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As NAFTA talks resume, Mexicans say Trump is wrong to focus on the deficit. The inside track on Washington politics. Online! *Invalid email address. MEXICO CITY — In four days of North American free-trade talks opening here Friday, many numbers will be bandied about. To the dismay of Mexicans, one of them, $63 billion, stands above all the rest. This is the size of the trade deficit in goods and services that the United States maintained with Mexico last year, and it is the number that President Trump repeatedly brandishes when he declares NAFTA “the worst trade deal in history” and threatens to abandon the treaty. But for Mexicans close to these negotiations, and for many U.S. trade experts, it is simply the wrong number to worry about. “We know that’s not the right index,” said Moises Kalach, one of the leaders of essays, a private-sector group that advises the Mexican government on the talks. Online Program! “This is Econ 1, and we know that you cannot measure a trade agreement based on the deficit.” The deficit is just one of the areas of disagreement expected to arise in the second round of NAFTA renegotiation talks, being held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in the swanky Polanco neighborhood of Mexico City. Technical teams from the United States, Mexico and Canada are working through issues including how to resolve trade disputes, whether to raise labor standards, what percentage of parts must be made in North America for a product to qualify for free-trade status, and how to modernize the 23-year-old agreement for the era of e-commerce.

All that comes against the increasingly tense backdrop created by Trump’s repeated warnings in recent days that he is leaning toward canceling NAFTA to role negotiate a better deal for the United States. In response to those warnings, the Mexican government said this week that it would walk away from the table if Trump starts the process to scrap NAFTA. “We don’t think it would be the right path or a viable path to terminate the agreement just when we’re in online writing program, negotiations,” Foreign Minister Luis Videgaray told reporters on Wednesday. Essay For Interview! The focus on the trade deficit in writing program, goods and services — the sachin tendulkar as a role essay, amount by which a country buys more than it sells — frustrates Mexico for many reasons. For one, the United States’ $63 billion deficit with Mexico is writing, smaller than the U.S. deficit with other countries, including China ($309 billion) and Germany ($67 billion), according to statistics issued by essays to honor the Bureau of Economic Analysis at the U.S. Department of Commerce. But economists say the larger issue is that the writing program, trade deficit in goods and sachin tendulkar as a model essay, services is just one measure of the health of an writing program economic relationship between two nations.

The figure does not reflect the flow of consulting cover deloitte, capital investment between countries or the fact that the lower cost of inputs from writing Mexico helps U.S. firms stay competitive and benefits American consumers with cheaper products. “I have to be very clear,” said Jaime Zabludovsky, who helped negotiate NAFTA in the early 1990s and military, is also part of the writing program, Mexican business advisory group. On Yourself For Interview! “The trade deficit is online writing, a macroeconomic issue. It has nothing to do with trade policy.” Focusing on the deficit, he added, “is a huge mistake.” Many Americans, including Republicans, have made similar points. Sen. Essay On Job! James Lankford (R-Okla.) wrote in a recent op-ed in The Washington Post that trade deficits “are not always bad for U.S. workers and consumers, nor should they remain the focus in NAFTA renegotiations.” He said that if trade made Mexicans wealthier, they probably would buy more from the United States. “That is why one of the best things that can happen to writing program our economy is for other nations’ economies to grow,” he wrote. Michael C. Camunez, a former U.S. assistant secretary of essays military, commerce in the Obama administration, said that the deficit number is “not necessarily the best measure of the success or productivity of that relationship.” He noted that some 40 percent of the online writing, content of a typical Mexican product comes from the United States — such as American-made parts that go into a car assembled in Mexico. “You have to letter look at the relationship comprehensively,” said Camunez, who is now chief executive of Monarch Global Strategies, a firm that advises U.S. companies on doing business in Mexico.

While a deficit is not necessarily a problem, some argue that it can impact the type and number of jobs available, particularly in regions dependent on manufacturing. Given the Trump administration’s focus on this issue, Mexican officials say they are willing to discuss it, as long as the solution does not harm Mexico’s economy. The private-sector group that Kalach runs has produced detailed charts showing which sectors in the economy contribute to the trade deficit — the auto industry, which has been a bright spot for Mexico’s economy, makes up the biggest portion — so they can react to various deficit-reduction proposals. Online Program! Mexicans are looking for ways to increase overall trade in North America to sachin as a role model possibly reduce the U.S. deficit. Mexico’s oil industry, which was opened to foreign investment in recent years, could play a role in decreasing the deficit in the future, some experts say. “The U.S. has a very large surplus in the energy trade with Mexico, which is an online writing astonishing about-turn from where we were even five years ago,” said Duncan Wood, director of the Mexico Institute at the Wilson Center, a Washington think tank. Express! Faced with Trump’s recent threats, more Mexican politicians, including leftist presidential candidate Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, who is leading in polls in advance of next year’s vote, have called on Mexico to walk away from the online, talks. Dolores Padierna, a senator from the leftist PRD party who serves on a congressional committee that tracks the NAFTA talks, said she advised Mexico “to leave NAFTA, to not wait for Donald Trump to role throw us out, to leave in a way that is planned and gradual.” Mexican business leaders remain hopeful that the Trump administration will come to program recognize the benefits of essays, free trade for all three countries that are part of online writing, NAFTA.

“I’m convinced that our officials who are in charge of this are going to exhaust every possible argument,” said Gustavo A. de Hoyos Walther, the express, president of the Confederation of Mexican Employers (COPARMEX). But the writing program, threats by Trump “are hostile, and essay on job, they are real.”

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Les commandes fondamentales de Linux. Nat Makarevitch pour ses nombreuses critiques et corrections, Thomas Ortega pour ses bienveillantes remarques et la remise en forme HTML du document, Kim Ashue pour sa relecture, Philibert de Mercey pour son aide a la mise en page, Fanthomas pour sa relecture. L'objectif de ce document est d'enseigner les commandes fondamentales de Linux (et donc d'Unix). Nous explorerons ce qu'offre le shell le plus utilise sous Linux, donc une partie de ce que peut faire un utilisateur capable de diriger la machine en creant des lignes de commandes plutot qu'en se contentant d'un cliquodrome. Pour apprendre il faut pratiquer, donc disposer d'une machine fonctionnant sous Linux qui n'est pas serieusement exploitee. Online? Son arret ou sa modification ne doit rien menacer. Si vous en avez deja une negligez la presente section (passez a la suivante).

Chacune des sous-sections suivantes (Emulateur, Services Linux de Windows 10. Essay On Job? ) presente un moyen de disposer d'une machine sous Linux. Un emulateur animant Linux sous votre navigateur web est le moyen le plus simple de commencer. Program? Votre navigateur simulera une machine qui executera Linux. Northwestern? Pour cela cliquer ici, ce qui doit ouvrir un nouvel onglet ou vous trouverez une machine virtuelle fonctionnant sous Linux, immediatement utilisable. Writing? Elle fonctionne dans votre navigateur et ne peut rien casser. Sachin As A Role Model? N'hesitez pas a explorer et a experimenter car il n'y a aucun risque d'endommager quoi que ce soit. Certaines commandes n'y sont pas installees mais c'est le moyen le plus facile, immediat et sans danger d'aborder le sujet. Il faut toutefois employer un navigateur recent et un ordinateur au processeur puissant. Si vous disposez d'une machine il n'est pas necessaire d'y installer d'emblee Linux, il suffit dans un premier temps de l'amorcer de facon «live».

Vous devrez graver un CD ou un DVD. Nous recommandons une version de Linux («distribution») appelee Knoppix. Telecharger tout d'abord l'image de CD ou de DVD, par exemple (en France Metropolitaine) de ou (en anglais) via le document officiel. Writing Program? Il est recommande de verifier a tout le moins son empreinte SHA et, au mieux, GPG, toutefois cela depasse le cadre du present document. Graver le disque correspondant. Amorcer la machine grace a ce disque. Deloitte? Une invite libellee «boot:» apparaitra (en bas). Writing? Saisir «knoppix lang=fr». Essay On Job? Si vous n'y parvenez pas attendre demarrage complet puis, ouvrir un «terminal» et saisir «setxkbmap 'fr(multi)'» (la documentation officielle n'existe qu'en anglais).

Linux fonctionne alors sans etre installe, toutefois il est possible de modifier le contenu des disques de la machine donc ne pas faire n'importe quoi. Si vous le pouvez, installez Linux sur une machine, de preference virtuelle (VirtualBox, VMware, Microsoft Virtual PC. Program? ). Nous recommandons la distribution utilisee par ceux qui vous aideront, ou a defaut Ubuntu ou Debian. «Linux» est le nom du seul noyau, le c?ur du systeme d'exploitation qui est lui-meme un ensemble de logiciels grace auxquels la machine est rendue plus facilement utilisable par l'humain comme par une application. Une famille de logiciels appeles shells fournit un moyen de diriger ce dernier en lui communiquant des commandes.

Nous exposerons ici la facon d'employer le shell le plus repandu sous Linux, nomme «Bash», ainsi que certains utilitaires. La plupart des distributions Linux demarrent d'emblee, sitot le systeme amorce, une interface graphique fournie par un ensemble logiciel appele X Window et donnant a l'ecran d'accueil une apparence agreable dont voici un exemple (cliquer sur l'image pour zoomer): Si X Window n'est pas demarre, vous ne verrez aucune fenetre et pas de graphisme sauf peut-etre un Tux en haut a gauche, mais des caracteres sous forme de charabia termine par la mention «login:» suivie d'un curseur clignotant: (Cette etape n'est pas necessaire si vous employez l'emulateur preconise) Connectez-vous au systeme en tant qu'utilisateur root, donc saisir root en guise de «login» (et soumettre grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment!), puis le mot de passe («password») adequat (qui a ete defini lors de l'installation ou est fourni par la documentation). Si la machine emploie X Window, explorez les menus afin de demarrer un «terminal» (il peut etre appele «Terminal», «Konsole», «KTerm», «Gnome terminal», «xterm», «rxvt». Military? ), par exemple via le menu «Applications», «Accessoires» ou «Systeme». Vous vous trouvez alors devant le shell, qui est un logiciel grace auquel vous pourrez passer des commandes, afin de demarrer d'autres programmes par exemple. Online Writing Program? Plusieurs shells existent, le plus repandu est nomme bash (csh et zsh en sont d'autres). Le shell affiche, en debut de ligne, quelques caracteres fournissant diverses informations et invitant a lui communiquer une commande. C'est ce que l'on appelle son invite (synonyme: prompt). (Ceci ne vaut pas sous l'emulateur preconise, toutefois c'est une necessaire habitude a contracter)

Ne jamais eteindre brutalement la machine, il FAUT INFORMER Linux de votre souhait de l'arreter afin qu'il prenne les dispositions necessaires (en particulier ecrire sur toute memoire de masse tout ce qui doit l'etre). shutdown -r now reamorce immediatement l'ordinateur. School? shutdown -h now arrete completement le systeme. Online Writing? Vous pouvez eteindre l'ordinateur lorsque sera affiche: Nous traiterons du shell nomme bash, le pus employe sous Linux. Commencons par nous assurer que c'est bien le shell employe. Saisir echo $SHELL . Soumettez cette commande au systeme grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment! Le systeme retourne le nom du fichier executable fournissant le shell courant.

S'il ne s'agit pas de «/bin/bash» certains des elements ci-apres exposes ne seront pas corrects. (Sous l'emulateur preconise aucun nom ne sera retourne. University? Il fournit en fait d'«ash», assez compatible et complet pour que le plus gros de ce qui suit soit utilisable) En realite echo est la commande proprement dite, qui fait office de verbe d'action, et $SHELL l'argument que nous lui fournissons, qui precise sur quoi elle doit travailler. Les arguments qui suivent le nom d'une commande lui indiquent ce qu'elle doit faire, sur quoi, comment. La commande echo se contente de repeter les arguments qui lui sont fournis, de sorte que echo toto affiche toto et echo titi tutu affiche titi tutu. «$SHELL» designe le contenu d'une variable d'environnement (c'est ce que le signe dollar place en prefixe revele) nommee «SHELL». Online Writing Program? Lorsqu'il lit un caractere '$' suivi d'un groupe de caracteres le shell remplace l'ensemble par le contenu de la variable d'environnement ainsi nommee. Pour examiner le contenu d'une variable, saisir echo $ nom_de_la_variable . echo $SHELL affiche le contenu d'une variable d'environnement nommee «SHELL», qui par convention recele le nom du shell actif. La variable PATH contient la liste des chemins ou sont cherches les fichiers executables invoques.

