of essay united state. It is now become more powerful than nuclear. It is powerful way of expression. It gives boost to democracy.
Limitation in international interference is needed. Massive international interference is a threat to Pakistan sovereignty. Essays. It is also a menace to democracy in Pakistan. Political socialization is needed. Awareness and mass consciousness about politics has been required for the strength of democracy. It is the on human trafficking in the united most powerful way of essay promoting democracy in our country. Political awareness in needed in every walk of life.
Poor population is easily cheated by shrewd politician. Awareness can only be promoted by media. Thus it is on human united clear that democracy is the most viable and effective foam of on poverty government. It gives platform to general masses in the decision making process. Essay. It creates a bridge between Government and people. Massive role of people has been welcomed in democracy. It creates consciousness among masses. In a nutshell, it is a very long way to achieve democracy in true foam in Pakistan. It requires sincerity and efforts in essays, the establishment. Democracy is essay not only foam of government but it is a complete philosophy which covers all aspects of rights and freedom.
It needs public collaboration in true sense. ta k examinor ko 70% wirtten apki outline sy e hojay. thora sa effort put kro. Your effort has many things to be appreciated, yet, it's a fact, there is always room for improvement. So let us talk about Democracy in men women, Pakistan in following brief outlines. i) Political Factors (leadership crisis, constitutional dilemma, military rule, political parties' failures, inter-institutional rift, political desparity, political hatred, lack of political consensus, rigging in essay on human trafficking in the united, elections.. etc) ii) Administerative Factors (Political influence, lack of consistency in policies, corruption, lack of accountability and transparency, mismanagement, bad governance, voter's registration dilemma, inefficient legal system, favouratism, infrastructural mess.. Essay. etc) iii) Social Factors (poverty, illiteracy, lack of awareness, feudal nature, women status, nepotism.. etc) iv) Economic Factors (lack of funds, aid-ridden budgets, inflation leading to mistrust in democracy.. etc) v) Religio-cultural Factors (agenda and propaganda of socalled supporters of islamic emirate/caliphate system, indus valley culture--historically unaware of democratic life style.. etc) i) A democratically elected govt-- heading towards completion of it's term succesfully. ii) Pseudo-independent judiciary-- creeping towards complete independence. iii) Freedom of Press/Media and it's rule. iv) Mature attitude of military establishment. v) Increasing consensus in political parties for protection of democratic process. vi) Increase in literacy rate.
vii) Heightening social awareness. viii) Emerging new political powers. ix) International support to democracy in pakistan. Your 1% is enough for me as a reason to share my 99%. Are you serious? The Greatest gift you can give to someone is the PURITY of your attention.
It is fact that democracy is the on human states major constituent for students in politics essays, social, political and trafficking in the united states economic development. Writing. It is considered as the backbone of the system, without which an effective running of system is impossible. The crucial importance of democracy can be observed by the experience of in the East Asian countries. Between 1965 and 1990, several countries of this region registered the highest growth rate and proved it with high living standards. The most important factors behind this economic miracle are good governance. Democracy today appears to be the essay of india most popular choice when it comes to choosing a form of government, it brings with it many complications that would be absent in a dictatorship. Making bold decisions for trafficking united states, long term prosposerity, executing controversial decisions and making bitter choices for the common good can be very complicated processes in a democratic form of government. Democracy presupposes an understanding of issues.
The sine qua non for and politics, a Western-style democratic system is education, which means that the people must be educated to a level to understand the issues so that they can make a meaningful choice. Unfortunately, literacy rate in Pakistan is a mere fraction, even the most optimistic estimates believe it to be less than 50 percent. An illiterate person is like an aimless wanderer, who lacks a clear vision, consequently fells an easy prey to the caste related vote canvassing. Moreover, Pakistani society is divided along the fissures and faults of caste and sects that has retarded it to act like a cohesive unit and concentrate only on issues. Under such circumstances, caste, sect and creed sentiments are exploited by the unscrupulous politicians. Democracy is one of the universal and indivisible core values and principles of the United Nations.
It is based on the freely expressed will of people and closely linked to the rule of law and exercise of human rights and essay trafficking in the united states fundamental freedoms. Democratic governance feeds into economic and social policies that are responsive to people’s needs and aspirations, that aim at eradicating poverty and expanding the choices that people have in their lives, and that respect the needs of future generations. In essence, therefore, democratic governance is the process of creating and sustaining an environment for inclusive and responsive political processes and settlements. It is also important to note that the United Nations does not advocate for a specific model of government, but promotes democratic governance as a set of values and principles that should be followed for argumentative men women, greater participation, equality, security and human development. The Quaid believed in democracy, the following are a excerpts from his speeches on essay on human united democracy: Democracy is in the blood of Muslamans who look upon complete equality of man. Essays. I give you an example. Very often when I go to a mosque, my chauffeur stands side by side with me. Muslamans believe in fraternity, equality and liberty. Dec 14, 1946, Quaid-e-Azam said at Kingsway Hall, London. There are no people in the world who are more democratic even in their religion than the essay in the united states Muslamans.
The democratic system derives its strength from people. As former American President, Abraham Lincoln said. “Democracy is Government of the people, by the people, for the people.” Anna Garlin Spencer is of the and hunger opinion. The essence of democracy is its assurance that every human being should so respect himself and should be so respected in his own personality that he should have opportunity equal to that of every other human being to in the united show what he was meant to become. Political harmony and democratic evolution is facilitated primarily by political parties and leaders. These are important instruments of essay interest articulation and aggregation and serve as vehicles of political mobilization. In Pakistan, political parties have traditionally been weak and unable to on human perform their main function in an effective and meaningful manner. The role of the political parties has suffered due to, inter alia, periodic restrictions on political activities under military rule, infrequent elections, weak organizational structure and poor discipline among the members, absence of attractive socio-economic programs, and a paucity of financial resources. Political parties also suffer from factionalism based on personality, region and ideology.
The Muslim League that led the independence movement failed to transform itself from a national movement to a national party. It suffered from organizational incoherence, ideological confusion and a crisis of leadership. The parties that emerged in the post-independence period could not present a better alternative. Statement On Religion. They suffered from the weaknesses that ailed the Muslim League. Consequently, the political parties could not work for political consensus building and political stability and continuity. Most Pakistani political parties lack resources and trained human-power to undertake dispassionate and scientific study of the socio-political and economic problems.
The emphasis is on rhetoric and essay united sloganeering which may be useful for men women, mobilization purposes but it cannot be a substitute to serious, scientific and analytical study of the societal problems. The level of debate in the two houses of the parliament and provincial assemblies is low and these elected bodies often face the shortage of quorum which shows the non-seriousness of the political parties and their members in the elected houses in dealing with the national issues and problems. Quite often the ministers and parliamentary secretaries are not available in the house to respond to the issues raised by the members. When the leadership of a country has all the power, which originally should have been with the institutions, the civil society is prone to become weak. The Pakistani society could not even properly voice their rights until recently, let alone struggling for democracy due to subjugation. Last but not least, the current stream of extremism and terrorism has brought forth a new ideology. These extremist elements equally manipulate the government and the common people.
Their own version of Islam has become a means of playing with the sentiments of the already deprived masses. Hence, the essay on human in the united bearers of this new ideology of governance consider democracy non Islamic and thus completely useless for an Islamic State. The prevailing conditions of the country and the demand for implementation of Sharia (their own version), is a testimony to this ideological belief. Students Participate In Politics. For these elements, the essay on human united states concept of democracy is western thus against statement nhs Islam. Moreover, this new ideological approach is also the essay on human states most immediate threat to democracy in Pakistan today. In the war against essay terrorism, the realization of the fact that it is also a ‘ a ‘war of two ideologies’ but not necessarily a clash of civilizations is essential for preventing the country from another dead end. Islam as we know is a complete code of essay trafficking in the states life. But in the political sphere the decision for choosing the essay form of government has been left for the people, provided that the described requirements for vicegerency are met and on human trafficking in the united states the fact that sovereignty lies with Allah alone.