Pour examiner son contenu: echo $PATH . Tendulkar Role? Le separateur est le caractere ':'. Online Writing? Si le PATH contient /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin, alors a chaque fois que le systeme tentera, sous votre compte, de lancer un executable, il cherchera le fichier l'abritant tout d'abord dans le repertoire nomme /usr/local/bin puis, s'il ne l'y trouve pas, dans /usr/bin, puis dans /bin. Si vous souhaitez ajouter au PATH un repertoire /home/delcros/bin qui contient vos programmes personnels, il vous faudra editant le fichier /.bash_profile de sorte qu'il contienne: PATH=$PATH:/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/home/delcros/bin. Sachin Tendulkar Model? Pour que son contenu soit pris en compte apres une modification, vous devez vous reloguer (ou utiliser la commande «source», non exposee ici). La variable PS1 contient la definition du prompt: PS1=[u@h w $] affichera votre nom d'utilisateur (u), puis le caractere @, puis le nom de la machine (h, pour h ost), puis une espace, puis le repertoire de travail courant (w, pour w orking directory), puis un caractere '#' si vous etes root et '$' sinon. Voici un autre parametrage de prompt: PS1=[t d u@h w $] Se deplacer dans l'arborescence de repertoires ( cd ) L'invite est parametrable et ressemble souvent a ceci: [root@mistra /root]$ ( mistra est le nom de ma machine). Le premier root signifie que vous vous etes actif sous le compte utilisateur de l'administrateur systeme. Online? Vous etes donc en pleine possession de la machine, vous pouvez faire absolument n'importe quoi, jusqu'a supprimer des fichiers necessaires a son fonctionnement. Sachin Role Model? faites donc tres attention. Online Program? En theorie il ne faut utiliser la machine sous ce compte que pour l'administrer. Northwestern? Des comptes dits «d'utilisateurs» permettent de travailler en temps normal sans risquer de mettre le systeme en panne en cas d'action inconsideree ou de «mauvaise manipulation».

Nous exposerons ci-apres comment creer un compte utilisateur. Dans le prompt [root@mistra /root]$ la mention /root exprime que vous vous trouvez dans un repertoire nomme «/root». Online Writing Program? Sous Unix un repertoire n'est pas essentiellement different d'un fichier, vous lirez ou entendrez donc souvent le mot «fichier» utilise pour designer un objet a la nature non determinee qui peut etre un fichier ou un repertoire. Tout fichier (ou repertoire. Cover Letter? ) se trouve a un endroit precis, appele son chemin d'acces, constitue: du nom du repertoire racine qui est present sur tous les systemes, donc commun a tous les chemins et par convention appele «/» («barre oblique», plus communement appele slash ) ou Le tout premier repertoire, , est appele «/». Online Program? Tous les autres repertoires y prennent plus ou moins directement racine) suivi de la serie des noms des repertoires qui y menent, deux noms consecutifs etant separes au moyen de la barre oblique suivie de son nom. Si un repertoire nomme «repertoire1» contient un repertoire appele «repertoire2» recelant lui-meme un fichier «monfichier» le chemin complet de ce dernier est «/repertoire1/repertoire2/monfichier». Actuellement, donc, vous vous trouvez connecte sous le compte de l'administrateur systeme et dans le repertoire appele «/root», ou peut-etre «/var/root». Deplacons-nous dans la racine du systeme en saisissant cd / . Separez bien cd et / par un caractere espace car Unix exige une grande precision.

En pratique cd est la commande et / l'argument que nous lui fournissons. Consulting Deloitte? Les arguments suivent la commande et sont parfois precedes d'un tiret. Vous etes maintenant dans le repertoire racine et le prompt devient [root@ nom_de_votre_machine /]# . Tapez la commande ls ( l i s t) afin d'obtenir la liste de son contenu, vous devez obtenir quelque chose comme: Si certains fichiers ou repertoires manquent sur votre machine, ce n'est pas important. Deplacons-nous dans le repertoire qui contient une grande partie des programmes (souvent simplement appeles «binaires») nomme /usr/bin en saississant cd /usr/bin . Program? La commande reste cd mais cette fois l'argument est /usr/bin. Letter Deloitte? Vous pouvez la aussi obtenir le contenu du repertoire en utilisant la commande ls . Maintenant allons voir ce que contient le repertoire /etc (apercu lorsque nous avons liste le contenu du repertoire racine / ). Writing? Nous avons deux possibilites pour nous y rendre: soit nous revenons dans le repertoire racine et nous nous rendons ensuite dans le repertoire etc ; soit nous nous rendons immediatement dans le repertoire /etc . Methode n°1: cd / (pour se rendre a la racine) puis cd etc. Cette methode est fastidieuse car elle necessite de taper deux commandes successives. Cover? Nous pouvons utiliser la deuxieme methode pour nous rendre directement dans le repertoire «/etc» en ecrivant le chemin complet: . Writing? et nous voici directement places dans le repertoire «/etc».

Nous avons indique que pour se rendre dans le repertoire «etc», il fallait d'abord se rendre dans le repertoire racine. Papers? Pour ce faire, nous avons place un «/» devant «etc». Lorsque l'on fournit a la commande cd un « » au lieu d'un chemin, elle nous deplace automatiquement dans notre repertoire personnel, egalement appele «repertoire utilisateur» ou «home, celui ou nous pouvons stocker nos travaux. Online Writing Program? Si vous etes l'administrateur systeme la commande cd. Pour revenir dans votre repertoire personnel cd. A quel programme correspond une commande? (type) Certaines commandes sont dites «internes» car le shell contient le programme correspondant (reagissant a la commande, par exemple «cd»). La plupart des commandes se trouvent dans les repertoires nommes «/bin», «/usr/bin». University? Les repertoires «/sbin» et «/usr/sbin» recelent des commandes utiles a l'administrateur, et «/usr/local/bin» abrite des commandes mises au point qui ne furent pas fournies par la distribution, donc par exemple des realisations de l'administrateur. Lorsqu'on soumet a un shell une commande qu'il ne connait pas il determine s'il s'agit du nom d'un programme executable, et si c'est le cas le demarre.

Pour diverses raisons certaines commandes existent a la fois sous forme interne et externe. Program? En ce cas la version interne est par defaut executee, sauf si l'on fournit le chemin d'acces de la version externe. Essays Military? La commande «ls, par exemple, se trouve sur la plupart des machines sous les deux formes. Online Writing Program? Invoquer «ls» demarre la version du shell, pour lancer la commande externe il faut par exemple invoquer «/bin/ls». Pour determiner si une commande est interne ou externe, fournir son nom a la commande «type». School Papers Express? Exemple: D'autres, par exemple «time», sont des mot-cles plutot que des commandes car ils ne sont pas autonomes (ils doivent porter sur une commande). Pour determiner ou se trouve, parmi les repertoires du PATH, le fichier executable d'un programme, par exemple d'une commande externe, employer la commande «which» (qui signifie «lequel») suivie de son nom, par exemple «which ls». Writing Program? Si aucune reponse n'apparait, le programme n'existe pas ou est une commande interne. Dissertation? Pour obtenir une liste complete utiliser l'option «-a»: Pour chercher un fichier independamment du contenu du PATH on online program, peut employer «find» ou (s'il est installe) «locate» qui repose sur une sorte de base de donnees des noms de fichiers periodiquement rafraichie (donc peut fournir un resultat obsolete).

Dans quel repertoire suis-je actuellement? ( pwd ) Lorsque l'on se deplace dans les repertoires, par defaut le prompt bash n'affiche que le «nom court» de celui ou l'on se trouve. To Honor? Le nom court ne comprend pas le chemin complet. Online Writing? Or il se peut qu'un meme nom court corresponde a plusieurs repertoires bien distincts, donc que seuls les chemins qui y menent permettent de les distinguer. On Yourself For Interview? C'est par exemple le cas du nom court bin , que l'on trouve par exemple en «/bin» et en «/usr/local/bin». Online Writing? Il existe beaucoup d'autres exemples. Pour connaitre le chemin du repertoire ou l'on se trouve, on sachin model, utilise la commande pwd ( p ath of writing program current w orking d irectory). Lister le contenu d'un repertoire ( ls ) La commande ls permet d'obtenir beaucoup d'informations sur les fichiers et repertoires. Deplacons-nous par exemple dans le repertoire «/bin»: cd /bin.

Puis demandons liste de son contenu: ls. Nous pouvons demander a ls de lister uniquement les fichiers dont les noms contiennent des caracteres donnes. University Dissertation? Gagnons le repertoire /bin: cd /bin puis demandons par exemple la liste des seuls noms de fichiers dont les noms commencent par la lettre g: ls g* L'argument g* que nous venons de fournir est un motif, auquel on online program, peut penser comme a une sorte de filet dont les mailles sont definies par nous (utilisateur), en respectant un certain nombre de conventions, et qui est ensuite applique ( jete ) par le shell afin de selectionner des noms de fichiers qui y correspondent. Les principales conventions valides dans ce contexte, donc lorsque l'on definit un motif de selection de noms de fichiers destine au shell, sont: l'etoile (ou plutot l'asterisque) est un caractere generique selectionnant n'importe quel ensemble de caracteres le point d'interrogation selectionnant n'importe quel caractere. Lorsque nous invoquons ls g* : dans un premier temps le shell applique le motif (jette le filet) et selectionne les noms de fichiers du repertoire courant qui correspondent au motif dans un deuxieme temps le shell lance ls en lui communiquant ce qu'il a selectionne, donc par exemple (si les seuls fichiers du repertoire courant dont le nom commence par g sont «grep», «gunzip», «gzexe» et «gzip»): ls grep gunzip gzexe gzip. Cette interpretation de motif puis selection des noms de fichiers y correspondant est en anglais appelee glob.

Elle fonctionne pour toutes les commandes, on essays, peut donc saisir echo g* . Online? et obtenir le meme resultat qu'avec ls g* . On peut egalement interdire au shell d'effectuer ce «glob» en placant l'argument entre apostrophes. Essays? Exemple: ls 'g*' , qui produit ici «ls: ne peut acceder g*: Aucun fichier ou repertoire de ce type», car ls cherche bien entendu alors un fichier nomme g* (g suivi d'un asterisque), qui n'existe pas. echo 'g*' , en revanche, fonctionne parfaitement puisque 'g*' devient alors un litteral qui sera traite par echo comme n'importe quelle autre chaine. Online Program? qu'il se contente donc d'afficher, independamment de ce que contient le repertoire courant. Voici quelques options interessantes de la commande ls : ls -l liste les attributs de fichiers (les droits de lecture, d'ecriture et d'execution, le proprietaire, le groupe, la taille en octets, sa date de creation ou de modification). (Note: la mention «total 3615» exprime la taille cumulee des fichiers, exprimee en blocs de 512 octets.) Ici, tous les fichiers appartiennent a l'administrateur systeme (root) et a son groupe (root). Consulting Cover Deloitte? Nous traiterons du sens de la fin de chaque ligne, qui contient parfois une fleche visible ici sur la ligne awk - gawk , dans la section consacree aux liens ln.

-a liste tous (penser au mot a ll) les fichiers du repertoire, y compris les fichiers caches. Writing? Cette option est tres utile lorsque l'on se trouve dans son repertoire personnel car il contient les fichiers de configuration de l'utilisateur dont les noms commencent generalement par un point et seule l'option -a permet de detecter leur existence. D'autres options de ls sont utiles: -m affiche en separant par une virgule au lieu de les presenter en colonnes. Letter? -t trie par date, c'est-a-dire en les classant du recent au plus ancien (penser a t ime). Writing Program? -F trie par type. Tendulkar Role Essay? Ainsi un fichier suivi d'un slash (/) est un repertoire, un fichier suivi d'une etoile est un fichier executable et un fichier suivi d'un @ est un lien (nous reviendrons sur les liens dans la section consacree a ln ). Writing? -S trie par ordre de taille decroissante (penser a s ize). School Express? -X trie par extension. Online? -r trie par ordre alphabetique inverse (penser a r everse). Consulting Cover Letter Deloitte? Cette option a la particularite d'inverser l'effet de toutes les autres options de tris requises. Writing Program? ls -tr affichera ainsi les fichiers par date (-t) en commencant par les plus anciens pour finir par les plus recents. La commande less permet de lire le contenu d'un fichier texte. School? Nous avons vu que le repertoire /root contenait des fichiers de configuration.

Ces fichiers sont simplement des fichiers textes avec un agencement et une syntaxe particuliere. Online Writing? Regardons le contenu du fichier .bashrc qui permet de configurer a souhait son shell: less .bashrc . Pour passer d'une page a l'autre, tapez sur la touche espace. To Honor? Pour revenir sur la page precedente tapez sur «b» ( b ack). Writing Program? Pour quitter tapez «q». Une option utile de less est -N qui numerote les lignes (la numerotation de ligne apparait a l'ecran mais le fichier n'en est pas pour autant modifie). Si vous souhaitez connaitre les autres options de less , invoquez less --help . Modifier le contenu d'un fichier (l'editer) ( emacs , joe ) joe est simple et leger. Papers? C'est l'editeur que j'utilise pour faire une petite modification dans un fichier de configuration. La touche Ctrl (Control) permet de le commander. Ctrl-k h afficher le panneau d'aide en ligne (un nouveau Ctrl-k h l'effacera).

Note: dans les textes d'aide de joe le caractere ^ (circonflexe) represente par convention la touche Control, donc ce que nous presentons ici par Ctrl-k h y est note ^KH Ctrl-k e ouvrir un fichier Ctrl-k d sauvegarder Ctrl-k x sauvegarder et quitter Ctrl-c quitter sans sauvegarder. GNU nano est lui aussi populaire et repandu. En tant qu'utilisateur root editer, dans le repertoire «/etc/joe/», les fichiers nommes «joerc» et «jmacsrc» de sorte que. «-asis» se trouve en debut de ligne (pas d'espace avant le tiret), afin de pouvoir editer des caracteres accentues «-backpath path» se trouve en debut de ligne et soit suivi de «/tmp», la ligne devenant donc «-backpath /tmp», afin que les fichiers de sauvegarde de la precedente version d'un fichier edite se trouvent dans «/tmp» plutot que dans le repertoire courant. Emacs date de la fin des annees 70 et ne cesse d'evoluer depuis. Online? Ce qui fait de lui, sans aucun doute possible, l'editeur le plus puissant. Bien plus qu'un editeur, il est un environnement de travail: edition, programmation, mail, news, shell . Essay On Yourself? bref on online writing program, peut rester sous Emacs sans avoir besoin de quoi que ce soit d'autre.

Ses adeptes sont tres nombreux, et ne leur dites pas qu'il est lourd . Deloitte? vous vous tromperiez lourdement (je sais de quoi je parle . Online Program? j'ai fait l'erreur et en ce moment je suis sous Emacs. Deloitte? ;-)) Lancons Emacs: emacs. Ses combinaisons reposent sur les touches Ctrl (Control) et Meta (qui correspond souvent a Alt ). Ouvrons un fichier nomme «linux-test» grace a la combinaison de touches suivante: Ctrl-x Ctrl-f , donc enfoncer la touche Control et la maintenir en position basse, taper «x» puis «f», et relacher «Control». Writing? La mention Find File: / apparait (en bas, derniere ligne, dans le «minibuffer»). Cover Deloitte? Saisir le nom du fichier et valider grace a la touche Entree. Online Writing? Son contenu apparait et vous pouvez le modifier. Essay? Les touches Backspace et Suppr fonctionnent comme sous n'importe quel editeur. Online Writing Program? Pour sauver tapez la combinaison de touches: Ctrl-x Ctrl-s . Si vous etes bloque apres avoir effectue de mauvaises manipulations, tapez Ctrl-g , si necessaire plusieurs fois.

Si vous avez fait des erreurs, Ctrl-x u supprime les dernieres modifications. Si vos touches de deplacement du curseur ne fonctionnent pas: Ctrl-p : monter d'une ligne. Dissertation? Ctrl-n : descendre d'une ligne. Online Writing Program? Ctrl-f : avancer d'un caractere. To Honor Military? Ctrl-b : reculer d'un caractere. Writing? Ctrl-v : avancer d'une page.

Alt-v : reculer d'un ecran. Essay On Job? Ctrl-d : supprimer le caractere sur lequel le curseur se trouve. Online Writing? Ctrl-s : recherche incrementale. School Express? Meta-% : rechercher et remplacer. Pour quitter Emacs, composer Ctrl-x Ctrl-c . Il m'est impossible de decrire dans ce document les milliers de fonctions disponibles. Exemple: si vous editez un code source et le faites traiter (par exemple pour verification lexicale-syntaxique, compilation. Online Program? en particulier via l'utilitaire «make» ou equivalent) via Emacs, alors pour aller a la premiere erreur il suffit de taper C-x `. Northwestern University Dissertation? Emacs place alors votre curseur a la ligne ou s'est produite l'erreur. Online? Corrigez, puis pour aller a l'endroit correspondant a l'erreur suivante tapez encore C-x ` et ainsi de suite. Northwestern Dissertation? Pour parametrer d'autres combinaisons de touches: Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus, explorer ses panneaux d'aide ou des documents publies: joe peut emuler Emacs, ce qui epargne d'assimiler ses commandes propres tout en beneficiant d'un editeur compact et quasi partout disponible. Online Writing? L'invoquer pour cela avec la commande jmacs . Nous entrons maintenant dans une zone a risque. University? Mieux vaut donc se connecter en tant qu'utilisateur de la machine et non pas en tant qu'administrateur systeme (root), car nous risquerions par une mauvaise manipulation de supprimer des fichiers fondamentaux necessaires a son bon fonctionnement.

Nous allons donc creer un compte utilisateur, lui attribuer un mot de passe et nous loguer sur ce compte. Executez les commandes suivantes (une explication detaillee vous sera proposee dans la partie consacree a l'administration systeme): adduser le_nom_de_choix (votre prenom par exemple, mais sans accent et si possible long de moins de 8 caracteres) su le_nom_de_votre_choix (la commande su permet de se loguer sous un autre compte). Writing Program? Il suffira de saisir exit pour «revenir» a la session de travail root. Invite (prompt) de root ou d'utilisateur. L'invite proposee lorsque l'on est connecte sous compte root est souvent differente de celle d'un utilisateur sans droits etendus. Essays To Honor? Cela rappelle qu'il faut faire attention, car le compte root permet de tout casser. Online? Traditionnellement l'invite de root est terminee par un signe diese (#) et celle d'un utilisateur (non root) par un signe dollar ($). Declarer qui est proprietaire d'un fichier ( chown ) Preambule: cette section necessite d'etre administrateur systeme, il vous faut donc vous loguer sous ce compte, par exemple en utilisant la commande su : [delcros@mistra. Chaque fichier appartient a un utilisateur ainsi qu'a un groupe. Si, par exemple, nous avons effectue un ls -l linux-test et obtenu: -rw-r-r-- 1 delcros users 9 Jul 19 19:03 linux-test.

( Note: couleurs ajoutees pour simplifier l'expose) delcros est le nom du proprietaire du fichier et users est celui du groupe auquel appartient le fichier. L'administrateur systeme peut decider des utilisateurs membres d'un groupe, et permettre a un utilisateur de determiner lui-meme qui fera partie du groupe. On Yourself For Interview? Le fichier /etc/group decrit les groupes. Je peux decider par exemple que le fichier «linux-test» n'appartient plus a l'utilisateur delcros mais a l'utilisateur thomas: Pour changer a la fois le proprietaire afin de le donner a olivier et le groupe (ici: testeurs ): chown olivier.testeurs linux-test. Pour ne changer que le groupe: chown .testeurs linux-test. Copier un fichier ou un repertoire ( cp ) La syntaxe est: cp [option] nom-fichier(s)-origine nom-fichier-ou-repertoire-destination. Par exemple pour faire une copie d'un fichier du repertoire ou l'on se trouve nomme «linux-test» en un fichier «linux-test2»: ATTENTION: si vous effectuez une copie d'un fichier sur un autre qui existe deja, le contenu de ce dernier sera remplace par celui de l'autre!

Si vous souhaitez copier le fichier linux-test dans un repertoire (par exemple «/tmp»): Pour lui donner un autre nom: ). Writing Program? -v affiche les noms des fichiers copies (pensez a v erbeux). Northwestern Dissertation? Utile si vous souhaitez verifier le bon deroulement. Online Writing Program? -p lors de la copie les attributs des fichiers seront preserves (proprietaire, groupe, date de creation. Essays? lire chown). L'option -r copie de maniere r ecursive, donc l'ensemble d'un repertoire et de ses sous-repertoires. Exemple: je possede dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel» un repertoire intitule «mygale» qui contient 3 sous-repertoires («echecs», «linux», «xcaissa»): Je copie le repertoire «mygale» ainsi que ses sous-repertoires dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/» en commencant par me placer dans le repertoire recelant l'ensemble: cd /home/delcros/personnel/ puis en le recopiant: cp -r mygale /home/delcros . En associant l'option -v et -r : cp -rv mygale /home/delcros : J'ai par exemple deja copie dans le repertoire d'un utilisateur (pour qu'il en dispose) de la documentation qui se trouvait dans un repertoire «doc» dont le proprietaire etait l'administrateur systeme. Online? Pour cela j'ai copie tout le repertoire et ses sous-repertoires dans le repertoire de l'utilisateur grace a la commande cp et a son option -r , puis j'ai declare l'identite du nouveau proprietaire de la copie et de ses sous-repertoires: [root@mistra delcros]# chown -R delcros.users doc . On Yourself For Interview? L'option -R ( r ecursive) de chown le contraint a propager son action dans les sous-repertoires, etablissant par cette seule commande le proprietaire de plusieurs repertoires et de leurs fichiers. Declarer les droits d'acces (permissions) accordes ( chmod ) Linux permet de specifier les modes d'acces (a un fichier ou repertoire) autorises, que l'on appelle droits d'acces ou «permissions». Pour voir ces droits, il suffit d'utiliser la commande ls -l nom_du_fichier , qui produira par exemple: Il y a la de nombreuses informations, certaines ne seront decrites que plus tard. Le nom du fichier, «bidule», apparait a la fin de la ligne.

Le premier «adelcros» signifie que le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur «adelcros». Writing? La mention «users» signifie qu'il appartient au groupe «users». La partie qui contient -rw-r--r-- revele la nature du fichier ainsi que les permissions (droits d'acces). Le premier de ces 10 caracteres correspond a la nature du fichier. Essay On Job? Un tiret signifie qu'il est tout ce qu'il y a de plus classique. Online Program? Si, a la place du premier tiret, on essay on job, observait un d cela signifierait qu'en realite le fichier est un repertoire ( d irectory). Online Program? Si on essay on job, observait un l , alors le fichier serait un lien. Decomposons les 9 derniers caracteres en 3 segments: rw- , r-- et r-- Le premier revele les droits accordes au proprietaire du fichier Le deuxieme revele les droits accordes aux comptes qui ne sont pas celui du proprietaire et faisant partie du groupe auquel appartient le fichier Le troisieme revele les droits accordes aux autres comptes. Dans chaque segment le premier caractere correspond au droit de lecture (note r , penser a r ead), le deuxieme correspond au droit d'ecriture ( w rite) et le troisieme correspond au droit d'execution ( x , e x ecution).

Si a la place d'un des ces caracteres nous ne voyons qu'un tiret - , c'est que le droit correspondant n'est pas accorde. «-rw-r--r--», par exemple, exprime que tous les utilisateurs ont le droit de lire le fichier et que seul son proprietaire a le droit de le modifier. Online? Personne ne peut lancer l'execution de ce fichier puisque x n'apparait pas. Lorsque l'on traite de permissions la lettre u ( u ser) designe par convention le proprietaire du fichier, la lettre g le g roupe d'utilisateurs qui possede le fichier et la lettre o ( o thers) les autres utilisateurs. On Yourself? La lettre a ( a ll) fait reference a tous les utilisateurs. Online Writing? Cette notation est la plus facile a employer avec la commande de modification des permissions chmod . Seul le proprietaire du fichier (ainsi que root, qui dispose des pleins pouvoirs) a le pouvoir de modifier ces permissions. Etablissons par exemple que n'importe qui pourra lire et modifier un fichier nomme «linux-test»: chmod est la commande ch angeant les « mod es d'acces» a indique que tous ( a ll) les segments seront touches par la modification des permissions + signifie que l'on accorde une ou plusieurs permission(s) supplementaire(s), qui s'ajoute a celles qui sont deja etablies. As A Role Essay? Pour en retrancher il suffit d'utiliser en lieu et place le signe - . Online Program? Pour etablir les permissions independamment de ce qu'elles sont deja il suffit d'employer le signe = . Cover Deloitte? w signifie qu'il s'agit de la permission d'ecriture ( w rite) r signifie qu'il s'agit egalement de la permission de lecture ( r ead) Pour verifier que tout a bien fonctionne, faites un ls -l linux-test qui montrera une premiere colonne contenant -rw-rw-rw-

Pour supprimer les droits d'ecriture et de lecture accordes aux membres du groupe proprietaire du fichier ainsi qu'aux autres utilisateurs: chmod go-wr linux-test. dans go le g signifie que la commande affectera les permissions accordees au g roupe proprietaire, et le o qu'elle affectera egalement celles que l'on accorde aux «autres utilisateurs» (ceux qui ne sont ni le proprietaire, ni membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient, o ther users) wr signifie que la modification portera sur les droits d'ecriture ou de lecture. Writing? On aurait pu aussi ecrire la commande en mettant rw car l'ordre n'a pas d'importance. Si je souhaite que le proprietaire du fichier ne puisse pas executer un fichier: Pour definir d'un seul mouvement toutes les permissions d'un fichier, on to honor military, peut utiliser la syntaxe suivante (nous voulons que «linux-test» soit en lecture, en ecriture et en execution pour le proprietaire, que le groupe n'ait le droit que de le lire et executer, et que les autres utilisateurs ne disposent d'aucun droit): Pour oter le droit d'y ecrire a tous sauf au proprietaire: Lorsqu'un programme (quel qu'il soit, y compris le shell) tente d'acceder a un fichier, le noyau Unix sait pour quel utilisateur le programme fonctionne. Writing? Si le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur les droits accordes au proprietaire s'appliquent. Consulting Cover? Sinon, si le fichier appartient au groupe auquel l'utilisateur appartient, alors les droits accordes au groupe auquel le fichier appartient s'appliquent. Writing Program? Sinon les droits accordes aux autres utilisateurs seront respectes.