As our constitution clearly states Pakistan as an essay on government of india Islamic Republic, there should be no misunderstanding about the governmental form. Islam speaks of sovereignty of Allah, while western democracy advocates that sovereignty belongs to people. United States. This means that democracy has been accepted within the limits of Islam so that in the name of democracy Islamic principles cannot be violated. Islamic Scholars and Islamic Politicians have come to accept the word democracy and what it means within these limits. The fear of some people here that democracy makes the people a source of power and even legislation although in Islam, besides Allah, no one has the right to essays make laws. Allah is our Creator, our Lord and he knows well that what is good and what is bad for us and Mohammad as its Prophet and Islam as its Religion. Such a people would not be expected to pass a legislation that contradicts Islam and its incontestable principles (Sharia) and conclusive rules. Hence, in essay trafficking states, essence and essay of india soul democracy is trafficking in the united not un-Islamic. There is compatibility between Islamic concept of government and democracy but it requires a well executed procedure of its incorporation in the constitution or making Pakistan a true Islamic democracy. The people generally have also an argumentative important role to play in democracy—that of intelligent critics and no democratic govern¬ment worth the name can afford to ignore or bypass public criticism. Essay United. If it were to commit, his folly, it would soon become unpopular loss it hold on essays the people and hence its majority in the legislature.
Thus the public shares the role of the opposition whenever occasion demands it. Public opinion may be passive and false or active and real. It is claimed in theory that all governments are ultimately based on the opinion or sanction of the governed. But we find that in practice the essay on human trafficking united people's rights are often trodden down and tyranny and oppression are allowed to statement nhs continue. The government does it not because the people want it to do so but because they are too idle, too uneducated and too disunited or timid to oppose the govern¬ment. Such public opinion is passive and false and not an active verdict. But when we find people alert, intelligent and determined to let the government know their will, when they want to exercise actively their voice in the management of their country, we have an instance of true or active public opinion. True public opinion is on human in the united states formed by and expressed through the press, the platform, political parties and educational institutions.
These have sacred duties to perform, duties on students participate in politics which depends the ultimate good of the entire community. The press today wields a tremendous influence, so it should support the causes and move¬ments and condemn the wrong ones and thus teach people to form correct opinion. A free and fair press ventilates the grievances of the public. Thus a healthy relationship develops between the people and the government throughout an unbiased press. Political parties also help to create and essay trafficking in the states regulate opinions. Statement Writing. No less important part is played by the educational Institutions which train the minds of the young people who will be the citizens of tomorrow.
It has been said that modern Germany and China have been made by their universities. It is necessary that the young and the growing minds should imbibe the spirit of fellow-feeling, the trafficking in the spirit of tolerance, the habit of compromise, and show due regard for the feelings and opinion of others without which a democratic society cannot function, let alone succeed. When there is true awakening of the people, we shall have the real and conscious public opinion. And justice will reign on earth and truly will the voice of the people be the voice of God. Democracy is not only a form of government it is a philosophy which encompasses all aspects of rights and essay freedom. If we are to survive as a nation, we must allow it to grow or it will be hard to escape another catastrophe either internal or external. In Pakistan, the need for essay on human trafficking united, establishing a true democracy is as old as the country itself. Democracy is one of the most fabulous principles of the modern political system. It is the culmination of freedom and progress in statement on religion, advanced countries. Essay United. In Pakistan, however, the already difficult situation has been aggravated by constant failures which never let democracy survive. Statement. The legacies of colonialism and autocratic mindset of the leadership erected invisible barriers for the democratic process.
The positive change is still slow, but a bleak past or murky present in no way means a foredoomed future as well. However, colossal efforts at every level are required for democracy to take root and relieve us of our ever increasing catastrophes. Democracy is not only a form of government it is a philosophy which encompasses all aspects of rights and freedom. If we are to survive as a nation, we must allow it to grow or it will be hard to escape another catastrophe either internal or external. Pakistan, like India, adopted the on human states Government of India Act, 1935 as the Interim Constitution, 1947 to meet the immediate requirements of an independent state. It provided parliamentary form of government, although the Governor General enjoyed special powers and the federal government exercised some overriding powers over provinces. Pakistan's early rulers did not pay special attention to democratization other political system because their major concern was how to ensure the survival of the state in and hunger, view of internal and in the external challenges. The fear of the collapse of the state encouraged authoritarian style of governance. Pakistan had faced serious administrative and on religion management problems during the partition process. These problems were the division of civil and on human in the united states military assets of the essay on government British government between India and Pakistan, communal riots, the migration of people to and from Pakistan, and the troubled relations with India, including the first war on Kashmir, 1947-1948. In this critical situation when Pakistan was facing initial administrative and humanitarian difficulties, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the father of the nation, died on September 11, 1948, thirteen months after the establishment of Pakistan.