Exemple: Il n'est pas stupide d'interdire ainsi l'acces alors que l'utilisateur peut modifier les permissions du fichier (exemple: chmod u+r important.txt ) donc s'en accorder le droit, car cela constitue une sorte de garde-fou en cas d'erreur: un logiciel tentant d'acceder au contenu de ce fichier se le verra refuser et devra, pour obtenir satisfaction, modifier ses permissions, ce qui ne sera pas fait par hasard. Expression numerique des permissions (systeme octal) Il n'est pas necessaire d'assimiler cette section, elle n'est destinee qu'a eclairer des choses etranges parfois rencontrees, par exemple dans des documentations. Une autre facon de declarer (definir) les permissions existe. Northwestern University Dissertation? Elle repose sur une notation numerique remplacant, d'une part par un 0 (zero) chaque droit non accorde (ceux que ls revele au moyen d'un tiret) et, d'autre part, les autres (accordes!) par un 1 (chiffre un ). Pour chaque fichier les trois segments de permission (le premier decrit les droits du proprietaire, le deuxieme ceux des membres du groupe auquel appartient le fichier, le troisieme ceux de tous les autres comptes) rassemblent chacun 3 droits (r, w, x), il y a donc 2 3 donc 8 combinaisons possibles. Program? C'est pourquoi un systeme numerique de notation des permissions parfois adopte est dit octal. ' chmod digere cette notation. Essay On Job? C'est pourquoi chmod u=rwx,g=rw,o=r nom_de_fichier equivaut a chmod 764 nom_de_fichier car rwx (droits du proprietaire) correspond a 7, rw (droits des membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient) correspond a 6, et r (droits des autres comptes) correspond a 4. Program? Les chiffres doivent etre exprimes dans l'ordre, le premier pour le proprietaire, le deuxieme pour le groupe, le troisieme pour les autres. Effectuons a nouveau une copie du fichier «linux-test» (tapez au prealable cd pour vous retrouver dans votre repertoire personnel): cp linux-test linux-test2.

Pour supprimer le fichier linux-test2: rm linux-test2. Pour creer un repertoire, il suffit de taper la commande suivante (ici je cree dans «/home/delcros» un repertoire nomme personnel): mkdir personnel. Une option de mkdir est souvent utile: mkdir -p permet de creer une suite de repertoires. Supposons que je veuille creer dans mon repertoire /home/delcros la suite de repertoires suivante: doc/mygale/mail . School Papers? Je peux faire soit: mkdir doc , cd doc , mkdir mygale , cd mygale , mkdir mail. Ou bien utiliser l'option -p qui me permet de creer la suite de repertoires parents le plus simplement du monde: mkdir -p doc/mygale/mail. Deplacer ou renommer un fichier ( mv ) Pour comprendre la commande mv (penser a m o v e), voyons une suite de commandes qui effectuent des operations differentes: mv linux-test perso renomme le fichier linux-test en perso mv perso perso ecrase le fichier existant avec le fichier copie (dit «source»). mv personnel mon-repertoire : renomme le repertoire «personnel» en «mon-repertoire». mv perso /home/delcros/mon-repertoire : deplace le fichier «perso» dans le repertoire /home/delcros/mon-repertoire.

». Writing Program? -i demande pour chaque fichier et chaque repertoire s'il peut ou non deplacer fichiers et repertoires (penser a i nteractif) -u demande a mv de ne pas supprimer le fichier si sa date de modification est la meme ou est plus recente que son remplacant (penser a u pdate). Chercher un fichier ou repertoire ( find , locate , which ) Exemple simple: comment trouver un fichier portant un nom donne? find /home -name linux-test2. /home indique que nous voulons chercher a partir du repertoire «/home» -name indique que nous voulons trouver un fichier portant un nom donne. Pour chercher tous les fichiers commencant par linux-tes et definir a partir de quel repertoire on model essay, souhaite effectuer la recherche, on writing, utilise cette syntaxe: find /home/delcros -name 'linux-tes*' Le nombre d'options de find est impressionnant. School Express? En voici quelques-unes: Indique le type de fichier que l'on recherche.

Si vous cherchez seulement un repertoire vous pourrez utilisez cette option ainsi: find /usr -type d . Writing Program? . University? Ici, on program, demande a find de trouver des repertoires, et non des fichiers, grace a l'option -type d (penser a d irectory, qui signifie repertoire ) Execute une commande sur les fichiers trouves. La difference entre -exec et -ok est que la deuxieme vous demandera pour chaque fichier trouve si vous souhaitez reellement realiser l'operation: find -name 'linux-tes*' -print -ok rm ; ./linux-test. Avec l'option -exec la paire d'accolades indique l'endroit ou se trouvera, lors de l'invocation de la commande, le nom du fichier trouve. As A Model? L'anti-slash lie au point virgule forme une sequence d'echappemment. La commande locate a la meme mission que find mais explore une base de donnees qui contient la liste des fichiers et repertoires. Online? Cette base de donnees est en general automatiquement mise a jour quotidiennement par le systeme. La syntaxe est: locate nom_du_fichier . Bien que la commande locate soit tres interessante, elle ne possede pas la puissance des options de find . Sachin Model? De plus, si vous creez des fichiers pendant la journee elle ne trouvera pas avant mise a jour de sa base de donnees (le lendemain). La commande grep est un pivot des commandes UNIX. Writing? Elle cherche une expression reguliere dans un ou plusieurs fichiers. To Honor? Exemple: grep fouille linux-commande.html cherche les lignes contenant le mot fouille dans le fichier nomme «linux-commande.html». L'option -n produira le numero de chaque ligne contenant un resultat.

Une autre option tres utile est -l qui permet de n'afficher que les noms des fichiers contenant ce que l'on cherche. Compactage et decompactage ( compress , gzip , bzip2 , 7zip ) Il est obsolete, ne pas utiliser. Si vous rencontrez un fichier d'extension .Z vous pouvez le decompacter grace a gzip: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .Z . Efficace et tres repandu. Pour compacter un fichier: gzip nom_du_fichier , cela creera un fichier nom_du_fichier.gz et detruira l'original. Pour decompacter: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .gz , qui recreera l'original et supprimera la version compactee. Sa syntaxe et son comportement correspondent a ceux de gzip. Pour compacter un fichier: bzip2 nom_du_fichier. Pour decompacter: bzip2 -d nom_du_fichier .bz2. La commande tar gere des archives, contenant chacune au moins un repertoire ou fichier. Vous aurez souvent besoin de tar xzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz , qui decompacte une archive au format .tar.gz ou .tgz . L'extension .tar.gz indique que le fichier est une archive tar et qu'il est compacte ( .gz revele qu'il l'est avec gz ip).

Les arguments employes dans la commande precedente («xzf») peuvent etre ainsi compris: x (e x traction) declenche l'extraction de certains fichiers d'une archive (lorsque l'on ne specifie pas les noms des fichiers que l'on souhaite extraire de l'archive, tar les extrait tous) z compacte ou decompacte l'archive grace a g z ip f traite un f ichier-archive dont le nom suit (ici: « nom_du_fichier .tar.gz») Pour connaitre la liste des fichiers contenus dans une archive compactee on program, emploiera tar tvzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz. t dresse lis t e du contenu de l'archive v est le mode v erbeux, qui montre tout. Si je me trouve dans le repertoire ««/home/delcros/»» la commande suivante creera une archive du repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel»: tar cvjf personnel.bz2 personnel. c tar va c reer une archive j tar compacte l'archive grace a bzip2. Connaitre l'espace disque utilise ( df et du ) La commande df permet de connaitre l'emplacement de montage des systemes de fichiers accessibles sur votre systeme et leurs capacites restantes. La commande du permet de connaitre l'encombrement sur disque du repertoire specifie et ses sous-repertoires.

Controler les ressources utilisees par les processus ( top , ps , kill ) La commande top affiche en continu des informations decrivant l'activite du systeme. Essay On Job? Elle permet surtout de suivre les ressources que les processus utilisent (quantite de memoire, pourcentage de CPU. Online Writing Program? ). Vous pourrez utiliser l'option -d pour specifier des delais de rafraichissement (en secondes). Sous top il est possible d'expedier de maniere interactive un signal a un processus, par exemple afin de le stopper, en tapant k . top demande ensuite quel signal il doit envoyer et 15 (SIGTERM) est le signal par defaut qui met fin a un processus, 9 (SIGKILL) est beaucoup plus brutal et a eviter. Pour quitter top , appuyer simplement sur la touche q. La commande ps dresse liste des processus actifs: ps. Le PID est l'identificateur d'un processus, c'est un nombre.

Chaque processus est identifie dans le systeme par un nombre unique. Essay On Job? Le TTY indique a quel port de terminal est associe le processus. Program? STAT indique l'etat ( stat us) dans lequel se trouve le processus. Dans l'exemple, trois processus sont endormis (S comme s leep), et un autre en cours d'execution (R comme r un). Consulting Cover Letter? Ce dernier n'est autre que la commande ps que nous venons de lancer, qui se «voit elle-meme». Online? Le TIME indique le temps total durant lequel le processus profita du microprocesseur. Essay On Job? COMMAND precise, comme son nom l'indique, la commande qui crea le processus. Une simple commande ps n'indique pas tous les processus du systeme. Writing? Le simple fait de lancer ps nous a juste indique les processus associes a un terminal qui dependent de l'utilisateur courant.

En fait, il est tout a fait probable que d'autres processus non lies a un terminal soient actifs: ps -ax les revelera. Si en plus vous voulez connaitre les utilisateurs associes a chaque processus, il vous suffit d'utiliser l'option aux . Express? Vous verrez alors plusieurs colonnes s'ajouter, dont USER qui indique a quel utilisateur appartient le processus. Program? %CPU indique en pourcentage les ressources actuelles du microprocesseur utilisees par le processus. Papers Express? %MEM montre en pourcentage la proportion de memoire vive dans la memoire utilisee par le processus, elle-meme fournie dans la colonne RSS. Online Writing? START indique l'heure a laquelle le processus a ete lance. Cette commande permet d'afficher les processus sous forme d'arborescence, donc de voir leurs inter-dependances: pstree. On voit par exemple ici que j'utilise «Fvwmpager» qui a lui-meme ete lance par «fvwm». La commande kill permet d'expedier un signal a un processus. Sa syntaxe est la suivante: kill [options] PID. Elle est souvent utilisee afin d'interrompre un programme sans IHM ou recalcitrant. On Yourself For Interview? Si j'ai lance un programme donne, par exemple xeyes , un processus sera actif. Online Writing Program? Si je le lance deux fois, deux processus seront actifs, et ainsi de suite.

Pour demander a un processus de cesser de fonctionner (on parle de le «tuer»), je peux d'abord invoquer ps auxw pour connaitre son PID, si par exemple le PID est 592, le tuer en invoquant kill 592. La premiere colonne presente le PID et la derniere le nom du programme invoque. On Yourself? La seconde ligne, ici, correspond au grep invoque, qui se «voit ainsi lui-meme». Seul l'utilisateur auquel le processus appartient (ou root) peut le tuer. La commande killall tue un processus mais au lieu de fournir son PID vous indiquerez son nom (la commande qui le lanca). Online Program? Si plusieurs processus y correspondent vous tentez ainsi de tous les tuer, mieux vaut utiliser l'option -i (pour i nteractif) qui demande confirmation avant de tenter d'arreter un processus.

Un processus peut se trouver dans un etat ne permettant pas de lui demander de s'interrompre. For Interview? Tenter en ce cas de lui expedier le signal HUP puis INT en invoquant par exemple kill -HUP PID . Program? S'il fait la sourde oreille demander au noyau de le tuer sans condition en lui expediant KILL («KILL» est ici le libelle d'un signal). Essay On Job? Attention: le signal KILL ne laisse pas le processus ainsi condamne prendre des dispositions parfois souhaitables ou necessaires, par exemple fermer un fichier, donc peut endommager ou perdre des donnees voire causer des dysfonctionnements. Redirection (des entrees/sorties d'executables) Lorsque vous saisissez des donnees a mesure recues par un processus vous fournissez des elements a traiter, appeles entrees, grace au clavier. Program? L'activite des processus produit des sorties (resultats), le plus souvent par defaut affiches.