The separation of Quaid within a short span of time undermined the already weak political institutions and fragmented the political setup. Most of the post-Jinnah political leaders had no nationwide fame and appeal to reorganize the massive crowd again as a result regional politics within the on human united states state flourished. This critical situation, made it difficult for the political parties and leaders to pursue a coherent approach and gather under one leadership. They were unable to develop consensus on single point. Exploring the statement writing nhs last 63 years of essay united states Pakistan, democracy is statement taken as a comic relief between military regimes. Assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan, the first elected Prime Minister, was in fact the in the states demise of democracy in Pakistan. Since then, the balance of power tilted in the favor of the military. Though Liaquat Ali Khan laid the foundation of the constitution by introducing objective resolution but several years later constitution of Pakistan was introduced (March 23, 1956) which even could not get popular support of all major parties, leaders and statement nhs regions.
By the time the constitution was introduced a strong tradition of violation started, the political parties were divided and the assembly was unable to assert its primacy. In this situation power was shifted to the Governor General/President Iskander Mirza, who had military background. Iskander Mirza took support of top bureaucracy and the military. This contributed to the rise of the bureaucratic-military elites in Pakistani politics which further suppressed future of democracy. Democracy was not evolved out of the Pakistani culture; rather it was imposed by our colonial masters so there was a lack of democratic culture and its associated values. Pakistani society consisted of united states tribal or feudal landscape. Statement Nhs. Pakistan even when created had a fair share of the feudal ruling class in the Muslim League who represented a culture of suppression and personal gains. These landlords and feudal cum politicians hijacked the political system. Tribalism or feudalism, as a political system, has certain values associated with it which include authoritarianism instead of mass level participation, kinship instead of merit, patronage instead of rule of law due to which our military and political elite could not embrace the idea of democracy wholeheartedly and that is why, there was no strong resistance whenever the military toppled the elected government. The first Martial Law was imposed by Ayub Khan in essay trafficking united, 1958 and lasted till 1969.
He abrogated the argumentative essay constitution of 1956. He also introduced presidential system with indirect elections. Essay On Human In The. In April 1969, General Yahya imposed second Martial Law and lasted till 1971. Essay On Government. He had abrogated the constitution of 1962, banned all political activities and dissolved National and Provincial assemblies. On Human Trafficking States. Again Martial Law intervened in 1977 and the popular leader elected by the common people through dubious elections was hanged. Zia's Martial regime was supposed to be the shortest one but it turned out to be the longest in the history of Pakistan. Zia did not abrogate the writing nhs constitution of 1973 but suspended. Essay On Human Trafficking. He also passed his famous 8th amendment to restrict the power of on government head of on human trafficking united states government through article 58 2(b) and provided significant powers to usc admissions the president who could dissolve National Assembly whenever he think that need has arisen. In 1999, again military intervened in on human trafficking in the united, political setup led by General Musharraf. The Army was yet again in power promising of smooth transfer of power to grass root level within three years. Consequently, the list of gross failures kept mounting and even after realizing the underlying causes, they weren’t addressed.
Of the major causes of failure of democracy in Pakistan, the substantial ones are related to thesis statement on religion and politics those in essay on human, authority i.e., the leadership, army and bureaucracy. Firstly, the failure to sustain democracy is the over developed state structure. The monopolization and statement centralization of power, decision making structure, hegemonic ideals vis--vis civil society and also a need to control them terribly weakened the de facto government institutions and in on human trafficking in the, turn the social and economic structure as well. Secondly, a clash between main organs of government such as judiciary and executive lead never gave democracy a fair chance. Personalization of rule has been in vogue. Thesis Statement And Politics. This trend by essay on human trafficking united, the executive to influence all and sundry made. Pakistan an international study case of a failing democratic state. In addition to this the military rulers strengthened the bureaucracy for students essays, their own rule.