L'entree de donnees peut se faire par un canal autre que le clavier, en indiquant par exemple un fichier qui contient les donnees a traiter. Essays Military? Le canal de sortie peut lui aussi etre dirige ailleurs que vers l'ecran, par exemple vers un fichier dont on online writing program, pourra ensuite continuer a traiter le contenu. On peut egalement recevoir ou expedier des donnees a chacun des peripheriques connectes, auquel correspond un «fichier special» dans le repertoire «/dev». Le shell offre un moyen de gerer tout cela, en interconnectant a loisir ces canaux, grace aux redirections. Comment faire, par exemple, pour que la commande less , qui affiche le contenu d'un fichier, le place plutot dans un fichier? C'est le signe qui va nous permettre cela.

Dans un premier temps, je veux voir le contenu du fichier nomme «test»: less test . Essay For Interview? La commande less affiche son resultat vers la sortie standard qui est le terminal. Dans un deuxieme temps, je veux placer le fichier «test» dans un fichier «test2»: less test test2 . Online Writing Program? Ce n'est qu'une copie du fichier test en test2. School Papers? La commande cp permet aussi de le faire. Plusieurs types de redirections existent: nom_de_fichier redirige vers le fichier nomme ce que produit le programme. Online Writing? Exemple: ls ls.txt nom_de_fichier permet comme le signe de rediriger le canal de sortie standard vers le fichier nomme. Northwestern? Si ce dernier existe deja, ce qui provient du canal de sortie sera ajoute apres ce qui y existe deja alors qu'avec un simple le contenu existant serait remplace (ecrase) nom_de_fichier redirige le canal d'entree standard, qui devient le contenu du fichier nomme. Online Program? Exemple: less ls.txt . Tendulkar As A Model Essay? Cela revient apparemment a ce que montre less ls.txt mais est subtilement different car interdit a less d'acceder directement au fichier en demandant au shell d'en copier le contenu sur le canal d'entree standard de less , qui ne pourra savoir d'ou il vient nom_de_fichier redirige sortie standard et erreur standard vers un seul et meme fichier. Ce sont les formes les plus frequemment employees. Toutes ces formes sont des versions simplifiees.

Pour maitriser tout cela il faut savoir que l'entree standard dans un systeme Unix est le clavier, designe par le descripteur de fichier numerote 0. Writing? Par defaut le terminal est la sortie standard, ce descripteur de fichier est designe par le chiffre 1. Essay On Job? Il existe un troisieme descripteur de fichier classique qui est le canal de sortie des erreurs produites par l'execution d'une commande, designe par le chiffre 2. Online Writing Program? Dans les exemples suivant la lettre n remplace l'un de ces chiffres: n nom_de_fichier redirige ce qui sort via le descripteur n (vers le fichier nomme). Essay On Job? Par exemple, si vous souhaitez obtenir les erreurs standards (donc le canal 2) dans un fichier nomme monprogramme.err : nom_de_commande 2 monprogramme.err n nom_de_fichier declare le fichier nomme comme correspondant au descripteur n duplique la sortie standard vers le fichier correspondant au descripteur n n duplique l'entree standard depuis le fichier correspondant au descripteur n. A premiere vue, on writing, se demande bien a quoi servent certaines des redirections. School? On le decouvre en employant le shell. L'une des plus utiles redirections est 21 qui redirige le canal des erreurs vers la sortie standard. Online Program? Elle est tres appreciee des utilisateurs lorsqu'ils souhaitent conserver la liste des messages d'erreur produits par un programme: nom_du_programme 21 erreurs nom_du_programme .tmp. Les canaux sont autant de tuyaux vehiculant les donnees, que l'on peut assembler librement grace aux redirections fournies par le shell.

Cela mene a la plomberie. Interconnexion de commandes: les pipes. Le mot pipe designe la barre verticale (|) obtenue avec la combinaison de touches AltGr + 6 sur les claviers francais classiques, ou Altgr + 1 sur les claviers franco-belges. Un tube passe le resultat d'une commande a une autre, sans passer par une redirection qui impliquerait un fichier temporaire. Un exemple permettra de comprendre tout cela. Je veux savoir quels sont les processus bash qui fonctionnent sur le systeme, mais je veux que la commande ps aux ne me fournisse que les lignes qui contiennent le mot bash pour m'epargner de lire tout ce qu'elle produit. Avec ce que nous connaissons deja il nous faudrait une premiere commande visant a obtenir la liste des processus bash actifs et a la placer dans un fichier temporaire: ps aux temporaire.tmp . Essay On Job? Puis nous pourrions mobiliser grep: grep bash temporaire.tmp afin d'obtenir le resultat souhaite. Writing? Il ne resterait plus qu'a nettoyer: rm temporaire.tmp . Employer un tube realise l'equivalent en sollicitant moins le systeme, qui n'aura rien a stocker temporairement: ps aux | grep bash. On peut dire que l'on a lance un traitement qui connecte les deux commandes ( ps et grep ) entre elles, de sorte que ce que la premiere citee produit soit immediatement communique a l'autre. Essay On Job? Vous pouvez ainsi en connecter autant que vous voulez: commande1 | commande2 | commande3 . Online Program? | commandeN.

Si on northwestern dissertation, prend conscience de l'utilite des tubes, on writing, les utilise et on school papers express, finit par ne plus vouloir s'en passer. Un lien est un type special de fichier qui permet a plusieurs noms de fichiers de faire reference au meme contenu sur le disque. Online Writing? Ce sont des sortes de «synonymes», d'aliases. Un lien dur associe deux ou plusieurs fichiers a un meme espace sur le disque, en preservant toutefois leurs independances lors de modifications de leurs contenus. Exemple: creons un fichier (dont le contenu importe peu) nomme linux-test grace a echo toto linux-test. Puis creons un lien dur vers ce fichier: ln linux-test linux-test-lien-dur. Le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est cree dans le repertoire courant. Papers Express? Si vous faites un ls -l vous constaterez que «linux-test» et «linux-test-lien-dur» ont la meme taille. Online Program? Ils semblent independants mais en realite un seul contenu (commun aux deux) existe pour le moment.

Si le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est modifie, nous aurons automatiquement une modification du fichier «linux-test» (et vice-versa), car elle s'effectuera physiquement sur le disque dur a l'endroit stockant le contenu des deux fichiers. Si nous creons un lien symbolique : ln -s linux-test linux-test-lien-symb. ls -l montrera le nom du fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» suivi d'une fleche revelant qu'il pointe sur «linux-test». Dissertation? Toute reference au fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» impliquera en realite le fichier «linux-test». En resume un lien symbolique est un fichier de petite taille qui a une existence propre et contient le nom du fichier auquel il correspond. Dans le cas d'un lien dur , la suppression de l'un des deux fichiers n'affectera pas l'autre. Online? Dans le cas d'un lien symbolique, la suppression du fichier originel (la cible du lien) rendra le lien symbolique inutilisable car il ne correspondra plus a un fichier valide et sera donc dit casse (pendouillant). Les liens sont utiles si vous souhaitez qu'un fichier apparaisse dans plusieurs repertoires, ou sous un nom different. To Honor? Si le fichier est encombrant une copie par cp entrainerait un gachis alors qu'un lien permettra de reduire l'utilisation d'espace disque. Online Writing? Mieux: n'etablir que des liens (au lieu de copier) garantit que toute modification concernera toutes les «copies» dispersees.

Syntaxe: ln nom-fichier-source nom-fichier-lien. -s cree un lien symbolique. Essay On Job? Dans la plupart des cas c'est ce qui est adequat, le lien dur est en fait rarement employe. Online Writing? -b realise une sauvegarde d'un fichier existant et dont nous aurions utilise le nom, avant de l'ecraser. Essay On Yourself For Interview? -i demande a l'utilisateur, si le lien existe, s'il souhaite l'ecraser. Lorsque l'on utilise les memes commandes avec de nombreuses options fixes il est utile de remplacer le tout par un ordre tres court declare comme une sorte de synonyme. Program? Il est appele «alias». Les alias sont declares dans le fichier « /.bashrc»). Tendulkar Model? Voici un exemple classique de declaration d'alias: alias ll=ls -NlF --color=auto , qui cree une commande ll appelant ls avec des options ameliorant la presentation. La variable $* designe tous les parametres communiques lors de l'appel de l'alias:

Plutot que de saisir souvent tar -tvzf nom_de_fichier ou pourra ainsi preferer creer un alias: alias montar=tar -tvzf $* , puis employer montar nom_de_fichier. La commande unalias supprime de facon definitive un alias. Online? Son option -a (pour all ) commande suppression de tous les alias. Certains alias sont declares dans des fichiers executes par bash lors de son demarrage, par exemple « /.bashrc». To Honor? En ce cas il faut commenter la ligne definissant l'alias dans le dit fichier pour le supprimer definitivement, sinon il ne le sera que durant la session en cours.

La commande man est utile. Online? Lui fournir en argument le nom de la commande ou du logiciel sur lequel porte la question. For Interview? Exemple: man cp . Online Program? Pour quitter le man appuyer sur la touche q.

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17 Ways to Make Your Resume Fit On One Page. This post was originally published on FindSpark. Program! You may look at your resume and think that everything on it is too important to essay on yourself for interview, be left off. Online! But let's get real. You're looking for on yourself, an internship or entry-level job, which means you have just a few years experience. While we're all about making your experience relevant, there isn't a single recruiter out there who thinks it's ok to have a resume longer than one page for an internship or entry-level job. You may have plenty of online writing program experience for your level, but you don't have that much experience. Resumes longer than a page are only appropriate for those who have been in their industry, say, 10 years.

So how do you cut down your resume to something readable, while still getting across how awesome you are? These easy tips will help you easily achieve such a lofty goal. 1. Only talk about dissertation relevant experience. Even if you have a ton of internship experience, it probably doesn't all need to be on your resume. Read the job description carefully and highlight keywords and online, skills they're looking for. Then, look over essay on job, your experiences and only include the writing, ones that demonstrate your ability in those areas. If you've had similar roles at different companies, you probably had some similar tasks. That's great! It means you have lots of essay on job experience in those areas. However, recruiters do not need to read Strategized social media content for various clients or Wrote and distributed press releases two or three times. If you had the online writing program, same responsibilities at two different jobs, only mention the one where you had the best results.

3. Leave out References available upon as a essay, request. Many people will use an entire line (and probably a blank space above it) to write this phrase. If you're struggling to fit your resume to online program, a page, those two lines are valuable real estate. If an employer wants references, they'll request them. It's rare for an applicant not to have a single reference available, so don't waste precious resume space with this phrase. Many people choose to write their name across the top of their resume in 13940292 pt font. We get it -- it's dramatic, eye catching, etc., etc., but it's a total waste of space. It's plenty attention-grabbing to write your name in bold, maybe one or two font sizes larger than the rest of your resume. Recruiters know they can find your name at the top of the page, so you don't need to make it so obvious for them. 5. Essay On Job! Get rid of writing your objective.

We've heard plenty of essay for interview mixed feelings from recruiters on the objective. Some find it helpful, some say it's a waste of space. We happen to side with the latter. Let your experience show your objective. If your experience doesn't seem obviously relevant to the position, then use your bullet points to demonstrate how those roles apply. Review the writing, job description and essay for interview, reshape your bullets to show your relevant skills. Plus, your cover letter is the perfect place to elaborate on how your experience fits. A widow is one word that has it's own line. In resumes, this is often seen in the skills section, and program, it's a major waste of space. Try reformatting sections like that to make the most of your space.

For example, write your skills on one line and separate them with dots, slashes, or lines. If you do this, however, be careful when uploading to application systems that pull the content of your resume into deloitte, a text box. The system may mess up your formatting, so be sure to check it over and update it before submitting. 7. Leave out your high school. Very rarely is your high school going to writing program, be relevant to a position you're applying for.

Unless you went to a very specialized high school, or you know that the recruiter reviewing your application also went to northwestern university, your high school, there's no reason to include it. Your work experience and college education say a lot more about writing you than where you went to school when you were 16, so just leave this out. 8. Put information about sachin model essay each position on one line. You might like the way your resume looks when the company, duration of online writing program your position, location, and your title each have their own line. But if it's pushing your resume over a page, it's time to move things around. Play around with ways to fit this information on essays to honor, one or two lines. Doing this for each of your positions will save you a ton of space. 9. Format relevant leadership experience under work experience. Having a separate leadership experience section uses more space than necessary. Evaluate your leadership and see which roles are truly relevant to writing program, the position you're applying for.

Then, move the tendulkar model, most relevant ones into your work experience section. Program! Cutting out that header and express, selecting only the writing, roles that are actually relevant will free up some room on the page. It might seem scary to have tiny margins -- it's against everything you learned in school -- but it actually makes your resume look much more impressive. Try making your margins 0.5 and see how much space you suddenly have. On Yourself For Interview! You can also play around with spacing between bullet points and online program, sections. Single spacing your bullets but putting slightly larger spacing between sections will keep your resume readable without sucking up the school, space that double spacing does. Just based on the formatting - which is all you see at first glance - which of these is online writing, more likely to essay on job, catch your eye? Spacing can make a huge difference. 11. Put your contact information on one line.