Securing a permanent role in the establishment, the bureaucrats preferred to compromise with the feudal system as well. The circulation of power in a handful of families made the structure hollow. Similarly, as cited earlier the authority at local level accumulated in the hands of feudal cum politicians who had the public vote bank with them. The military rulers were thought to curb them in the beginning but instead of nipping them in the bud they also compromised with them to prolong their rule. In such circumstances, even universal suffrage could not be effective and non-political powers began to play a greater role. Likewise, the weak institution of united political system, from the parliament- which became a proxy of dictators- to the regional political parties which had hereditary and non democratic leaders is another cause. These political representatives had no idea of political socialization and no organized quarters of leadership, who could establish a democratic culture. Sadly, the statement nhs political psyche of the people is also very negative due to low level of political awareness and socialization. And this trend allowed the hegemonic forces to essay in the states keep media, educational institutions, peers and public forums from incorporating a political consciousness into the people. The masses were even not able to resist the Martial Laws, and the civil society always succumbed to the military rule. Another important cause has always been the constitutional crisis and essays absence of trafficking united rule of law apparatus.
There has always been a great demand for incorporating Islamic principles in the constitution or implementing them (as implied by the ’73 const.) as Pakistan is an statement Islamic state. Also the several amendments in the constitution concentrated power in the President, which was against the democratic soul. There is still the need for intact constitution. Next, the essay on human in the united states all powerful bureaucracy and feudal politicians should be stripped of their unwarranted authority. It has been a slow evil which has weakened the country like nothing else. They are elected for serving people not controlling them. The criteria of merit; the right of freedom and equal progress for common people has become a joke due to such an autocratic setup. The political system which we have in essay, Pakistan is rather something else in the garb of democracy. Where one needs at least ten to twenty million rupees to contest a National Assembly election and around half of that for essay in the, a seat of of india provincial assembly; where the on human trafficking united states legislature has become a club of the elite is rather actually plutocracy, i.e. a government of a rich few. Middle class, having understood that the doors of the political system are closed for them, get disenchanted and ultimately get alienated from the system; and here lies a basic reason for the lack of development of democratic values and culture in Pakistan. It is fact that democratic governments in Pakistan have been witnessed of corruption, mal-administration, and nepotism.
The people reluctantly visit public institutions because they know that without any favor or bribe it is very difficult to get any work done from the public officers. Moreover, due to malpractices of the public official and misappropriation of public fund the infrastructure of public institutions has been cracked and a situation like chaos is prevailing all over the country. In 1990 the government of PPP was dissolved due to corruption charges set against Benazir Bhutto by should students essays, the President of that time. The next government of on human trafficking states Nawaz sharif was also dismissed in 1993 by Ghulam Ishaq khan on plea of corruption and nepotism. Again elections were held in 1993 and thesis on religion Benazir became PM but this government was also dissolved on corruption charges in 1996. Democracy and participatory governance are popular political notions in today’s world. Fair and free elections are the key pre-requisite of democracy. Essay Trafficking In The. However, democracy lacks substance unless the electoral process is coupled with the participate essays supremacy of the constitution, the rule of law, and civil and political rights and freedoms for the people. The state must practice the principle of equal citizenship irrespective of religion, caste, ethnicity and regional background.
It must also ensure equality of opportunity to all for advancement in social, economic and political domains and guarantee security of essay trafficking life and property of its citizens. The failure to institutionalize participatory governance has caused much alienation at the popular level. A good number of people feel that they are irrelevant to power management at the federal and provincial levels. The rulers are so engrossed in their power game that they are not bothered about the men women interest and welfare of the common people. Such a perception of low political efficacy is reflected in on human in the, the declining voting percentage in the general elections. A good number of essays voters maintain that their vote does not matter much in the selection of the rulers. Invariably they express negative views about the rulers as well as those opposing them. Despite all this, the people have not given up on democracy. While talking about their ‘helplessness’ with reference to changing the essay on human states rulers, they continue to subscribe to the norms of democracy and participatory governance and emphasize the accountability of the rulers.
They are therefore vulnerable to mobilization for realization of on religion and politics these norms and values. The political system of essay trafficking in the united states Pakistan is characterized by should students in politics essays, intermittent breakdown of constitution and political order, weak and non-viable political institutions and processes, rapid expansion of the role of the military bureaucratic elite, military rule and military dominated civilian governments, and narrow-based power management. Democracy does not guarantee equality of conditions - it only guarantees equality of opportunity—Irving Kristol. History is witness to the fact that Pakistan has lost territory while under direct military rule. The dictators’ hawkish attitude has fanned various separatist movements across the country. Essay Trafficking In The States. Absence of Democracy is a significant reason for nurturing terrorism in a country. A democratic government is supposed to represent the essay on poverty and hunger people and provide political means to voice grievances, hence essentially providing a sphere where terrorism has no place. Democracy is necessary to peace and undermining the forces of terrorism—Benazir Bhutto. For this reason, in theory, there 'cannot' be an essay trafficking in the aggrieved group that is not adequately represented; but absence of democracy and areas outside the essay on government realm of essay on human trafficking united democratic setup in Pakistan has proved conducive to terrorism. The political leaders lack a clear vision and they never had the capacity to alleviate the status of democracy and strengthen it, in fact the mutual squabbling of the political leaders excited the other players to assume a role. Moreover, in Pakistan the politics is more personality-driven rather than issues-driven, which has an overall negative impact on the evolution of essay on poverty and hunger independent institutions and has fanned the vested interests.
Political parties are mere puppet in the hands of different families and party elections are considered taboo and it seems that political parties have dictatorship at their own core! In true democracy, political leaders derive their power from the people thus they are intrepid and assume more audacious visions, consequently the respective country forms an essay trafficking in the states independent foreign policy that best suits its interests but feeble democracy is devoid of these characteristics. Pakistan has so-far failed to furnish its independent foreign policy, with faint support in their own country; political leaders are swayed by the world powers, thus they undermine the national interests and sovereignty of the country. All the ills of democracy can be cured by thesis statement, more democracy- Alfred E. Smith. Though democracy has failed many times to establish its firm roots in Pakistan, but every dark cloud has a silver lining, all these failures actually provide us an insight into united states what went wrong and how democracy can be preserved from de-railing next time. The first essential step seems to stop interruption in the democratic process and the elected government must be allowed to complete its tenure in any case. Secondly, a major chunk of the population wants greater Islamic character in the democratic setup and legislation. Incorporating true Islamic injunctions will lead to a more cohesive civil society and will foil any attempts by on government of india, the extremists to essay on human trafficking in the states paint that democracy is antithesis to Islamic form of government. We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools— Martin Luther King, Jr.
Reforming the judiciary and incorporating the Islamic laws can also soothe the deprived and poor masses which have been manipulated by the extremists. Moving on, corruption and selfish attitudes is eating away the institutional structure of our country and such mal-practices never allowed democracy to flourish. There is a need to engineer an accountability mechanism, so that these wrong-doings are kept in check. There is a dire need to strengthen the public institutions, in order to ensure the supremacy of on poverty law so that rules govern the country rather than the personalities. The glaring example of many European countries may be quoted, where institutions enjoy the ultimate powers. Democracy in actuality can only be achieved through such measures. Common man was compelled by the existing setup to stay away from trafficking united states, contesting an election. Hitherto it was a prerogative of the affluent and feudal classes; such practices are against the moral, democratic and Islamic principles. The necessary ingredient for the success of democracy in Pakistan is the emancipation of the rural areas from the clutches of the argumentative essay men women local landlords, i.e. to take steps for the abolition of 'Jagirdari' System. The criteria of merit; the right of freedom and equal progress for common people should be promoted.
Young and morally upright persons should come forward and actively take part in democratic setup and elected member must be nurtured with the notion that they have to serve the nation and essay on human states they have to bail out this nation. A leader is a dealer in hope—Napoleon Bonaparte. Our constitution does not provide an effective system of check and balance. Writing Nhs. That is essay on human states why every elected civilian government becomes omnipotent and powerful which give rise to corruption and mal-administration. There is on government of india no effective system of essay on human in the governance which can keep proper check on the decisions and on poverty and hunger the steps taken by PM and his cabinet. Judiciary must be made strong enough to keep a strong check over these important matters. In Pakistan, the rulers, political parties and trafficking in the united states leaders and the civil society groups support democracy at the normative or conceptual level. The politically active circles demand representative governance and participatory decision making in the political and economic fields. They highlight fair and free electoral process, the rule of law, socio-economic justice and accountability of those exercising state power as the on poverty pre-requisites for a political system.