The traditional address format is online writing program, not your friend when putting together your resume. Use the same trick we used earlier for putting your skills on one line, and essay on yourself, separate your contact information using dots, slashes, or lines. Online Writing Program! Just because 12 pt font was standard for your college essays doesn't mean the same goes for your resume. Play around with 11 or 11.5 pt font instead. Northwestern Dissertation! You'll find that it's readable and gives you more room to program, play with. 13.

Don't feel pressure to put three bullets. It may look nice to have at least three bullet points under each title you've held, but it's not necessary. If you didn't have three separate and relevant roles in each position, then you don't need three bullets. If two of your bullet points are similar, try combining them into consulting letter, one line. 14. Use bullet points that make you stand out. Forget the bullets that everyone in program, that sort of sachin role essay role performed.

Only include ones where you had great results (Increased ticket sales by 200%) or the context is impressive (Worked the door for a 500+ person event). Online Program! 15. Sachin Model! Only mention self-explanatory awards. Having awards on your resume is nice, unless you're using up all your space explaining what they're for. If the name of an award doesn't obviously explain what it's for, and online writing, you find yourself adding bullets under it to explain, then just leave it out altogether. 16. Leave off irrelevant experience (yes, again!).

Seriously. This one is essays to honor military, so important, it's worth repeating. Writing! If I'm considering you for an editorial internship, I don't need to know that you were a member of your school's ballroom dance club. Unless you can clearly show in essay, your bullets how the experience applies to online writing program, the role, don't include it. 17. Submit it as a PDF unless otherwise specified. Once you've made all these changes, save your resume as a PDF. Employers want to sachin as a role model, see PDF resumes 99% of the time, so unless the application specifically says to submit it as a Word Document, you should save it as a PDF. Nothing says careless like submitting a Word document that highlights typos, and you never know if the formatting will change on the recruiter's computer, making it look sloppy and possibly over one page. Submit a PDF so you know exactly what they'll see when they open it.

Remember, you can always add more to writing, your LinkedIn to cover additional experiences. Make sure you include your custom LinkedIn link in the contact section of essay your resume so employers can easily find out more about you.

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elderly abuse essays most prevalent in being solved due to the effects it has on the elderly and everybody who surround them. II.THE FOCUS OF THIS ARTICLE The population of elderly is growing and with that the need for long-term care facilities in which to place the elderly is program also growing. As stated one of the cover deloitte, most popular long-term care facilities within the United States are nursing homes. Due to contributing aggravating circumstances the elderly have become subject to abuse within some nursing homes. Abuse. Indias Elderly Face Growing Neglect Essay. children to court due to our old values and tradition. They will face the bad behavior of their children and tolerate it but feel shame to go to court. Anticipating the writing program, growing problem of old age abuse the essay on job, government has already sanctioned to open 600 elderly home through out the country. One thing we must keep in mind whatever the online program, government or the society try to accommodate this old age problem, providing all the facilities, it can not give the role essay, mental satisfaction which a senior citizen find from.

Aside from statutory definitions, researchers and clinicians generally define and writing categorize neglect into four broad areas: physical, emotional, educational, and letter deloitte medical. Physical neglect accounts for the majority of cases of maltreatment. Online? It is consulting cover deloitte estimated that 8 of every 1,000 children experience physical neglect (NCANDS, 1997). The definition includes the refusal of online or extreme delay in seeking necessary health care, child abandonment, inadequate supervision, rejection of a child leading to expulsion. Although elderly drivers may not be involved in risky behaviors such as speeding or drinking, they are more likely to be caught accidentally running a red light or turning on to oncoming traffic. (today CITE THIS) Drunk driving has been dealt with why not elderly driving.

A lot of school express people will attest that driving drunk and driving while elderly are two totally different situations. But in all reality they are both life threatening situations. The only difference is one is legal and the other is not. 2010) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) STDs are not only the problem of the youngsters. Elderly may actually have higher risk of getting STDs because of several reasons. Writing? Firstly, prolonged ignorance of essay sexual problems can lead to serious complications as well as STDs. Secondly, the thin vaginal tissues and decreased natural lubrication increase the risk of micro-tears which leading to STDs.

Thirdly, elderly are less likely to use condoms because contraception is not a concern anymore and they may. reduction in parent’s stress levels, therefore reducing the amount of child abuse and neglect. Article 2 Falconer, Clark, and Paris (2010) evaluated a research program used to prevent child abuse and neglect; their article is called Validity in online writing an evaluation of consulting cover letter deloitte Healthy Families Florida. Online Program? Health Families Florida is university a volunteer-run home visiting organization that helps out families assessed with high child abuse and online writing neglect. The subjects of this experiment were split up into three groups: the completers. Interview with Elderly Person Essay. the state based that perceive the sachin tendulkar role essay, concept of online writing program taking the slack of any funds or balances owed. Most elderly individuals receive the supplemental income (SSI) monthly that has to sachin role, be considered for the compensation of the agency base pay for the employees and staff. Business Model Business models are the presentation of the business idea focusing on the general purpose for the attraction of the online writing, elderly or senior citizen.

The business model mediates between the technical and economic domains. Legal and essay on yourself for interview Ethical Issues of Reporting Abuse in online Both Children and the Elderly. abuse and neglect against children. Sachin Tendulkar As A Role? These numbers only online program include those cases that are reported, it is unknown what the tendulkar as a role model, true numbers of cases each year. Many children are never brought to a medical facility for care or die before receiving any medical assistance for the injuries they receive. Reporting elderly abuse and neglect is typically more difficult for an attending physician. The abuse and/or neglect may be more varied than as in the cases of children. Elderly abuse and neglect is not just. spend over 40 hours per week in caring for their elderly family members (Kossek, Colquitt, Noe, 2001; Covinsky, et al, 2001). While reducing the hours that one works may decrease stress in the amount of time available for care, it increases the stress on the financial well-being of both caregiver and those who are cared for. In a survey conducted by HR Magazine (2000), participants admitted to being perceived by their employers as unreliable once elderly relatives moved in to be cared for.

Some have. Salutory Neglect in the American Colonies Essay. He claimed that “if no restrictions were placed on online program, the colonies, they would flourish.” Britain had quite a few reasons as to why they used salutary neglect, but there are three main ones. First, the colonies were a part of their mother country Britain, and therefore they were expected to do everything could to serve the mother country (Britain) through mercantilism. England just expected that since they were in northwestern dissertation charge of the colonies, that they would stay loyal to England even with less law enforcement. continues to worsen as time goes by. The noticeable problems that could affect driving become a problem around the age of 60 (Heiting). Loss of peripheral vision could contribute to not seeing what is beside you or behind you. This could cause an elderly person to change into writing program another lane and a car be in school papers express their blind spot.

Losing the ability to distinguish colors could cause a senior to run a red light and hit another person that has the right away. The loss of vision would be devastating to one’s. Essay about Child Abuse and Neglect. children receive poorer quality parenting than non maltreated children. Online Writing Program? There are other factors relating to poverty associated with child abuse and neglect. Stress and economic hardship resulting from unemployment have been linked to child maltreatment. “Parenting characteristics potentially mediate the relationship between poverty and child neglect.

Past research on poverty and parenting suggests that economic stress is linked to more hostile parenting.” (Slack, Holl, McDaniel, Yoo Bolger, 2004) Aging: The Growing Population of Elderly Essay. The care needed to assist the individual with DD may require physical abilities that the elderly parent is essay no longer capable of performing. In scenarios such as this, the physical deficit are felt by both the “normal” aging individual and by online, the aging individual with DD. However, there are areas of strength that should be considered regarding the subgroup and northwestern dissertation those envolved within the group. For instance, there is writing program a paradigm shift in which social workers have a proclivity toward commuity support. Epidemiology in the Elderly with Heart Disease Essays. is the express, leading killer in the elderly. Men are higher at risk for heart disease than women during middle age, women’s risk increases after menopause leading to online writing program, equality in risk. Aortic valve disease is the most common heart valve disease in the elderly.

The aortic valve allows blood to pump form the left ventricle to the rest of the body. Aortic sclerosis is the process of northwestern university thickening and stiffening in this valve. This disease affects about program, one third of all elderly people. Heart rhythm and essay electrical. Negarive Impact of Emotional Child Neglect Essay examples. story having a different situation but leading to the same outcome. Child neglect can often be misguided with child abuse but the two have different consequences.

It is possible that child abuse can lead to program, child neglect and vice versa, but one has to mainly focus on military, the effects child neglect causes. In Working Toward a Conceptual Definition Of Child Neglect, Connie Tang points out, “Even when the consequence of child neglect is not fatal, neglected children often exhibit developmental difficulties. Physical Abuse and Neglect on Children Essay. parents or caregivers more than the non-maltreated children. Online Program? The authors supported this argument by showing some examples and studies of consulting cover children who experienced abuse at a very early stage. They indicate that “children who experience early emotional neglect seem to particularly at risk of attachment problems; whereas 57 % of the emotionally neglected children participating in online program the Minnesota mother-child project were securely attached at essays to honor, 12 months of age, at 18 months of age the classifications of writing these. Essay on Elderly Lesbians and Breast Cancer. Lesbians are four times less likely than heterosexual women to have had a mammogram. Papers? Running Head: ELDERLY LESBIANS AND BREAST CANCER 3 Some lesbians are also at increased risk for breast cancer related to higher alcohol intake and online writing nulliparity (Barnes, 2012).

Age-related changes among lesbians In aging women, frequency of ovulation diminishes and menstrual cycles become shorter and irregular. Hormonal changes also occur, as post-menopausal women produce approximately 90% less estrogen (Miller. Nursing Homes are a Haven for the Elderly Essay. removes a great stress from the family of an elderly person who can no longer care for him or herself. The facility helps residents with their prescriptions and medicines. Nursing homes are usually located near hospitals to tendulkar model essay, ensure quick treatment. And in case of an emergency, trained professionals are on site. What a multipurpose establishment! Security, entertainment, and health care. Online Writing? These days, there is no better place for our elderly.

It is obviously the best choice for those senior. Neglect and Decay in Joyce Carol Oates#x27; Haunted Essay. caved in from neglect, paralleling Melissa’s insanity in the murder of essays to honor Mary Lou. Within the physical setting of the story, Oates reveals the unavoidable process of decay in abandonment. Writing? Though Oates illustrates the physical aspect of decomposition in “Haunted,” she also describes the emotional and essay on job mental corrosion in Melissa, revealing throughout the writing program, story psychological aspect of decay. Melissa’s twisted relationship with Mary Lou results in extreme pain and on yourself feeling of online writing program neglect for her. Oates. Essay on Putting Elderly Parents in Anursing Home. law answers website, 2008) ] Wow, now can you just see their life saving dwindling.

I can say after being a nursing assistant employed in the nursing home setting for seventeen years now. That I can tell you I’ve heard it endless times form my elderly residents in the nursing home, how they worked hard all their life and for what? To live out school papers their golden years watching everything they worked for go to their care. Needless to say it’s heartbreaking for those who have to watch it and those experiencing. Fall Prevention on online, Elderly Patients in a Surgical Ward Essay. not just for the elderly but for patients in tendulkar model essay general, Sensor alarm are available commercially such device will sound if the patient tried to move hazily and the ward are reminded for their attention, Use of Hip protector for patients who cannot walk may allow support and mobility. Actually all this equipment should be checked regularly even before operation or surgery may occur.

In KDH hospital they have identified the following intervention to reduce the risk of falling of elderly patients in a. How Does Animal Neglect Affect the Community? Essay. shifting animals such as cats and dogs to alternate kennels in order to give them more space and to writing, provide more space for incoming animals. During this I was able to observe animals that were suffering from cover letter deloitte all kinds of different disabilities due to neglect such as missing limbs, so scrawny you could see the bones and a few with either a missing eye or blind in both of them. Writing Program? I asked what he/she thought had happened to these animals and the response was that these animals were almost all street rescues. How does neglect during infancy affect cognitive development in young children? mothers are most likely to to honor, neglect their children. Other risk factors include environmental influences, like living in poverty or lack of online writing program social support, family influences, like lack of communication or family stress and influences from the child, such as, age or special needs (DiPanfilis, D., 2006). Does neglect in infancy lead to deficits in cognitive functioning?

Several studies indicate that maltreatment during infancy does affect cognitive development. Research on neglect, specifically, during. have any of the diseases or downfalls discussed above in the background portion of this piece (CNN). All of these above incidents and accidents could be prevented if the essay on job, right actions take place. But so far some attempts have been unsuccessful.

Elderly citizens could help prevent these accidents in several ways. If they were to regularly have a physical that consisted of more than just simply checking vision and online hearing we could reduce the papers, amount of fatal crashes by writing program, taking drivers off the road that. Hemispatial Neglect Research Review Essay. For this, several hemispatial neglect patients took an MRI, NIHSS test, and hemispatial neglect test on the first day. Tendulkar As A Essay? Hillis, Wityk, Barker, et al found that the NIHSS test was not a good indicator for the stroke and that hemispatial neglect would be a better indicator for online writing the stroke. This indicates a better way to essay on job, measure nondominant ischemic stroke6. 4. Hemispatial Neglect between Different Genders Hemispatial neglect was once thought to be more prevalent in men because men and women have.

Although I carry a strong opinion, however I do not agree on removing the license of the elderly based on their age, but on their capability to pass the eyesight and physical ability test on writing, a yearly base. It has been proven that these driven tests are legit. School Express? “According to a 2004 study in online program the Journal of the American Medical Association found that requiring people to essay on job, show up for license renewal helps reduce crash rates. Program? Researchers say those who are unfit to drive decide not to seek a new license. Interaction Design for Elderly Essay. focused most on a young user like children and teenage and rarely bothers of the elderly. Since most of the essay on job, elderly are particularly not IT literate, it is a big responsibility or can be considered as a big challenge to the industry to produce an elderly friendly design. Writing Program? Recently, a lot of countries like Japan, USA and including few European states, the essays to honor military, USA, and Japan, are aging; both the figure and the proportion of elderly citizens are mounting.

To create a consistent and online writing program comprehensive. for law abiding citizens of any age to get a job, so the releasing more jobless individuals is an added burden to communities. The families who these prisoners come home also to face the added financial burden of having to care and provide for the elderly or sick relative. Essays Military? More government funds would then have to program, allocate to essay, these communities help with the added costs of housing and the medical care of these released prisoners. Milwaukee, for example, is recognized as a city suffering from poverty. Essay on Technology for the Elderly with Dementia. They mentioned that employers are less interested to choose a disabled person over a non-disabled person when looking for jobs. This results in the two fold multiplication of unemployment rates for disabled people.

In Ireland in writing program the recent years, the relationship between disability and poverty has been correlated negatively (Gannon and Nolan, 2006). According to the analysis carried out in 2003 on illness, disability and social inclusion throughout Europe, Ireland was included concerning these. So at the end of it all, thousands of animals could be dying at the expense of to honor military nothing, because we will never know how the product will really react to humans (about my planet). Online? Animal slaughtering has been another big topic of debate. Many will argue that people need to eat, and animals are a good source of food, especially protein. Yes we can eat meat, but the means of consulting deloitte going about getting the meat does not need to be so callous. There are many methods in online which to dissertation, kill an animal, Electrical stunning. It seems to get worse every year. Yet it never fails to astonish us when we hear or read about online writing, terrible mistreatment of essay on yourself for interview children around the country. If you tried to understand every single incident, you would probably get really depressed, and lose your humanity. For that reason alone, we respect the men and women who work in the field of social work, first responders, and hospital staff, who see these terrible cases first hand.

So how about the online writing, children? Do they bounce back? The survivors of these. Stereotypes and the Elderly Essay. Society characterizes older people as helpless and letter unable to make decisions for themselves anymore. While with the event of some extreme cases, such as with dementia or Alzheimer’s, this can hold some truth. As a result, this comparison can be very insulting with most seniors. Online Writing Program? They are seen as not being able to make decisions for themselves and therefore need to be taken care of. Sachin Tendulkar As A Role Model? I feel as though if I were to be cut out of the decision making process, I would feel alienated and disrespected. Growing.

The Neglect of the Native American Indian Essay. They talked about the hardships of the Indians, the wars they were in, how those wars were started, and how the tribes in those wars have been mistreated. Television documentaries and movies also contain valuable information about this topic. Although they are not always 100% factual, they paint a picture of writing past Indian life while they entertain you. Personally, I become bored easily when reading historical material, so being able to visually see what these acts of mistreatment looked like on a screen. Essay on Promoting Health for the Elderly. Commonly people who availed the essays, Medicaid are those who have heart diseases, chronic lung disease, and online program hypertension. (Novak, 2012) In Timonen (2008) statement, care is related to both mental and social care. The care denotes the assistance of northwestern university dissertation other person in order for the senior citizen to have good welfare.

Long term care includes light touch services or purely social aspects such as companionships. It is more helpful for senior citizens if social services are often given to them; it eases their. Essay Social Media and online the Elderly. For instance, some studies have found that using Facebook increases weak social ties at as a, the expense of stronger ties, while other studies have found that that does not occur. The studies which found no effect also found a relationship between the quality of online writing in-person friendships and the use of instant messaging on social networking sites. Additionally, other differences were seen among users of to honor social media. For instance, for those adopters of social networking who had high social circles, their. Since the online writing, cloning of the sheep Dolly, there has been much debate over school, whether or not human should be cloned.

Many people believe that cloning is a violation of the natural order of things and that all research should be banned. Others feel that this is a natural progression of science and human evolution and that research in the area of writing human cloning should be a priority. Human cloning should and ought to be banned because it is unethical and it is a deviation from the natural way of military life. And it. Child Abuse and Neglect Essay example. (Crosson-Tower, 2002; Williams, 2009) Often parents use physical punishments to correct unwanted behavior, however, sometimes those punishments are seen by others as abuse.

One form of punishment that is writing program often seen as abuse is corporal punishment. Corporal punishment includes but is not limited to pulling ears and hair, slapping, smacking, spanking, and shaking. School Papers? On February 22, 2007, a legislation to ban the writing, use of corporal punishment with children less than four years of age was introduced, sparking. Essay about Sexual Behavior in the Elderly. They said loss of a partner is another reason sexual urge has diminished in the old age. Older men talked also of deteriorating health as a reason for low sexual desire. The study also indicated that despite advanced age, a number of seniors still wanted to experience sex once a week or even daily.

In the study revealed that elders in their fifties were active, accounting for about ninety percent of the respondents. Women showed no interest in consulting cover behaviors, for online example, holding hands. Lack of letter deloitte Exercise May Cause Falls in the Elderly Essay. FALLS IN THE ELDERLY 4 though it had been correctly applied she was mobile enough to slip through the online, restraint till it compressed her neck, and then unable to extricate herself from it, so that she died of strangulation (Berzlanovich, Schopfer, Keil, 2012). An important point is papers express that the exercise program, although without a heavy load, is online writing effective for school papers express prevention of writing falls among frail elderly persons, so. Essay on Elder Abuse and Neglect in Latino Families. Rigid socialization of northwestern dissertation Latino women to be subservient and tolerant to program, their husbands and men to be powerful and dominant over women creates a toxic atmosphere for wives experiencing abuse. Because their culture condemns martial separation, they are likely to allow the mistreatment to continue. School Papers? Other factors such as Latino distrust of institutions, cultural emphasis on family and the fact that elders are often socially isolated could also keep Latina elders from seeking help in these situations. Challenge of Taking Care Elderly Loved One Essay. In addition to the fact she could not live alone and the medical issues, she had a problem with managing her money.

My mother would often miss paying her bills and get late charges. Online Program? She misplaced her checks and money. She would also give it away to my siblings when they would ask her for money. I also had offered to set up her bills online and pay them monthly although, she refused. When she came to live with me finally, anything that came on the television especially the religious evangelist. Examining the Western Culture#x27;s View of the Elderly Essay. The expression of papers express her loneliness was unlike any type I had experienced before. Writing? Many times, I had friends tell me how lonely they were. Not to discount their feelings, but many of them still had family they could talk to and friends to spend time with. Agnes' family never came to visit her, nor any friends to keep her company.

She invited me to role essay, come an join her anytime to sit with her in her room and just watch TV. I asked her if she would like me to online writing, stay, and she said yes. I sat down, and she said. Essay on Perceptions of Death among Elderly Patients. Many differing scientific approaches have been applied to the concept. For example, brain death, as it is defined by medical science, describes death as the cessation of brain activity (Venes et al., 2001). The most difficult challenge of defining death is differentiating it from life. It would seem that death would refer to the moment that life ends. Determining when death has occurred requires describing precise conceptual boarders between life and death.

There are no definitive agreements about. How the essays, physical effects of program ageing affect an elderlys self confidence. Seeing friends being able to to honor military, go out and play activities could make them feel down in the dumps and left out. I have seen this happen to my great nan. She wasn't capable of program being able to get up and walk around, let alone go out to play activities. She lived with her friend who was able to get up and essay on job about which i noticed from the program, look in her eyes that it did upset her that she couldn't do things that others around her could. Essay On Yourself For Interview? In a way she seemed to be embarassed at the fact she couldn't. It seemed. Essay Medication Compliance in program Elderly. What the agreements would stand for is a “need to know basis,” meaning that the patients information is strictly confidential and those who are on a need to know basis would have access to the patients information.

The liability agreement is so that the essays to honor military, patient could not sue the pharmaceutical company or the medical facility where they are being treated if a complaint involved only the videotelephone reminder program. Once the writing program, videotelephone reminder program is essay implemented the pharmaceutical company. What Are the online writing, Risks of an Elderly Man with Parkinson#x27;s Disease Developing Further Complications After Getting an Electrode Implant Compared to northwestern, an Elderly Man with Parkinson#x27;s Disease Without an Electrode Implant? Relatives and medical examiners did notice a change in impulsiveness of the PD patients. During the writing, self examination of the patients, they did not notice a change in their personalities. There was also a large change is premeditation of movements.

Family members also noted that the patients were less thoughtful and didn't think of the repercussions of their actions. It is thought that this can vary with individual patients. Pham stated: To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply multiple. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome. In the ACE study, the letter deloitte, presence of one or more of these childhood adverse events was associated with smoking, obesity, depression, a history of online writing suicide attempt, current substance abuse and addiction, risky sexual behavior, sexually transmitted diseases, heart disease, cancer, emphysema, and diabetes. The individual cost of child complex trauma cannot be assessed, but the cost per year has been estimated at 94 billion dollars per year (Cook, Blaustein, Spinazzola van der Kolk, 2003).

Complex. matter and what they think or say will no longer be considered. But the northwestern university dissertation, elderly do have feelings and thoughts, and when the online writing, government enforces laws, the deloitte, elderly should feel better about receiving care. Writing? It all begins with the patients though; most of the seniors who currently receive care receive abuse as well, and they need to know how to make it stop. One Article Reports: “For every reported incident of domestic elder abuse or neglect, approximately five go unreported, according to the Administration. that are defined within the context. For example, elder abuse is divided into five forms of abuse: psychological, physical, sexual, neglect and financial abuse(cite).Furthermore, one also has to understand how each type of abuse effects the school papers express, elderly and writing program the main root cause of it. In order to essay on job, examine this, we must carefully analyze society’s attitudes towards the elderly. For example, elder abuse can be determined through the online writing program, lens of ageism which explains the reason why age is an important cultural dimension. CAGE: A Screening Technique to Detect Alcohol Dependence Essay. the use of consulting deloitte alcohol, as well as drugs, among elderly citizens.

Drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly tends to pass under the online program, radar because clinicians do not routinely ask older patients about substance use behaviors. On Yourself? Also, non-specific symptoms of abuse or dependence, such as self-neglect, cognitive deficits, and online sleep disturbance, may be misdiagnosed as dementia or depression. Contrary to popular belief, the rates of drug and alcohol abuse among elderly people are gradually increasing. Estimates.

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Here Are The Most Ridiculous Laws In Every State. This iconic (read: horrifying) scene in writing last year's megahit Wolf of Wall Street shows Jordan Belfort and company tossing a little person at a Velcro-covered target. Fortunately for Leo's character, they weren't in the Sunshine State. In Florida, owners of commercial establishments (where alcohol is sold) may be fined up to $1,000 if they participate in or permit any contest of dwarf-tossing. The law makes sense, but the essay on job, fact that the state has to spell it out might make you scratch your head. We've all heard urban legends and rumors about writing program, absurd laws in sachin as a America, but you can't believe everything you read on online writing the Internet. School Express! Sites like €” which rarely link to states' current statutes or may misinterpret them €” only writing program perpetuate the myths. We decided to university dissertation undertake some legal legwork and identify the online writing program, strangest statute still on the books in papers express every state. Alabama residents commit unlawful bear exploitation if they purchase, possess, or train a bear for the purpose of bear wrestling. Program! It's a Class B felony, punishable by a fine, confiscation of the bear, and restitution to a humane society for animals.

Apparently, man versus bear wrestling took hold in essays military the early 1800s €” a byproduct of Greco-Roman displays of masculinity. A person cannot get drunk in online writing a bar and remain on the premises. (Kind of papers defeats the purpose of program a bar, doesn't it?) The statute states an intoxicated person may not knowingly enter or camp out where alcohol is sold €” so maybe if you're inebriated enough, you can get away with it. In 2012, police in on yourself for interview Alaska reportedly started aggressively enforcing the law, sending plainclothes officers to bars to writing program identify and arrest suspects. No one can feed garbage to letter pigs without first obtaining a permit, which requires annual renewal. You can, however, swap out the trough for a waste basket if the swine are raised for your own consumption. A pinball machine can't give more than 25 free games to a player who continues to win. Online Program! Some restaurant-gaming chains €” like Chuck E. Cheese €” are exempt from sachin role model, certain anti-gambling statutes because they award free games, toys, and program, novelties that don't constitute an exchange of consulting cover letter valuable things. A frog that dies during a frog-jumping contest can't be eaten. This health code likely made its way into the books to protect competitors at the Calaveras County Fair and Frog Jumping Jubilee, an 80-year-old tradition in the gold mining town of writing program Angels Camp. Each year, tourists and experienced jockeys compete to see how far their bullfrogs can leap. You have to to honor get a permit to modify the weather.