The credulous masses were an easy prey to the mercenary politicians, had they been educated, they must have asked the elected members for their rights denied, opportunities curtailed and for defrauding the tax-payers money. Essay On Human In The United. Imparting education on should students in politics a national scale will galvanize the masses to form a check on political leadership. The political energy in Pakistan is extravagantly wasted on inter-provincial squabbling. There is a dire need to trafficking states get the nation out men women of the rut of provincialism, so that they feel proud on being Pakistani and strive for the cause of Pakistan thus strengthening the institutions and democracy in the country. In a democratic state, media has rightly been called the fourth pillar of the united state. It can play a more vibrant, positive and constructive role rather than becoming another compromised institution. Information is the currency of students participate in politics democracy—Thomas Jefferson. Finally, the strategic position and now the war against terror has brought Pakistan in the limelight of the international community, so international community should help Pakistan in establishing a workable democratic system or should at least stay away from anointing the essay trafficking in the united dictators, but it is only possible through the argumentative men women visionary and sagacious approach of the med. The world has ultimately come to a conclusion after having experimented different forms of government like Monarchy, Oligarchy, military or civil Dictatorships etc.
These governments failed despite sincere wishes of the individual leaders who came to the fore through any of these Processes. In line with the lessons of history and despite all its past experiences of failure, there is no other messianic way out to trafficking in the lead Pakistan toward a progressive state except to establish the roots of democracy firmly. Democracy is not only a form of government; it is a philosophy which encompasses all aspects of rights and freedom. In Pakistan, however, the already difficult situation has been aggravated by constant failures which never let democracy to survive. The positive change is still slow, but a bleak past or murky present in no way means a foredoomed future as well. However, colossal efforts at essay men women, every level are required for democracy to take root. In all this hopelessness, there must be a desire for moving forward. Essay Trafficking In The States. The future of democracy may be doubtful but it not at writing, an end yet. The road to democracy may be winding and is like the states river taking many curves but eventually the river will reach the ocean—Chen Shui-Bian(10th and 11th-term President of the Republic of China) There is a need to reform the judiciary, in essay, the presence of an independent judicial system, the discrepancies are kept in check thus it ensures enduring democracy through fair and states free elections, without fair and statement and politics free elections the actual shape of democracy can’t be prevail.
It is the responsibility of the state to essay on human trafficking in the united hold elections in such a way that everyone be able to contest elections regardless of his financial status. The state must try to build up a culture of usc admissions meritocracy instead of monetocracy (money as the basis for progress) which is the prevailing norm of the political culture of the underdeveloped world. In order to develop an effective system of governance participation of women should be encouraged as according to latest count, women ratio is .48:52 respectively. Media should also play a positive role in creating awareness among people regarding their problems and their solutions. In this way people will be able to demand their rights and will perform their duties and responsibilities in a more organized way. Democracy in Pakistan faced a host of difficulties which did not let the democratic principles, institutions and processes develop firm roots in the polity. Essay On Human States. In Pakistan, periodic breakdown of the political order and repeated military take- over or attempts by the top brass to shape the political process to their political preferences did not ensure political continuity and the competing interest did not get equal opportunity to freely enter the political mainstream. . Democracy and nhs the autonomy of civilian institutions and processes has been the major casualty of the on human united expanded role of the military.
Whenever Pakistan returned to civilian and constitutional rule, the quality of democracy remained poor. It is a case of democracy deficit. The long term endurance of the political institutions and the prospects of democracy faces four major challenges in should participate in politics, Pakistan: the non-expansion of participatory opportunities for those viewed as adversaries by the military dominated regime, the poor performance of the elected assemblies, failure to build consensus on the operational norms of the political system, and a drift towards confrontation, religious and cultural intolerance and extremism. This does not mean that the in the states people have given up on the primacy of the popular will, participatory governance, accountability of the rulers and essay of india governance for serving the people. The ideological commitment to these principles persists which will continue to on human trafficking united states question the legitimacy of no participatory and authoritarian governance and political management.