Weather modification is not only possible, but it's actually a lucrative business. In select states, it's legal to perform activities that produce artificial changes in online writing program the composition or behavior of the essays military, atmosphere €” such as burning silver iodide, which carries into online, the clouds to stimulate rain. The permit requirement ensures minimal harm to the land and maximum benefit to the people. In Connecticut, letting other people copy your academic work isn't just a no-no in school €” it's also illegal. Essays To Honor Military! The general statutes explicitly prohibit selling a term paper, essay, dissertation, etc . at any education facility supervised by the state. The punishment isn't specified, but it's probably more than detention. It's a Class B misdemeanor to program sell, barter, or offer the fur of a domestic dog or cat. Any products made in deloitte whole or in part from the online writing, hair, say a coat of 101 Dalmatians, also result in a fine of $2,500 and as a model essay, a ban on owning a dog or cat for 15 years after conviction. Grumpy cat is still grumpy though. Owners of commercial establishments where alcohol is sold may be fined up to $1,000 if they participate in online writing or permit any contest of dwarf-tossing.

In 1989, Florida outlawed this Australian bar fad of tossing little people when it caught on in southern parts of the state. A Florida state legislator tried to essays to honor military repeal the law in 2011 but wasn't successful. Those engaging in llama-related activities, such as riding, training, or goofing around at online writing program, a county fair or performance, are accountable for any and all personal injuries incurred. Northwestern University Dissertation! The llama professional is online writing program immune from liability for harm or death with few exceptions. Injured participants have a shot in court if they were just spectating from an authorized area.

The urban beautification initiative dates back to 1927, when an all-white circle of Hawaii's power wives created the Outdoor Circle Club and lobbied for the ban. Today, the group exists as a watchdog on ever-threatening, jumbo-size advertisements. Cannibalism is strictly prohibited and punishable by up to 14 years in prison in Idaho. But it's okay to willfully ingest the flesh or blood of a human being in life-or-death situations, if it's the only apparent means or survival. The only state to declare cannibalism illegal, Idaho erected the ban in 1990 as a reaction to spreading fear that eating humans would pop-up in ritualized practices. Urban legend says it's a crime to possess more than $600 worth of salamanders. (That's 75-plus salamanders, according to northwestern dissertation fair market value.) In reality, it's illegal to online writing program keep any variety of essay on yourself for interview aquatic life in excess of $600 in Illinois if it was captured or killed in violation of the online writing program, state's law.

Liquor stores can't sell cooled water or soda, but they can sell uncooled soda. Consulting Cover Letter! In fact, they can't sell milk either. The code specifically lists what types of beverages (and at what temperatures) permit-holding businesses can have in stock. Anyone trying to pass off margarine (or oleo or oleomargarine) as real butter is guilty of online writing a misdemeanor. The great butter vs. margarine battle rages on though, so we understand Iowa's desire for transparency.

Liquor may not be sold by the glass in 26 counties. In Kansas €” a state that outlawed alcohol sales until 1948, a full 15 years after Congress repealed Prohibition €” individual counties may, by resolution or petition, prohibit the sale of booze in dissertation public places where 30% or less of their gross comes from the sale of food. There's no place like home to get tipsy. Every legislator, public officer, and lawyer must take an oath stating that they have not fought a duel with deadly weapons. When it entered the program, Kentucky Constitution in 1849, the law was meant to deter men who might aspire to northwestern university dissertation public office from participating in online writing program the once-rampant Southern tradition.

Some evidence suggests, however, that trial-by-combat might technically be legal on a federal level even today. According to the public health and safety codes, this Creole stir-fry, made with rice, meat, and vegetables, may be prepared for essay on yourself public consumption in online writing program the open, using iron pots and wood fires. An early version of the essay on job, chance game of Bingo, called Beano, is legally regulated in this New England state. The legal rules dictate that a person conducting or assisting in the conduct of the game may assist players by playing their cards while they take a restroom break. This allowance does not apply in high-stakes Beano, which apparently, is also a thing. A person who sells non-latex condoms by online program, means of a vending machine is guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to a fine up to $1,000. Whether you're in Gillette Stadium or Fenway Park, you'll probably never hear just half of the deloitte, Star Spangled Banner. Online Program! Singing or playing the national anthem other than as a whole and separate composition is punishable by a fine no more than $100. You'll pay the consulting cover, same price for dancing (at all) to it, too.

A statute on the books since 1931 makes adultery a felony €” punishable by a maximum of four years in prison and a $5,000 fine. In 2012, Portage police Sgt. Writing! James Myers was fired for essay on job on-the-job misconduct, including allegedly cheating on his wife and furthering a relationship with a local waitress using a city-issued cellphone and email account while on the clock. He was neither fined nor imprisoned, suggesting Michigan doesn't take the law too seriously. In Minnesota, any game in which participants attempt to capture a greased or oiled pig is illegal. The same laws also prohibits turkey scrambles. Writing Program! Let's assume legislators were more concerned with animal cruelty than human stupidity. Using profanity in front of essay on job two or more persons in a public place might land you in the county jail for up to 30 days. Or you could pay a hefty fine to the state swear jar, no more than $100. While this law appears to writing program be a direct assault on the First Amendment, it's thought to role have been conceived in writing order to protect the public.

If any bull or ram over consulting deloitte the age of 1 year old runs rampant for more than three days, any person may castrate the animal without assuming liability for damage. Three town residents must attest in writing that the animal is loose, and its owner must fail to writing program reclaim or confine the beast after notice is given. Guiding sheep onto a railroad track with intent to injure the train, not the sheep, can stick you with a whopping fine up to $50,000 and a stay at the state prison not exceeding five years. The locomotive corporation or owners of the railroad must be harmed, in addition to Dolly and friends. No person who is afflicted with a venereal disease can marry. Essay On Job! While it's nearly impossible to enforce, this health code could prevent marital bliss for online writing more than 8,000 Nebraskans who reported cases of chlamydia or gonorrhea to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. In the only state where prostitution won't get you arrested in most counties, using x-rays to determine shoe size could.

That may sound strange, but a device with that exact purpose actually exists: a shoe-fitting fluoroscope also known as a pedoscope or foot-o-scope. With the university, knowledge that exposure to radiation harms people in awful ways, this practice went by the wayside. But at online writing program, one point, the state had to spell it out. Anyone who didn't get the essay on yourself, message is guilty of a misdemeanor. As of 1973, it's illegal to carry away or collect seaweed at online writing, night. Breaking most of the general provisions about fish and papers, game will land you a violation €” with an unspecified punishment. Seaweed is routinely used in online fertilizer and animal feed. It's also considered a good source of alginate, which gives liquid solutions a thicker texture (think Jell-O).

Just last year, Maine and its fisherman grappled over a similar set of regulations. In the Garden State, anyone wearing a body vest a.k.a. bullet-proof armor while committing murder, manslaughter, robbery, sexual assault, etc. is guilty of another crime. And attempting to flee while wearing this unlawful piece of clothing, after committing the express, initial act, bumps up the crime from writing, third-degree to second- or first-degree. As stated in the New Mexico Constitution, idiots can't vote in state elections. Traditionally, the word idiot has referred to someone (rather politically incorrectly) mentally disabled or with an IQ below 30. But read the comments section on university any website, and you'll see the term is more loosely applied now. The vagueness in these statutes could cause problems someday. Currently, Kentucky, Mississippi, and program, Ohio uphold the essay, same idea in their constitutions. Even if you have a mental disability though, if you understand what voting means, federal law protects your right to cast a ballot, according to writing program the National Alliance on Mental Illness. It's unlawful for three or more people wearing masks to cover letter gather in public for a demonstration or a march. Originally enacted in 1845, it entered the books when local tenant farmers disguised themselves as Native American and online writing, attacked and killed their landlords.

The law includes exceptions for masquerade parties and similar events. For certain organizations in North Carolina, bingo games can last only as a role model up to program five hours. The state's administrative code even contains a few more explicit restrictions on for interview the game: only one in writing program a 48-hour period and no more than a $500 prize. Our best guess as to the motivation behind this law? Retirement homes needed to crack down on geriatric bingo sharks. All members of North Dakota's Dry Pea and Lentil Council must be citizens. The organization was created in northwestern 1997 to to promote the dry pea, lentil, chickpeas, lupins, and fava bean industries, and the legislature clearly didn't want someone with just a green card wielding all that power.

A national version of the Dry Pea and Lentil Council also exists. But North Dakota obviously decided it needed a more state-focused group. Every operator of an underground coal mine must provide adequate supply of toilet paper with each toilet. This law clearly makes sense, but the fact that it exists at all raises some questions about writing program, basic human decency.. According to essay on job the most recently updated version of the online writing, Oklahoma statutes in 2013, McCarthyism is alive and well. We quote: It is here now found and declared to be a fact that there exists an International Communist conspiracy which is committed to the overthrow of the government of the United States and of the essay for interview, several states, including that of the State of Oklahoma, by online writing, force or violence . In Oregon, leaving a container of urine or fecal matter on the side of the road is a Class A misdemeanor. And you can't throw it from the vehicle either.

Again, we understand the logic. But who tried to leave urine or excrement on the side of the road in the first place? Human trafficking in general violates too many international laws to count. But Pennsylvania felt the need to specify that you can't barter a baby. But if you do find yourself swapping goods or services for your precious bundle, it's only a misdemeanor, which is usually punished less harshly than felonies. Rhode Islanders who bite off someone else's limb will face no more than 20 years in northwestern dissertation prison (but no less than one) €” but only if they maimed the writing program, victim on purpose. If you fall and your teeth accidentally dismember somebody, you will have a legitimate defense. Don't worry.. A male over the age of 16 can't seduce a woman by falsely promising to consulting cover deloitte marry her. Writing! If found guilty, he'll be charged with a misdemeanor, fined at the court's discretion, and/or imprisoned for model no longer than one year €” with a decent number of exceptions.

For example, if the woman was already married or considered lewd or unchaste (which the law doesn't define), the court can't convict the male of the misdemeanor. The offender will also walk if no one can corroborate the woman's testimony. And no law exists with the gender roles reversed. Agricultural producers may set off fireworks and other explosives to safeguard their sunflower crops. Crows and other birds can wreak havoc on a blossoming field, and pyrotechnics are farmers' first defense €” so long as they're not used within 600 feet of an occupied home, church, or schoolhouse. If you do, the fish and online writing program, wildlife commission will charge you with a Class C misdemeanor (punishable by fine only.) White deer, as people often call these mammalian anomalies, are extremely rare. Only about one in every 30,000 deer is born albino. Some even consider the animal the modern unicorn and believe it has magical powers. In Texas, people wishing to run for office must acknowledge the Supreme Being. If not, they could be subjected to essay on job religious tests.

In other words: No atheists allowed. In Utah, no one may hurl a missile at a bus or bus terminal €” except elected or appointed peace officers or commercial security personnel. Writing! Anyone outside those positions is guilty of a third-degree felony. The Vermont legislature created a law that prohibits outlawing clotheslines €” proof that governments don't always abuse their powers. The same statute also states that no law can ban solar collectors, listing both items as energy devices based on cover renewable resources. Except for writing program married couples, sex is deloitte completely banned in Virginia. Online Program! No matter your age or your partner's, breaking this law results in a Class 4 misdemeanor. Doors to nearly all public buildings must open outwardly. Anyone who violates this will face a misdemeanor charge.

The statute does explain why though: to avoid congestion during emergencies, like fires. Don't attempt to substitute a hunting dog for a ferret in West Virginia. Anyone who hunts, catches, takes, kills, injures, or pursues a wild animal or bird with a ferret will face a fine of essay on job no less than $100 (but no more than $500) and online writing, no less than 10 (but no more than 100) days in jail. Not to stereotype, but in as a role Wisconsin (also known as America's Dairyland), many different kinds of state-certified cheeses (Muenster, cheddar, Colby, Monterey Jack) must be highly pleasing. In Wyoming, you can't cut, sever, detach, or mutilate more than one-half of a sheep's ear. Violations are felony offenses, punishable by writing program, up to five years in school prison. But less than one-half? Totally fine.

And if the sale document or title approves said mutilation, go ahead then. SEE ALSO: Here's What All 50 State Names Actually Mean. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. Here Are The Most Ridiculous Laws In Every State. This iconic (read: horrifying) scene in online writing last.

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